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None of the special lines of work is given in more than four districts, and there is a single school for each of the following groups of workers: Feather and artificial flower workers, milliners, and sales girls.
CURRICULA OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SCHOOLS.
At least one-fourth of the instruction in every compulsory continuation school for girls in Berlin relates to housekeeping. The work includes plain sewing, mending, dressmaking, ironing, cooking, and study of foods. In the schools for unskilled workers the time given to this work amounts to one-half the entire time. The remaining three-fourths or one-half of the time is divided between what is called “occupation information” and “life information," and subjects relating to the occupation. This can be seen best by referring to the curricula of the schools for unskilled workers, sales girls, and seamstresses, as given below. It should be noted, however, as will appear more clearly later, that the occupation information” differs materially in the different types of schools, depending on the occupations in which the girls are engaged.
I With German and written exercises.
2 Figures in the first six columns indicate hours per week and in the seventh column hours for the entire course of 6 semesters.
COURSES OF STUDY FOR UNSKILLED WORKERS.
The occupation information given in these schools is similar in many respects to that given in the schools for unskilled boys, discussed in Section I. The following topics are considered:
The industrial worker in the continuation school.
The industrial worker at her place of work-choice of work, seeking a position (use of the newspaper, oral and written applications, assistance of teachers, references, recommendations), discharge of the worker (work book, laws governing discharge and strikes, regulations providing for adjustment of differences), relations to fellow workers and to foremen.
The young worker in her occupation-organization of the occupation, the placing of the worker, the worker on the machine (care in handling the machine, safety appliances, the factory fire brigade, first aid), hygiene of work (lighting, heating, ventilation, work clothing, the wash room, rest and recreation).
The young worker in a shop or store position.
The girl in the shipping room-sending by special delivery, by post, by railway freight, by water.
The girl and her wages-kinds of wages, wage computation, savings banks, receipts, industrial tribunal, reasonable spending of wages, wage deductions for insurance against sickness, accident, and invalidity. The girl's employer—the meaning of capital for business, forms of business. Life information includes the following: The girl as daughter—the family as the foundation of morality and welfare, care of the parents in maintaining and supplying the home, parental authority, duties of children, duty of self-maintenance, inheritances and wills, guardianship.
The girl as future housewife-betrothal, marriage, marriage dowry, the place of the wife in industrial life, the wife in places of honor (as guardian, in care of orphans, in community welfare work), the wife as companion of her husband, and as preserver and increaser of his property.
The girl as future mother-education of the child, institutions for care and education of small children, the child in school, authority of the state, the son becomes soldier, universal conscription, authority of the empire.
What the wife should know about matters of health-air, water, care of skin, clothing, the house, care for a comfortable home, activity and recreation, care of flowers, meaning of housework, dangers to health from outside influences (weather changes, tuberculosis, children's diseases, alcohol, corsets, tobacco, accidents), care of the sick, care of infants.
Instruction in German composition related to occupation information and life information parallel these courses throughout. Girls write brief compositions on such subjects as “Also housework is worthy work," "Work makes life sweet," "Speak the truth," "In danger remain calm and self-possessed,” “Our first-aid cabinet,” “Modern lighting," “Uses of good air,” “Health is wealth,” “What regulations should I observe as a patient," "Junges Blut, Spar dein Gut,” “Berlin institutions for care of the aged," "Paper factories,” “What one should do in case of the death of a relative," "Care for a comfortable home," "How do I guard against taking cold,” “What & good housewife is worth.” They are taught, also, letter writing,
filling out the blanks of the work book, addressing packages, making out orders, bills of lading, money orders, receipts, and other papers common in business.
Instruction in arithmetic, carried along with the other subjects and closely related to them, deals with advertising for a job, clothing, laundry, division and grouping of work, exercises on machine work and handwork, value of the machinery of a workshop with allowance for additions and wear of machines, problems derived from lighting, heating, and ventilating, from hauling, packing, and shipping; in calculating wages, savings, insurance, and other wage deductions, and costs of food supply and other household items. This is followed by a half year of household bookkeeping.
Housekeeping instruction is divided into three parts: Plain sewing and mending; dressmaking, making over, washing and ironing; and cooking and study of foods.
Plain sewing and mending includes both machine and hand work. The girls are taught how to make an apron and a simple underskirt, and how to darn cotton and woolen stockings. This is followed by making underwear and nightgowns, infants' clothing, and men's shirts, and mending by hand and on the sewing machine.
The dressmaking includes simple tailoring. Among other things, the girls are taught to make a child's jacket out of a man's coat, and to use up pieces and remnants of goods in various ways.
Cooking and study of foods includes discussion of the most important foods in relation to kind, origin, food value, quality and price, preserving, and practical exercises in preparing simple meals with special regard for the value of “left overs." The dishes are adapted to different seasons of the year.
COURSES OF STUDY FOR SALES GIRLS.
Occupation information for this group of young workers differs from that provided for girls in unskilled occupations in almost all topics except personal hygiene and even differs in some respects in this. Omitting some of the details the course as outlined by the deputation for trade and continuation schools follows:
Entrance into industrial life-choice of occupation, meaning of the occupation of sales girl.
The new community of interests with workers—the continuation school-working papers, apprentice agreements, business regulations, duties toward the owner of the business (regard for his interests, honesty, punctuality, orderliness, avoidance of disputes, and of private business), personal hygiene, use of leisure time for physical training, walks, play, recreation, and amusement.
Receiving and sending out goods—the store and its arrangement, storage of goods, unpacking, arranging, shipping, insuring, paying customs duties.
Selling-easy cases: Greeting the customer, asking what he wishes, directing him, laying out the goods, giving the price, closing the sale, cutting, weighing, or counting the goods, recording the sale, making change, dismissing the customer. Difficult
cases: Attitude toward customers who wish only to look at goods, serving customers who are undecided and hard to please, serving several customers in a group, timely summoning of expert help when the sale threatens to miscarry, attitude toward a customer to whom a sale is not made, exchanging goods, attitude toward just and unjust complaints. Tact in selling: Duty of uniform politeness without regard to the position of the customer or the value of the article wanted, handling different kinds of customers according to age, position, and appearance, attitude of sales girls who are not busy toward each other and toward the busy sales girl and her customer. The sales girl as adviser to her customer: Value of thorough knowledge of the goods, knowledge of current correct taste and styles, skill in showing goods to the best advantage, interesting the customer in goods not asked for, sketching desired articles quickly with a pencil, warning against false statements. Settlement for the purchase: By payment of money or by check or by other means. Correct statements concerning the purchase: Without trial, on trial, with privilege of exchange, etc. The girls are put through practical exercises which illustrate the theoretical lessons in selling outlined above.
Decorating display windows-purpose of display windows, means for tasteful decoration of windows (skillful grouping of objects, tasteful arrangement of colors, correct lines, ornamentation, lighting).
The legal position of the sales girl.
Life information for sales girls is divided into two parts: The sales girl in community life and the sales girl in home and family relations. The latter is treated much the same as in the classes for unskilled girls. The former includes such topics as the value of her calling; duties of the sales girl to herself, to society, and to her employer; provisions of the community and of the State for care of workers in her occupation, in sickness, in case of accident, and in old age.
The work in German composition for sales girls is less general in character, and bears more directly on their occupation than is possible with the unskilled workers. It includes letter writing, especially necessary communications to the employing firm, written descriptions of the various steps involved in selling goods, and similar topics in addition to filling out blanks and writing on some of the more practical topics used in the course for unskilled workers.
In arithmetic attention is given to the four fundamental operations with integers and fractions in relation to selling, rapid calculations, reckoning personal receipts and expenditures, tables of weights and measures, exercises in connection with the care of health, and with shipping goods, percentage, rents, discounts, etc. This is followed by double-entry bookkeeping and household bookkeeping.
Information concerning wares or goods includes qualities, distinguishing marks, faults, and adulterations of wares under consideration; raw material related to their production; production of the wares; uses of wares. A rather careful study is made of textiles, industrial art wares, and food supplies. In each class of sales girls, that one of these three principal groups of wares is considered which directly concerns the pupils.
Economic geography occupies 30 hours of instruction. Sources of supply, places of distribution, and routes of shipment are considered. Berlin as a center of production and distribution is studied. The economic relations of Germany, countries with which she trades, and the German colonies are discussed. However, these matters are considered only as far as necessary for a general comprehension of their economic relations,
Instruction in writing also occupies 30 hours. The aim is to increase both speed and legibility in writing and in the making of figures. Pen and pencil are both used in this work.
Housekeeping instruction for sales girls covers practically the same ground as for girls in the unskilled occupations, but in one-half the time, and therefore less thoroughly. COURSES OF STUDY FOR OTHER TYPES OF CONTINUATION SCHOOLS.
It is not necessary to take up each type of school and examine its courses of study in detail. For each type, courses have been worked out which present the proper subject matter in some such manner as in the school for sales girls. Girls in the plain-sewing industry give particular attention to study of raw materials from which textiles are made, and of different methods of making cloth; to study of finished goods and their uses; and to study of the various processes involved in plain sewing. Trade drawing also is an important feature of the curriculum for these girls. This consists of line drawing, ornamental drawing, designs, drawing of embroidery and lace patterns, of plaits, collars, sleeves, and trimmings; drawing of garments from models, measuring and pattern drawing for women's underwear and kimonas; measuring and pattern drawing for men's nightshirts, overshirts, collars, and cuffs.
Girls in the schools for bookkeepers, clerks, and copyists focus attention on the many blank forms that must be used, on German composition, on commercial arithmetic, and on bookkeeping. Those in the feather and artificial-flower industry, in addition to a careful study of the tochnic of their trade, give 150 hours, nearly one-fourth of the entire time, to very practical work in trade drawing. In a similar
the schools for milliners and for dressmakers and tailoresses, while possessing common elements in housekeeping, in hygiene, and in life information with the other schools, are quite distinctive in reality as well as in name in the greater part of their instruction.
The law establishing compulsory continuation schools for girls in Berlin provided that no girls who had reached the fourteenth year prior to October 1, 1912, should be required to attend. When the schools opened April 1, 1913, there were in attendance, therefore, no girls older than 14 years, unless they attended voluntarily. This means that tho schools will not be fully established and reach their