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subjects are included in the first group: The purpose and meaning of industrial education, continuation-school methods, practice teaching, elementary psychology and ethics, arithmetic, German, bookkeeping, projective drawing, and citizenship. About 20 hours per week out of a total of 32 are devoted to this part of the course.

The second group of subjects is for those who are preparing to teach the metal-working trades, and comprises technology of iron, machine drawing, study of machines, plumbing drawing and theory, sheet-metal drawing and theory, drawing methods, and trade knowledge or information, such as sources of materials, cost of materials, etc., for machine builders. The third group is for those preparing for the building trades, and includes theory and drawing for builders and interior finishers, theory and drawing for cabinetmakers, theory and drawing of roof construction, methods in drawing, and trade information for builders and interior finishers. The fourth group of subjects is for the ornamental industries, and includes drawing methods, drawing from objects, lettering, painting, trade theory, and such special subjects as bookbinding and printing, with appropriate drawing.

From one-fourth to one-third of the student's time is occupied with drawing, almost all of which is closely related to the trade he expects to teach.

The course is arranged differently for the two classes of students, the practical men giving more time to pedagogy and the professional teachers more time to technical subjects and drawing. For example, the practical men have three semester hours of psychology and ethics, while these subjects are omitted from the program of the teachers, since they studied them in preparation for elementary teaching. The practical men must take 7 semester hours of practice teaching, 2 the first semester and 5 the second, while this work is reduced to 5 semester hours for the teachers. In addition the practical men take 6 hours of observation work per week for one-fourth year. On the other hand, the teachers alone have projective drawing and in the metal industry group technical study of iron.

The practice teaching is, of course, done in an industrial continuation school under the direction of the professor of pedagogy in the seminar course. Classes are divided into groups of 15 for this work. The first few hours are spent in observation and the rest in actual teaching after carefully prepared lesson plans. The criticisms of the professor follow, with questions and discussions.

Moreover, much attention is given to methods in each of the subjects taught. The aim is to give the student practical methods of presenting his subject, as well as to review him and strengthen him in the subject matter, the assumption being that he already has considerable knowledge of the subject matter. This was quite marked in two trade drawing classes visited, one of them taught by the director of the school.

Extensive use is made of Lehrmittel, or teaching materials, such as parts of machines, fine mechanical and optical instruments, plumbing supplies and fixtures, ornamental iron work, models of buildings and parts of buildings, etc., most of which serve as models for trade drawing, as well as for illustrative material. The institution, young as it is, already has a good collection of Lehrmittel and is constantly adding to its collection.

That this youngest of Prussian educational institutions is considered a permanent and important feature of the educational system is shown by the plans for its development. There will be added at the beginning of the next school year, Easter, 1915, two other groups of industries to the three already included in the course. The first of these, Nahrungsmittelgewerbe, includes the trades which have to do with the preparation and service of foods—bakers, butchers, cooks, waiters, etc. The second, Bekleidungsgewerbe, includes the two principal clothing industries, those of the tailor and shoemaker. This will, of course, necessitate increasing the number of students in attendance by whatever number of teachers are needed each year in these groups of trades.

It is proposed to extend the course to two years and thus make of it a seminar or training school, instead of continuing it as a training course. The experience of the first year has convinced those in charge that one year is entirely too short a time for the proper training of either the professional teachers or the practical men. One year's training might suffice if the former were to teach only arithmetic, German, and citizenship, and the latter only drawing and trade theory and practice. It has been accepted, however, as one of the fixed principles of continuation school instruction in Prussia that a full-time teacher in these schools should teach all subjects to each class of boys placed in his charge. It is maintained that in this way the subjects are correlated, the training as a whole given unity, and the teacher made to feel responsibility for the success of his pupils to a degree impossible of attainment when the class is taught by two or three teachers. This requires, however, that the teacher shall be thoroughly trained; hence the necessity for expanding the

course.

It is proposed also to start in the near future short courses at this institution for the further training of part-time teachers. Such courses, as has been pointed out, have been given for some years in different parts of Prussia, attended mostly by those already teaching in part-time positions. This training school, with its able faculty, its special equipment and definite pedagogical aims, should, say the authorities, become the principal place for such work.

It is the ambition of Prof. Hecker, who has charge of this new institution, to make this the center of the industrial continuation

school activities in Prussia. He proposes the erection of a specially designed group of buildings to house a Kunstgewerbeschule, or industrial art school; a Gewerbeschule, or industrial school, offering fulltime courses in a variety of trades; a Gewerbliche Fortbildungsschule, or industrial continuation school, with courses in all of the principal trades, and this seminar, with its course expanded to two years. Prof. Hecker expressed confidence that such a group of buildings will be constructed within a few years. The seminar would thus have immediately at hand the best of facilities for practice teaching and observation work. Opportunity would also be provided for more extensive study of trade technic and drawing on the part of students who showed weakness along these lines. Prof. Hecker hopes also to develop the present collection of teaching materials (Lehrmittel) into a State continuation-school museum and library, where may be found all kinds of models, materials, and publications of use to the continuation-school teacher.

It must be admitted that at present the scope of this institution is quite limited in comparison with the possibilities of teacher training in the continuation-school field. It does not attempt to provide for the training of teachers for boys' commercial continuation schools, which enroll nearly half as many pupils as the industrial, or for the schools for unskilled workers, which in Berlin are attended by 40 per cent of the total number in continuation schools, or for the girls' commercial, trade, or homemaking continuation schools, which have hardly begun to find a place in German educational organization. It trains only industrial continuation-school teachers. Nor does it train all of these. It confines its attention to full-time teachers, leaving to accident or to short-course temporary schools organized here and there the training of that large group of part-time teachers who do two-thirds of the work in these schools.

in these schools. Moreover, it concerns itself only with the three most important groups of industriesthe metal working, building, and ornamental trades—which employ the majority of skilled workers. Finally, it trains only about twothirds of the teachers appointed each year in the schools teaching these groups of trades, the remaining third being promoted from part-time positions.

However, the significant fact remains that a perfectly definite and highly important step has been taken in the direction of providing adequate training for continuation-school teachers, and this where the need was greatest. The rest will undoubtedly follow, including first, some such development of this school as outlined above, and later, provision in other schools for the training of teachers for boys' commercial and general, and for girls' commercial, trade, and homemaking continuation schools.

IV. DUAL CONTROL IN INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION IN

PRUSSIA.

In the discussion of dual versus unit control in connection with vocational education in the United States much has been said concerning the efficiency of the dual system in European countries, particularly in Germany, and some of the strongest advocates of dual control are men who base their position on investigation of industrial education in the German States. While the American problem differs in essential features from that of Germany, owing to markedly different social and industrial conditions, there can be no doubt that the German system offers many suggestions of value to this country and that it deserves careful study. Such study must be discriminating, however. It must not assume that the dual character of the German system is essential to its success, and least of all that, because part of a successful system there, it should be adopted here. Nor is it sufficient to consider the dual system in relation only to the efficiency of vocational education. Its effect on education as a whole, especially its elementary stages, must not be overlooked.

It seems, therefore, worth while to make a more careful examination than has yet been made of dual control in one of the German States. Prussia is selected because of its importance in the Empire and also because it furnishes the best example of dual control.

In Prussia the ministry of commerce and industry is charged with responsibility for technical, commercial, and industrial education for both sexes with the exception of that carried on in institutions of college and university grade. Under the direction of this ministry are (1) many kinds of full-time middle technical, trade, and commercial schools such as builders' schools, cabinetmakers' schools, machinery schools, merchants' schools, and industrial art schools; (2) voluntary continuation schools, both industrial and commercial, meeting evenings and Sundays and attended chiefly by adult workers; and (3) all kinds of compulsory continuation schools, including industrial, commercial, and general schools for boys, and industrial, commercial, and homemaking schools for girls. The continuation schools were added to this list some thirty years ago when it was decided to make them more industrial in character. Within the last two years there has been a further development of the system. A Prussian seminar or normal school, for training teachers for the industrial continuation schools, has been established by the ministry for commerce and industry. It seems probable that schools for training teachers for other types of continuation schools will follow.

It is obvious, therefore, that Prussia has not one but two systems of education under different departments of the Government. One system has charge of all children up to 14 years of age, or till such time as the elementary course is completed, and such others as continue their general education to a later age. The other system concerns itself only with such as go into industry or commerce at 14 years of age or devote themselves to special training for technical or commercial pursuits. Not only are these two systems of education under different ministries or Government departments, but they are organized locally in each city under different authorities. In the case of vocational education much care is taken to obtain the cooperation of local industrial and commercial interests in the management of the schools.

Dual control has been in effect so long in Prussia that there is little disposition to question its wisdom. If an American raises the question, he is met by arguments that have a familiar sound to those who have followed the vocational education movement in this country. In this way, and in this way only, it is claimed, can the industrial schools be made and kept practical. If placed under the same management as the elementary schools, they become academic, and the very purpose for which they were established is defeated. In fact, it is pointed out, the continuation schools were taken away from the ministry in charge of education and placed under the ministry for commerce and industry, because the former failed to adjust them to the needs of the boys in attendance. Moreover, changes are constantly taking place in industry. The ministry of commerce and industry is sensitive to these changes, and is therefore in better position to adjust the training of its youthful workers to them. Again, the management of the regular schools, from the State ministry down to the local officer or board, is handicapped by decades, and even centuries, of educational tradition, while the present management of industrial and commercial schools is entirely free from this handicap. The men in charge have not been thinking in the grooves of educational tradition; they are therefore freer to determine what industry and commerce need through these special schools, and they are more ready to provide it. Finally, the policy of dual control places the industrial and commercial schools in charge of men who have a definite problem. Vocational education could not receive as thorough consideration from officials concerned with all the various problems of educational administration as from a board and executive officer whose sole business it is to look after vocational education, particularly if the latter are in close touch with industry and the former are not.

In practice there is a considerable degree of cooperation between the two systems. Many of the administrative and executive officers

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