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the demand for novelty and to attract the at- of information about such questions as plant tention of the careless on-looker, nature is diseases, parasites, beneficial and injurious inoverlooked, and the park is made to assume sects, effect of weather and climate, etc., could the conventionality of a painting.
be taught in the grammar and high school It can hardly be questioned that the public grades. generally would be interested in the growing
The establishment of the United States exof the natural flora of the region if it were se- periment stations, which are in a sense school lected with judgment and the conditions neces- gardens, has led to an interest in the study of sary to its growth reproduced with neatness
soils and fertilizers in connection with that of and accuracy
useful plants that promises much for the prosMany people do not know the beauty of the perity of our country. The awakening of the natural forms because they have never seen
sense of dependence upon mother earth and an them under favorable or other conditions. appreciation of man's influence for good or Some of the forms might not be so showy, but
bad upon the soil with which he deals is no inthey would not lack in variety and freshness; significant fact from the standpoint of political and to those people who are lovers of nature
economy. they would present, month by month, a pano
Young men are deserting the farms and rushrama of absorbing interest. Moreover, this ing to the cities disgusted with country life bedisplay would so attract the thoughtful that
cause their education has been such as to emmany might be led to the study of plants, and phasize the work of the merchant, the railroad thus open the way to a most delightful culture.
man, the speculator, and the author, to the utter Such a proposition as this rightly put could
exclusion of the work of the farmer. This exhardly fail to enlist the sympathy of school
odus will probably continue until foreigners, boards and also the general public.
boys devoid of ambition, and disappointed merBut the consent of the school board is but the
chants are found on the farms, unless agriculbeginning of the work of the teacher. It is
ture and horticulture are taught in the public next necessary to secure the best combination of
schools. The responsibility for this dereliction types for study. With the age and previous rests largely with public sentiment, which will preparation of the student in mind, the teacher
have to be modified by educators, by placing should select plants of sufficient diversity to plant study in the curriculum of the schools. In show the natural method of producing varieties
some sections of the country window gardening and simple enough to yield to the analysis of
has been developed to a considerable extent the beginner in botany.
with the same object in view that this paper The natural societies in which plants group
has advocated. And although building comthemselves should be preserved, and thus pro
mittees and janitors have sometimes objected mote their growth as well as enhance their edu
to them, they seem to be on the increase. cational value. By producing the principal
In answer to the demand for the latest and types in quantities a great number of families best in education, the officers of the public may be kept ready for study in both their sum
school can well afford to consider the school mer and winter conditions. In the selection of garden as a factor in the training for American plants, those of commercial importance, as cot citizenship. And although its introduction ton, coffee, corn, wheat, and rice should not be
may require tact and patience, its value would omitted. An interesting contrast could be amply repay the necessary expenditure of time made by planting the wild forms by the side of
Jas. A. MERRILL, the domesticated and cultivated forms of the
Manual Training School, Kansas City, Mo. same species.
Knowledge at College Such work is not without its economical
There came a young freshman to college. value. Certain phases of it are of real concern When he heard that he had to get knowledge, to every man who eats, drinks, or deals in
He said, "Goodness me!
Why, how can this be? grain, groceries, or live stock. A vast amount What a queer thing to do at a college !"
An Experiment Borrowed from the School- that all showed signs of a similar change, exRoom
cepting ten which belonged to pupils who sat "HE school was in a New England city. The in a part of the room where they could not see
teacher had been thoroughly trained at a the diagram on the blackboard because of the
reputable normal school and had attained a sunlight. good reputation in her profession. Forty pupils The steps of the dictation with simultaneous were in the room and visitors were present.
drawing were repeated with 514 pupils repreThe exercises of the afternoon were passing senting grades III., IV., V., VI., VIII., and the delightfully. An enthusiastic class in geogra- four classes of a country high school. Care raphy was called to recite, and, near the close was taken to place the diagram where all could of the hour, an exercise in map-drawing was see it. Paper four by six inches was used, and introduced. It was the intention of the teacher when the two dictations were finished all were to conduct the work as a dictation exercise. asked to turn their papers and make a mark on Her first direction was, “From a point one inch the back to indicate their best judgment of an below the upper left-hand corner of your pap- inch. A part of the pupils in grades IV. and ers, draw a line four inches long."
VIII., and all in grade VI. had taken manual Without waiting for the work to be com- training for one term. The results are averaged pleted and without giving a reason for the in the following table in which “F. D.” indicates change, she asked the class to "wait a moment" the work done after the first dictation with the and stepped to the blackboard. She drew the diagram before the pupils, “S. D.,” that done four lines necessary to bound a rectangular sur- after the second dictation with diagram, and face twenty inches in height and thirty inches “B. J.," the pupil's best judgment of a linear in length. She now repeated the words of the inch. dictation, placing the point of the crayon upon the blackboard and drawing as she spoke. Grade. No. Pupils. F. D. S. D. B. J. The pupils did as directed and attentively
.31 1.45 1.07 awaited the second command: “From a point
.31 1.47 0.98
IV. two inches below the beginning of the line just
.54 1.70 1.065 tinished, draw a line parallel to that line."
.49 1.60 1.12 In suiting the action to the word this time,
1.75 1.059 the teacher drew a line about ten inches below
.52 1.60 1.03 69
.68 1.72 1.024 the first. The maps were finished, and the H. S.
.54 1.73 1.09 teacher, feeling chagrined at the result, reproved the class for carelessness and told the
The above averages are all expressed in
decimals of an inch. visitors that she felt more impatient with her
“F. D.” exceeds an inch pupils because they sometimes drew well.
in only 12 cases; in 159, it ranges between Where lay the secret of the difficulty? Were
seven hundredths and fifteen hundredths; in there conditions which escaped the notice of
137, between fifteen and thirty; in 44, between the teacher ?
thirty and forty-five; in 37, between forty-five When the first dictation began, one of the
and sixty; in 39, between sixty and seventyvisitors, busy with a different problem, noted five; in 61, between seventy-five and ninety; the accurate manner in which two boys before
and in 37, it is ninety-hundredths or over. him placed the “point of the pencil one inch
The average "F. D." for all is slightly less below the upper left-hand corner" of the paper. .
than one half-inch; the average “S. D.” is 3.30 When the teacher repeated the dictation, draw
times as great, instead of being twice as great, ing, simultaneously, the same visitor saw two according to the dictation, yet it is less than pencils glide up toward the margin of the paper seventy-eight hundredths of what it should have and two lines start accordingly. He at once been, had the average “B. J.” been taken as a asked permission to look at the papers while
standard. Everything indicates, therefore, the pupils were working upon them and found (Manual Training.
that thought and conscious judgment were put like that which made the geography class unaside as soon as the diagram was placed before consciously adapt the drawing on the blackthe pupils, who immediately became engaged board to the proportions of their paper, alin an attempt to make their papers look like the though it made them put their best judgment rectangular area on the blackboard.
aside, and spoil their maps. At first thought, it would seem that the large Every step taken, every stone thrown, load errors in results were due to an incidental over- lifted, football match played, street fight sight in the giving of the directions for draw watched, every sweep of a paddle, stroke of an ing. But is there not something more funda- oar, swing of a bat; every glance at skimming mental involved? Is there not a principle in swallow or circling hawk; every look at a time the back ground which applies not only to draw piece or survey of a landscape tends toward ing but to language, mathematical problems, that proportion which adapts wholes, but iggeneral judgments, and that peculiar form of nores details and analysis; therefore, stern and personal orientation that constitutes what men exacting drill upon essentials is a necessary accall individuality? If there be such a princi- companiment of all inductive teaching, while in ple, it must have its root in an unconscious giving dictations and objective work for reprosense of proportion in the individual. This duction, great care is necessary to avoid comsense is not innate. It grows out of the most bining a direction which calls for careful ancommon of daily experiences. It begins with alysis, with a diagram or object which can be the first vague attempt to relate things as grasped at once and adapted as a whole. The wholes, and it is only with difficulty that the more primitive reaction is sure to triumph, and concept of the essential relations of parts is the results may be disappointing. awakened, until mature experience has come.
M. H. SMALL, In the solution of an algebraic problem or
Prin. High School.
Passaic, N. J. the working of an exercise in geometry, the difficulties are largely past when the true points
Child and Parent, of attack have been grasped. Almost any one can reproduce a picture of an object with some skill because it is all before him and much un
66THE sexes were originally three: men,
women, and the union of the two; and remembered experience has simplified the se
they were made round, having four crets of perspective as they appear in represen
hands, four feet, two faces on a round neck, and tation. But many who are able to do this, are baffled when it comes to drawing from life, be
the rest to correspond. Terrible was their
strength and swiftness; and they were essaying cause they are too unfamiliar with the elements
to scale heaven and attack the gods. Doubt of form to grasp the anatomy of outlining. In the same way “school English” begins to mend
reigned in the celestial councils; the gods were when pupils are made to search their own work,
divided between the desire of quelling the
pride of man and the fear of losing the sacriunpenciled by a teacher, for the principles underlying their own errors.
fices. At last Zeus hit upon an expedient.
Let us cut them in two, he said; then they will In Miss Louch's study * of the “Difference
only have half their strength, and we shall between Children and Grown People,” as seen
have twice as many sacrifices. He spoke, and by the former, the points of difference noted
split them as you might split an egg with a are few and but abstractly defined. Taller and
hair; and when this was done he told Apollo to shorter, stronger and weaker, faster and slower,
give their faces a twist and rearrange their wiser, cleaner, more responsible, more privi.
persons, taking out the wrinkles and tying the leged, and more independent are terms used to
skin in a knot at the navel. The two halves indicate the differences seen, and they illustrate
went about looking for one another, and were a judgment formed by an unconscious process
ready to die in one another's arms. Then Zeus •Ped. Semi; Vol. V., I., pp. 129-36.
invented an adjustment of the sexes, which en
abled them to marry and go their way to the ing is sinful. It seems to me it will be far business of life.”
wiser and happier for us to accept this feeling Now man and woman are united more as one of the grandest given to the human race, strongly than before, because at present the as it is the incentive towards the perpetuation child cements them.
of the race. Regarding it thus, it becomes, Man is reason, woman is love, the child is then, as the other desires to be used, but not the product of man's reason and woman's love. to be abused. The Science of the Child is to be
Woman has within her keeping the germ- one great way of opening up to us means seed of the race. She must guard this very whereby we can help our young people when carefully, and is thus necessarily less passion- there comes to them that feeling which is for ate than man. She by nature is purer than he, the purpose of causing them to keep up the and by environment is kept purer than he. human race.
This science will drive away all Much of man's wickedness is eradicated by the false modesty from us who engage in it as the goodness of woman. The goodness of the race true scientist does and will cause us to help the is stored up in the ovum, but the wickedness is young to care for and protect this God-given finally lost by the refining influence of woman. power of conception.
Among animals there is a particular time for Marriage is not a failure. Man and woman breeding, which time is such as to bring the were made for one another, and, no matter birth at the very best time of the year for the what some may say, most of the human family bringing forth of young, and for the preserva- will adjust themselves rightly. tion of the animal kingdom. Man has so al- The study of children that is engrossing so lowed his passions to sway him as to force much attention now will greatly aid marriage. woman into a condition for conception at any When a whole people become enlightened progtime without any reference to the birth-time. ress takes place. This turning of the people
Conception is a very sacred thing, and there towards the child means the better understandis much to be considered in reference to it. ing of child nature, and so must necessarily The human race may never reach the stage show the great need of careful selection of partwhere sexual connection will never occur except ners in the state which produces the child. In for conception. This being true, then it re- the domestic animal life we have learned much quires of us to guard carefully that conception in reference to this. This knowledge is very does not occur unless a child is desired by both carefully applied in the raising of such animals. parents. No child should be forced into this We do not know so much about this in huworld unless it is the product of reason and man life, and what we do know is not very love guiding the sexual appetite. Sexual de- closely observed. Nor can we ever expect to sire is as pure a desire as any other of the observe this so carefully as in the domestic human race. It is just as much a man's na- animal, as man is quite a different and supeture to have strong sexual passion as it is for rior being. If we observe this selection on the him to have strong reasoning powers. It has physical side alone, it may be to the detriment been taught to us that these sexual desires are of the mental side. If on the mental side alone, sinful, and it has been held over us, “That the physical may be harmed. If the mental whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after and physical together are considered, then the her bath committed adultery with her already moral will be left behind. Thus there are so in his heart.” Yet every true man knows that many things to be considered that the human these times do come, and that it requires all being must be handled in the matter of sexual the reasoning powers of his being, and all the selection very differently from the domestic self-respect in his nature, and all the love animal. Yet we have reached out in this diwithin him for wife and children to keep the rection, and mankind is slowly working at this passionate feeling from being objectified out- problem. The Science of the Child will be of wardly. This being true, why, then, shall we great help accept this false doctrine that man's sex-feel- The period of greatest importance to the child is that occurring in its life between con- sulted and obeyed. This science will teach him ception and birth. The period least understood that the gratification of desire when left to its by us is that of pubescence. But the pubes- natural result of production of children may be cent period affords much better opportunity wicked, and that when such a result is guarded for study than the prenatal period.
against in a hygienic manner it may be good. The world is full of false ideas in regard to Especially must our young people know of mother and child during the three-fourths year such, and be taught that nature has provided a before birth. Motherhood is the most precious fairly safe way. gift bestowed upon woman. Why there should
If each parent who reads this will recall his be any shame or disgrace connected with preg- ignorance of children when his first child came, nancy seems hardly understandable to one who he will readily confess that a science of the studies this question. The consciousness by a child is necessary and must become a part of woman that she is to become a mother should our school curriculum, both in public school make her the proudest and happiest being on and in college. But even the having of children earth, and in no way cause her to feel ashamed may not give us a true knowledge of them and or disgraced.
their nature. In truth, we may so often comDuring one summer spent at an eastern uni- pare our adult self with their child self as to versity I learned the following: One of my give us a very false idea of child life. fellow-students had given up a very pleasant In one of my classes the past year, wherein principalship of schools in a good town because some papers on children were prepared, I find of the feeling of his wife. During this last a good illustration of this ignorance on the part year their child was conceived and born. The of a mother. The young lady who relates this mother's life during this time was made miser- is preparing herself for medicine. She states able by the treatment accorded her by her fel- as follows: low-women. It was an unwritten law in that "I tried three experiments upon this child, town among the so-called upper class that it always without the knowledge of the mother, was disgraceful for a woman of that class to who bas had six children and lost three, and conceive and bare a child. This woman broke who can not possibly be advised about the care the law, and consequently the other women made of children, as she considers herself an expert her know that she was no longer fit for their in this line. companionship. This is certainly an extreme “1. The child was ill; it had a high fever case, and yet we all know that our educated, re- and cried constantly; its clothes had not been fined women do dread this period. This is car- changed for several days. Upon my changing ried to such an extreme that now and then we these clothes for cooler, cleaner, looser ones, it meet a most admirable couple, who are very gradually stopped crying and was soon sleeping. fond of children, but the mother can not per- “2. The child seemed well, but fretted and suade herself to pass through this period until whined and now and then cried out. I untoo late in life, when regrets are of no avail. pinned its clothing and left all loose. There
I believe that the science of the child will was no more fretting until the mother arrived, force upon us in time that there can not be such and pinned up the clothes. a thing as a true, pure woman who can be a “3. The child is past five months old, and is mother and will not.
entirely unwilling to lie down a moment unless This science will also teach man that woman asleep. Her every need being looked after and is not simply a child-bearing animal, and the her comfort assured, I laid her on the bed with more children she bears him the more worth a sheet of paper to play with. Though she was she is. It will teach him that her feelings and laughing a moment before, as soon as the bed rights must be respected. It will make him was touched she screamed angrily. No attenunderstand that the letting of nature take its tion was given to this, and after crying long course may be, after all, only selfishness on his enough to learn it would do no good, she began part, and that woman's nature must be con- to coo and to have great fun with the paper