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The reader is referred to the following editions of those ancient writers who are cited most frequently in the course of the work.
Appianus, Schweighæuser, 8vo. Lips. 1785.
Claudianus, Burmann, 4to. Amstel. 1760.
Livius, Crevier, 4to. Paris. 1735.
Lucanus, Oudendorp, 4to. Lugd. Bat. 1728.
Rutilius inter Poet. Lat. Min. Burmann, 4to. Leid. 1713.
Silius Italicus, Drakenborch, 4to. Traj. ad Rhen. 1717.
Stephanus Byzantinus, Berkelii cum not. L. Holstenii, fol. Lugd.
Strabo, Almeloveen, fol. Amstel. 1707. (The paging according to
Varro cum not. var. 8vo. Durd. 1619.
Velleius Paterculus, Vossii, Lugd. Bat. Elz. 1639.
Its various names-Boundaries and principal geographical features -Soil and climate-Early population-Divisions.
WITHOUT entering minutely into the examination of the several appellations which Italy appears to have borne in distant ages, it may be stated generally, that the name of Hesperia was first given to it by the Greeks on account of its relative position to their country, and that with those of Ausonia and Saturnia it is more commonly met with in the poets.
Est locus, Hesperiam Graii cognomine dicunt,
Multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant
ID. VII. 54.
Fama per Ausoniæ turbatas spargitur urbes.
alve, magna parens frugum, Saturnia tellus.
GEORG II. 173.
Cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. I. 35.
The name of notria, derived from the ancient race of the Enotri, seems also to have been early in use among the Greeks, (Herod. I. 167. Aristot. Polit. VII. 10.) but it was applied by them to that southern portion of Italy only with which they were then acquainted. That of Italia is thought to have been
deduced from Italus, a chief of the Enotri, or Siculi. (Antioch. Syrac. ap. Dion. Hal. I. 12. Thuc. VI. 2.) Others again sought the origin of the name in the Greek word Taλòs, or the Latin vitulus, which corresponds with it. (Varr. R. Rust. II. 5. Dion. Hal. I. 35.) But whatever circumstance may have given rise to it, we are told that this also was only at first a partial denomination, applied originally to that southern extremity of the boot which is confined between the gulfs of St. Euphemia and Squillace, anciently Lameticus, and Scylleticus Sinus, (Aristot. Polit. VII. 10. Strab. VI. 254.) It is well known, however, that in process of time it superseded every other appellation, and finally extended itself over the whole peninsula. This is generally allowed to have taken place in the reign of Augustus, and we may therefore fix upon that period as most convenient for defining the ancient boundaries of Italy. At that time it appears that the Maritime Alps, or that part of the chain which dips into the gulf of Genoa, the ancient Mare Ligusticum, formed its extreme boundary to the north-west ". The same great chain sweeping round to the head of the Adriatic, was considered as constituting, as it does now, its northern termination. The city of Tergeste, now Trieste, had been reckoned the farthest point to the north
a In later times this western limit of Italy was removed to the river Varus, which, under the modern name of Var, now separates France from the county of Nice. (Strab. V. 209. Plin. III. 4.) Cluverius has adopted this latter boundary, but D'Anville contends, that till within a few centuries the county of
Nice always formed part of Gallia Narbonensis, and therefore excludes it from the limits of ancient Italy. It is plain also that the trophy of Augustus, placed on the Maritime Alps, marks the limit which that emperor intended to fix. D'Anville, Anal. Géogr. de l'Italie, p. 279.