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I. Time Relations. 1. What is the season? 2. What press feeling? (g) What feeling? 11. Study the attitells it? 3. Why did the painter select this season? tude of the man. (a) Where is his hat? (6) What is 4. Why did he not select spring? 5. Can you tell the the position of his hands? (c) What is the position of time of day? (In the original picture it is shown to be his head? (d) Study his facial expression. (e) Does his evening by the evening glow of colors and by the attitude express as much as the woman's? (f) What wearied flight of birds returning to roost.) 6. Why difference in degree in the attitude? (q) Does the did he select this hour? 7. Why not morning or noon? painter express a fundamental truth or just an indi
II. Place Relations. 1. Where is the scene of the vidual instance in setting forth this difference in the picture? 2. Why did he select such a place? 3. Why degree of their feelings? 12. Find the church spire in not a beautiful valley or a park? 4. What things has the distance. (a) Why put it in the distance? Why he used to show the place?
not have it right by them? (6) Why have just the III. The Principal Objects in the Picture. 1. What spire showing? class of people bas he selected? 2. What things show IV. The Theme. 1. What is the theme of the picture? it? ?. Why did he select this class? 4. Why not 2. What lesson does the painter mean to teach us? select wealthy, or, at least, well-to-do people? 5. 3. What is the general mood, or feeling, in the picture? What have the peasants been doing? 6. What things 4. Notice how the time, the place, and the principal show it? 7. Why represent them as having been at objects all harmonize in point of mood. work? 8. Have they yet finished their work? 9. V. The strong point of the picture is the amount of What several things show it? 10. Study the attitude expression in the attitude of the human figures. This of the woman. (a) What is the position of her hands ?
is one of Millet's striking characteristics as a painter.
Study his “The Sower" for a further illustration. (b) Of her head ? (c) Trace the curve of the body from
NOTE.-Some of the questions above cannot be anfoot to head. (d) Are her features in repose or dig swered in the order in which they are placed. Go over torted? (e) Assume her attitude as nearly as you can, the entire study and then try to answer the questions facial expression and all. (f) Does the attitude ex- left unanswered.
W. H. SKINNER. vints: Single copy, 5 cents : 10 copies, 25 cents; 50 for $1.00 ; per hundred, $1.50. J. H. MILLER, Publisher.
An address given before the General Federation of Women's Clubs, at its bi-ennial meeting in Denver, by Mrs. B. M. Stouten
But it is in the last suggestion of the Michi- The Mothers' Congress will also convene in gan Committee which uncovers the root of the October, and western mothers who have not whole matter. Here it is:
been able to attend the sessions of the National “ That as individuals we interest ourselves in
Congress of Mothers in Washington may look the teachers of our several communities giving
forward to the experience of a similar occa
sion, for Mrs. Birney is in charge of the them the social recognition which their calling
arrangements and will preside over the meetdeserves, welcoming them to our homes, and re
ings. fraining from hurtful criticism. Let us express to them our desire to co-operate with
Spiritual Significance of Organization them in any way that will be helpful.”
borough, President of the Nebraska Federation.] The educational, and especially the literary
We read that in every cable of the British and fraternal congresses, which are connected
navy is a red thread or strand, running through with the Trans-Mississippi Exposition will con
the entire length, which was braided in with stitute an embarrassment of riches in September
the rest when the cable was made. By this it and October. The Art Congress which con
can be identified always and everywhere against venes September 27, will be arranged under
wrong appropriation. Over the highways of direction of Mr. Lorado Taft, the sculptor, of
all nations, into all harbors, this small and alChicago. In connection with it Ceramics will
most unobserved sign of ownership goes, tellhave attention in sessions occupying perhaps a
ing the simple story of England's supreme day, Mrs. L. Vance Phillips, of New York City,
power. From London to Calcutta, from Calpresiding. A section of the congress will be de
cutta to Australia, from Australia to the Fiji voted to Art Industries also, and Mrs. T.
Islands, from the Fiji Islands to British ColumVernette Morse, secretary of the Central Art
bia, from British Columbia to Hudson's Bay, Association, will have charge of programs
this small red thread is coiled up in every anunder that head. On October 1, Mr. Hamlin
chor cable. The ship trying her strength for Garland will return from the Klondike, and
the first time on the broad ocean has it, and will stop in Omaha to conduct a Congress
the beaten, broken wreck upon some far-off of Literature, which will occupy a week. This
shore, or the deserted ship in the Polar seas, if congress will be largely representative of what
belonging to the Queen, declares with honor is known as the “ Western Movement."
the emblem under which it sailed. The State Federation of Nebraska is to hold Every age has its favorite fashion, its popuits annual meeting in Omaha, beginning with lar war cry-a significant word by which the October 11. It bas grasped an opportunity Ephraimites may be distinguished from the which will not come its way again and will en Gileadites. The watchword of the present time large its sessions to embrace what is to be called is Development; and by this I mean a developa “ Trans-Mississippi Congress of Women's ment which may be aptly compared to a sound Clubs.” The programs are in the hands of seed cast into good soil, in favorable season, seven Federation Presidents, namely, Mrs. breathing a pure atmosphere and tended by a Stoutenborough, of Nebraska, Mrs. Scammon, good gardener -- one who will redeem the desert of Missouri, Mrs. Peters, of Kansas; Mrs.
by percolating it with streams fed by the meltThatcher, of Colorado; Mrs. Van Vechten, of
ing snows on the mountain side. lowa; Mrs. Tuller, of North Dakota; and Miss
There are many ways of looking at the course Evans, of Minnesota.
of human affairs: there is the careless glance Following close upon this Club Congress which sees but the surface; there is the hasty will appear the annual meeting of the National glance which notes only secondary causes, and Household Economic Association, and it is the facile diagnosis which sees naught but the thought that the interest which exists in do- symptoms. But the keen observer cannot fail mestic science in the trans-Mississippi region to catch twilight glimpses of kingdoms and will bring together a large number of women. nations, age behind age, into which the thread,
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rie II **Lary trade winds waiting the gosDe prex: tire terengve peto pel sesto lany lands. Ann Julson died at women. Toegiturr of organized fifty-seven, but her spirit, making its throne on
work as proloted by American the green bluff looking out on the Indian women proves that
proves that in all education woman is Ocean, holds the mastery of thousands of lives.
follow411 front , 3.+ Him. unto the presti: time there ministring women. Toe ditury of Boissionary work as proloted by
Ask the question here to-night, what fruits re- lifting the soul of man towards its Creator, main of Mrs. Doremus's labor, and the answer God. Do you not see the “scarlet thread” comes to us from all Christian churches. For winding in and out throughout the Victorian women have formed themselves into societies to era ? work for women in far off lands, and these so- But we have been standing on the heights of cieties have become great organizations into our own time looking backwards. We have which the “red thread” has been woven, touched seen the fifteenth century and written in our by the Master's hands lacerated in the work of notebooks that it was scholastic, the sixteenth rescue, and left an abiding impress there. May dogmatic, the seventeenth schismatic, the eightI detain you for a moment on the Victorian Peak? eenth philosophic, the nine:eenth scientific. England's Queen became the type of a new era. Now turning our faces towards the twentieth She was a woman shaped of God for the times, century we write the word Altruistic. The and brought in a new democracy and toleration keynote has already been sounded by “The In the new era there was toleration in education, General Federation of Woman's Clubs,” and I in religion, and in politics. Great things in dare to predict that this organization will hold science, astronomy, geography, and especially a distinguished place in the march of the new along material lines have been accomplished century. There is not a member of it here or during her reign. Yet in all this progress the elsewhere who has been privileged to witness spiritual element has been prominent. The or have any kind of share in this great movespirit of Dickens glossed over the wrongs of ment-in this mighiy procession of great the times. Mathew Arnold and George Eliot themes and great sympathies and vast hopesrecognized the deepest needs of the spiritual or even to hear as it were, the echoes of their nature, but hardly possessed the faith to meet tread at a distance: there has not come to pass it. Thos. Carlyle brought the light of a great some breaking up of petty provincialism, some stern soul to make clear that man is more and disgust for petty selfishness and the making of higher than all his conditions and environments. some broader, deeper consciousness of the world The optimism of Browning and the sweet, grand itself and withal some new sense of God's own confidence of Tennyson showed the great pro- purpose in the mighty on-going of the world's gressive spirit that had run through the era, history.
and in which no reading is done, books that "HE NORTH WESTERN MONTHLY has for are quickly forgotten, are sold to teachers who
years demanded for the teachers of the spend under official pressure, and then are
public schools more scholarship and gen- unable to buy books that have merit. eral culture. It has demanded that scholar- The North WESTERN MONTHLY has held up ship be magnified and that the value of partic- a high standard. Fortunately, it has had from kılar methods of presentation be minimized. its first number the active co-operation of one It has demanded that only disciplined and of the finest bodies of men to b3 found in Awell-informed minds be permitted to as- merica--the faculty of the University of Nesume the responsibilities of training the minds braska. These men, with the encouragement of others. It has done this, believing that in of that great-hearted helper of men, Chancellor the end such demands would redound not only Canfield, and with the active and ready assisto the benefit of the schools, but to the honor tance of the present scholarly Chancellor, of the calling. It has not hesitated to speak Geo. E. MacLean, have made the NORTH in no uncertain tone of the indifference or lazi- WESTERN MONTHLY the most practical medium ness that serves as a hindrance to all intel- of university extension in America. It has lectual as well as professional advancement. seemed a natural and a proper step, therefore, Neither has it hesitated to criticise the misera- to assume clearly the character of a magazine ble “courses” that are annually offered to for “University Extension or Home Study.” teachers. Annually thousands of books that Last year “Circles" of teachers, members of are absolutely without literary or professional women's clubs, literary clubs, and history value, books that are never heard of except clubs, in forty-one states and territories, folor “reading circles" that are not "circles,” lowed one or more of the courses offered. The courses this year are arranged, therefore, Looked at wholly from a patriotic standpoint, strictly for “study." They are not for teach- the salaries of teachers should justify the most ers as teachers, but as individuals; men and brilliant young men and women in entering the women who seek more scholarship. The edit calling. The position should be esteemed the ors do not assume that they are writing for highest in honor in any community. It is not teachers, but for men and women, and caring a question as to how much a community can afnot whether they are employed in the school ford to pay its teachers, but rather that it can room, the office, the shop, or the home. All not afford to pay low salaries. It is not always thoughtful people who want to study any or all the fault of school officers, but the blame usually of the courses are invited to do so.
belongs to the people. The rate of taxation The North WESTERN MONTHLY will offer for school purposes in every state is beggarly. this present year many strong papers on cer- The public needs education on this subject. tain educational problems, but they will be The teachers cannot with modesty undertake written for thoughtful American citizens. It to be leaders. This is a duty devolving rather is hoped that the magazine may find its way upon the thoughtful parents in each community. into the homes of thousands of public-spirited Can a greater matter be undertaken by the patrons, and also increase its list of readers women's clubs of America? They must begin among teachers.
at the root of the matter, not with the branches.
Teachers' Wages 'HIS is a public question, and of more mo
mentous importance to the state than it
is to the few thousand people engaged in school work. They are blind to great interests who do not see it so. Low wages with increasing professional academic and social demands will inevitably drive the best teachers from the calling.
In America people are too often measured wholly by their producing capacity-by the amount of money earned. Mr. A., of a certain mental, ability has a salary as a teacher of $1,000. Mr. B., of about the same scholarship and mental ability, has an income as a physician or lawyer of $2,000. Therefore Mr. A. is not rated among his peers the equal of Mr. B. This drives him into a sort of helpless stolidity, or away from the school where he is worth more to the state than are scores of men like Mr. B.
Children in the upper grades imbibe this artificial and un-American way of measuring people, and the teacher is so measured and his influence is lessened. The corruption of office holders in this country is not half such a menace to the country's liberties as is the penuriousness of the people in regard to salaries of teachers. The inequalities, the atrocious inconsistencies, are so glaring that it is a wonder that the quick-witted American citizen does not see them.
Drawing, Music, and Manual Training
that these are, after reading words, the
most practical subjects to be introduced into any school curriculum. It believes that when people have any sort of an idea of the great educational value of these means of expression, they will be introduced into the schools and made compulsory. Several strong papers will be presented in the Monthly during the year by some of the ablest thinkers and writers in this country. The process of educating a people is slow, and it demands that all believers become evangelists. If regular teachers are not qualified to give this instruction, they must become qualified. If it be held that the regular teachers do not have time, special teachers should be provided, both for town and country schools. Parsimony toward education is a crime to the state. No subjects are more practical, more utilitarian; they are all definite and natural means of expression. That education is most practical that most readily and most naturally develops one into the full possession of all his powers, and enables a man to make the most out of his life. Reading, Drawing, Manual Training, and Music are therefore the most practical subjects for an American school.