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beneath it. It is observable that these stages great numbers in this manner every season. For are fit only for calves which are fed with the pail, this purpose he has about three-quarters, or nearly not for calves which suck the cow.
a whole acre, enclosed with a fence only six or Hog-styes are generally constructed with seven feet high, formed of slabs set on end, or shed-roofs, about six or seven feet wide, with any thinnings of fir or other trees split and put height in proportion. They should be at no close together. They are fastened by a rail near great distance from the house ; while the less the top and another near the bottom, and are they are connected with the other buildings of the pointed sharp, which he supposes prevents the farm the better. Swine, it seems, though gene- poultry flying over, for they never attempt it, rally considered as filthy animals, delight in a although so low. Within this fence are places clean and comfortable place to lie down in, and done up slightly (but well secured from wet) for cleanliness has a better effect upon no animal, each sort of poultry's also a pond or stream of with respect to their thriving. In order to keep water running through it. These poultry are fed them dry, a sufficient slope must be given, not almost entirely with potatoes boiled in steam, only to the inside places but to the outside and thrive astonishingly well. The quantity of areas; these should be a little elevated, having dung that is made in this poultry place is also steps up from them of at least five or six inches. an object worth attention : and, when it is cleaned Hog-styes should likewise have divisions, to out, a thin paring of the surface is at the same keep the different sorts of swine separate; nor time taken off, which makes a valuable compost, should many ever be allowed to be together for the purpose of manure. But, for keeping
According to Marshal, every pig should have poultry upon a small scale, it is only necessary a rubbing-post. Having occasion,' says he,'to to have a small shed or slight building, formed shift two bogs out of a sty without one, into in some warm sheltered sunny situation : if near another with a post, accidentally put up to sup- the kitchen or other place where a constant fire port the roof, he had a full opportunity of ob- is kept so much the better, with proper divisions, serving its use. The animals, when they went boxes, baskets, or other contrivances for the in, were dirty, with broken ragged coats, and different sorts of birds, and for their laying and with dull heavy countenances. In a few days incubation. they cleared away their coats, cleaned their “The poultry-house snould,' says Young, conskins, and became sleeky haired.' They enjoyed tain an apartment for the general stock to roost their post like a placeman. It was discernible in, another for setting, a third for fattening, and in their looks, in their liveliness, and apparent a fourth for food. If the scale is large, there · contentment. It is not probable that any animal should be a fifth for plucking and keeping feashould thrive while afflicted with pain or un- thers. If a woman is kept purposely to attend easiness. Graziers suffer single trees to grow, or them, she should have her cottage contiguous, put up dead posts in the ground, for their cattle that the smoke of her chimney may play into to rub themselves against; yet it is probable that the roosting and setting rooms : poultry never a rubbing-post has never been placed intention- thriving so well as in warmth and smoke; an ally in a sty; though, perhaps, for a two-fold observation as old as Columella, and strongly reason, rubbing is most requisite to swine. confirmed by the quantity bred in the smoky
*In farm-yards,' says Mr. Loudon, the pig- cabins of Ireland. For setting both turkeys and geries and poultry-houses generally occupy the hens, nests should be made in lockers, that have south side of the area, in low buildings, which may lids with hinges, to confine them, if necessary, be overlooked from the farmer's dwelling-house. or two or three will, he says, in sitting, crowd They should open behind into the straw-yards or into the same nest. All must have access to a dungheap, to allow the hogs and fowls to pick gravelled yard, and to grass for range, and the up the corn left on the straw, or what tumips, building should be near the farm-yard, and have clover, or other matters are refused by the cat- clear water near. · Great attention should be tle. They should have openings outwards, that paid to cleanliness and whitewashing, not for apthe pigs may be let out to range round the pearance, but to destroy vermin.' Loudon re farmery at convenient times; and that the poul- commends for the interior a sloping stage of try may have ingress and egress from that side spars for the poultry to sit on; beneath this as well as the other.'
stage may be two ranges of boxes for Dests; the Beatson (Com. to the Board of Ag. vol. 1.), is roof should have a ceiling to keep the whrle of opinion that poultry ought always to be con- warm in winter, and the door should be nearly fined, but not in a close, dark, diminutive hovel, as high as the ceiling for ventilation, and should as is often the case; they should have a spaci- have a small opening with a shutter at bottom, ous airy place, properly constructed for them. which, where there is no danger from dogs or Some people are of opinion that each sort foxes, may be left open at all times to admit of should be kept by itself. This, however, is not, the 'poultry going in and out. The spars on he thinks, necessary; for all sorts may be kept which the clawed birds are to roost should not promiscuously together, provided they have a be round and smooth, but roundish and roughish, place sufficiently large to accommodate them, like the branch of a tree. The floor must be and proper divisions and nests for each kind to dry, and kept clean for the web-footed kinds.' retire to separately, which they will naturally do. 4. Of the barn.-Barns should, if possible, Wakefield of Liverpool keeps a large stock of be placed on a declivity; and, according to the turkeys, geese, hens, and ducks, all in the same recommendation of the Annals of Agriculture, place: and, although young turkeys are in gene- vol. xvi., should be underpinned with brick or ral considered so difficult to bring up, he rears stone; the roof covered with reed or straw; and those of adjoining stables (if any), with slate. The hay-barn is generally constructed of timAt each end of the barn, and over the back door, ber, and open on the south or east, or even on small doors, four feet square, should be fixed at all sides. In Middlesex there are many haythe height of twelve feet from the ground; the barns capable of holding from thirty to fifty, and two former for putting corn in at the ends, and some even 100, loads of hay. They are found the latter for filling the middle of the barn after to be extremely useful and convenient during a the bays are full. All the bays should have a catching and unsettled hay-harvest. floor of clay or marle, and the threshing-floor be I n plate II. RURAL ARCHITECTURE, are, fig. made with hard bricks, which will be sufficient 1. The ground plan and elevation of a common for all sorts of grain except wheat and rye; and double barn: a wall is often run across the middle for threshing them it will be good economy to of these buildings ; they are chiefly serviceable have planks of oak or red deal well fitted toge- for the storage of grain in the straw, and are of ther and numbered, to be laid down occasionally all sizes. Fig. 2 is the ground plan and elevaand confined by a frame. A barn built on such tion of an open improved barn, the threshing a plan would hold a great deal of corn and be floor of which is towards one end; and on each filled most conveniently; and, if the stacks were side of it below are divisions for different purbuilt at each eud, they might be taken in without poses : the corn being kept above in the straw. any carting. If more buildings are requisite, This is an economical and airy building. Figs. 3 two may be added on the back side like the sta- and 4 are a front and end elevation of a barn bles in front; otherwise if doors are made under adapted for a two-horse threshing-machine. This the eaves on the back side, as directed at the barn is fifty-five feet in length within the walls, ends, and stacks be placed opposite to them just and seventeen in width. The walls are ten feet far enough to avoid the eaves dropping, by plac- high, which admits of a granary or room thirty ing a waggon between them and the barn by way feet long above the machine, shown by the dotted of a stage, these stacks may be taken in without line in the elevation. The floor is not continued carting; which method spares a great waste of the whole length, in order that there may be corn and much trouble. The spars of the roofs more room left in the other end for unthreshed of the stables rest upon the upper cills of the grain, which is introduced at the end. The masides of the barn, and the outside wall of the chine within the barn is only ten feet by seven, stables is eight feet high; the barn supplying the including the distance from the wall. The horse highest side and one end of each stable, and the beam is twenty-four feet in length, and gives stables in return are buttresses to the barn. An motion by a laying shaft through the wall, to the elevated barn floor is both more durable, and machine within. There is no shed or cover over less subject to vermin; the grain is kept more the horse-path. The expense of a machine on dry and sweet than on a ground floor, and cannot this plan will be from thirty to forty pounds. slip through it without discovery. When built In barns with threshing machines, the granary in this way, barns should have a southern aspect, is almost always formed immediately above the the arches of the cattle-stalls facing that way. floor on which the machine works; which admits Mr. Marshal, in the Rural Economy of York- raising the corn to it directly from the groundshire, speaks highly of the advantages of barns floor, either by the threshing-mill itself, or a formed in this manner.
common windlass. When it is to be taken out, In respect to the size of barns, the same writer and carried to market, it may be lowered down observes, that in Gloucestershire fifty-two by upon carts with the utmost facility. See our twenty feet in the clear, and from sixteen to article GRANARY. twenty feet in height to the plate, is considered 5. Of the straw-house, cart-sheds, root-house, a good barn; these dimensions admitting of four &c.—The straw-house, when distinct from the bays of ten feet each, with a floor in the middle. barn, should be placed at the end of the cattleThe advantage of having buildings of this sort sheds, opposite to the root-house, and have a conveniently situated is extremely great, both in cart entrance, and an inner door communicating regard to the feeding of cattle, sheep, and hogs, with the feeder's walk. Straw, however, is often and likewise in the economy of labor and fodder. stacked, in preference to placing it in a straw
The invention of threshing machines has of house, especially where farming is on any conlate varied the construction of barns, as where siderable scale. they are made use of they should be contrived Cart-sheds or lodges, for the protection of chiefly with a view to the working of them : the carts or waggons, should be near the farm-yard. machines being built in the centre, with the grain Carts, &c., under proper shelter when out of stacks adjoining them, in such a manner as that use, will last much longer than if left exposed they may be supplied without the assistance of in the yard to the weather; for, as they are thus carts or horses. The barns in these cases need sometimes wet, and sometimes dry, they soon not be so large, but they should have granaries rot. The dust and nastiness should also be conprovided in them, which may probably be most stantly washed off before they are laid up in conveniently placed over the floors. In most these places. old barns, threshing machines may be erected T he root-house is intended for depositing or without much inconvenience; and notwithstand- stowing away potatoes, turnips, cabbages, and ing the superiority of stacking grain in the open other roots or tops for the winter feed of cattle. air has been fully shown, and of course the ne- It should join the cattle-sheds, and communicate cessity of large barns in a great measure done with them by an inner door that opens into the away, many agricultors are still attached to the feeder's walk, and the entrance door ought to method of housing corn in the straw.
admit a loaded cart. These houses seem very necessary wherever there is a number of cows frame of timber on uprigh: stones, two feet high, or other cattle supported on roots or cabbages, and having projecting caps of flat stones. They as without them it would not only be inconve- are also constructed wholly of stone, of circular nient, but in many cases in severe weather im- or polygonal walls. In both modes, pieces of possible to provide for them the daily supply. timber are placed as a frame in the middle to Cabbages should not, however, be kept long in- support the grain upon, and generally a cone of doors, as they are very liable to the putrid fer- spars in the centre, to form a funnel. Cast iron mentation. The master should be careful that stands (plate II. fig. 5) for stacks, on pillars the yard-man constantly keeps such places per- about three feet high, and weighing half a hunfectly clean and sweet, in order that the roots dred weight each, have been introduced with may contract no bad smell, as cattle are in many success in some parts of the country. They are cases extremely nice in this respect.
made both with and without hollow cones or The appendages to farm buildings are the triangles. A stack requires seven pillars, besides dung-yards, pits, and reservoirs, the rick-yard, the framing, which may either be made of poles straw-yard, poultry-yard, drying-yard, garden,' or young trees. In the wet climate of Clackorchard, and cottage-yards. These vary so much, mannanshire wheat has been stacked in five according to situation and other circumstances, days, beans in eight, and barley and oats in ten that a description of them seems needless in this days and sometimes earlier. No vermin can place.
find their way into these stacks to consume the Corn-stands have been of late considered re- grain, and the straw is better preserved. The quisite fixtures of a stack-yard ; their basements cone or triangle keeps up a circulation of air, are of timber, masonry, or iron, on which the and prevents heating, or other damage. (Gen. stack is built, and their object is to keep the Rep. of Scotland, Vol. IV., Appendix p. 379). lower part dry, and exclude vermin. A usnal Hay-stands have been constructed in a similar mode of constructing them is to place a stout manner.
RU R A L ECONOMY
ORAL ECOKOMY. Under this general head the fields were so arranged as that the ball of we have determined to include those practical each of these crops had been near the offices. parts of the science of agriculture which could not But, by means of two fields for each crop in the conveniently be embraced in the general article rotation, it is quite easy to connect together one of that name. See AGRICULTURE.
field near the houses with another at a distance ; In that article we have taken a general view thus having a supply at hand for the home stock, of soils, and of the ordinary principles of amelio- while the distant crops may be consumed on the rating them by manuring, ploughing, rotation of ground. The same equalisation of labor should crops, &c. In the present paper we propose to be observed in the cultivation of the corn fields, treat, 1. Of the arable system. 2. Of grazing. and in harvesting the crops. By this kind of 3. Of the modern convertible system. 4. Of arrangement a field of inferior soil may be so the cultivation of plants that are articles of com- connected with one that is naturally rich, that merce. 5. Of the management of live stock. the former may be gradually brought up in pro6. Of implements of husbandry. The dairy, and duce towards the level of the latter, without any its general economy, have engaged our attention injury. For instance, a field under turuips may under the article Dairy.
be so fertile that it would be destructive to the
succeeding corn crop to consume the whole or PART I.
the greater part on the ground; while another OF THE ARABLE SYSTEM.
may be naturally so poor, or so deficient in te
nacity, as to make it inexpedient to spare any In laying out a farın on the arable system, it has part for consumption elsewhere. By connecting been recommended that attention be paid to that these two under the same crop, -by carrying course of crops, which the quality of the soil may from the one what turnips are wanted for the point out; and that, upon all farms not below a feeding-houses and straw-yards, and eating the medium size, there should be twice the number of whole crop of the other on the ground with enclosures that there are divisions or breaks in sheep, the ensuing crop of corn will not be so the course. Thus, if a six years' rotation be luxuriant on the former as to be unproductive, thought most profitable, there should be twelve while the latter will seldom fail to yield abundenclosures, two of which are always under the antly. same crop. One advantage in this arrange- 1. In preparing land for cropping, the first thing ment is, that it tends greatly to equalize labor, that occurs is to consider the obstructions to regular and, with a little attention, may contribute much ploughing. The most formidable of these are to equalise the produce. On large farms, where stones lying above or below the surface. Stones all the land under turnips and clover, for instance, above the surface may be avoided by the ploughis near the extremity of the grounds, or at a con- man, though not without loss of ground; but siderable distance from the buildings, supposed stones below the surface are commonly not disto be set down near the centre, it is clear that covered till the plough is shattered to pieces, the labor of supplying the house and straw-yard and perhaps a day's work lost. The clearing stock with these crops, as well as the carriage of land of stones is therefore necessary to prevent the manure to the field, is much greater than if mischief. And, to encourage the operation, it is attended with much actual profit. In the first grow at the bottom, but to clear off the grass place, the stones are often useful for fences : once in four or five years will restore it to its when large they must be blown, and are com- original perfection. A hollow drain may be monly proper for building. And, as the blowing proper between the spring-head and the main with gunpowder does not exceed a halfpenny for drain, where the distance is not great; but in each inch that is bored, these stones come gene- every other case the drain recommended is the best. rally cheaper than to dig as many out of the Where a level field is infested with water from quarry. 2dly, As the soil round a large stone is higher ground, the water ought to be intercepted commonly the best in the field, it is purchased by a ditch carried along the foot of the high at a low rate by taking out the stone; for not ground, and terminating in some capital drain. only is the ground lost that is occupied by a The only way to clear a field of water that is hollarge stone, but also a considerable space round low in the middle is to carry it off by some it, to which the plough has not access without drain still lower. danger. A third advantage is that the plowing A clay soil of any thickness is often pestered can be carried on with much expedition, when with rain, which settles on the surface. The there is no apprehension of stones : in stony only remedy is high narrow ridges, well rounded. land, the plough must proceed so slow, as not to And, to clear the furrows, the furrow of the footperform half of its work..
ridge ought to be considerably lower, to carry But to clear land of stones is an undertaking off the water cleverly. It cannot be made too too expensive for a tenant who has not a long low, as nothing hurts clay soil more than the lease.As it is, however, so important both to stagnation of water on it. Some gravelly soils him and to his landlord, it appears reasonable have a clay bottom; which is a substantial bethat the expense should be divided, where the nefit to a field when in grass, as it remains lease does not exceed nineteen or twenty years. moister. But, when in tillage, ridges are neIt falls naturally upon the landlord to be at the cessary to prevent rain from settling at the botexpense of blowing the stones, and upon the te- tom; and this is the only case where a gravelly nant to carry them off the field.
soil ought to be ridged. Clay soils that have Another obstruction is wet ground. Water little or no level have sometimes a gravelly botmay improve gravelly or sandy soils; but it tom. For discharging the water, the best method sours a clay soil, or renders it unfit for vegeta- is, at the end of every ridge to pierce down to the tion, and converts low ground into a morass. gravel, which will absorb the water. But if the A great deal has been written upon different furrow of the foot-ridge be low enough to receive methods of draining land. See DRAINING. One all the water it will be more expeditious to make way of draining without expense, when land is to a few holes in that furrow. In some cases, a be enclosed with hedge and ditch, is to direct field may be drained, by filling up the hollows the ditches so as to carry off the water. But with earth from higher ground. But, as this methis method is not always practicable. If the thod is expensive, it will only be taken where run of water be considerable, it will destroy the no other method answers. Where a field hapditches, and lay open the fences, especially where pens to be partly wet, partly dry, there ought to the soil is loose or sandy. If ditches will not be a separation by a middle ridge, if it can be answer, hollow drains are sometimes made, and done conveniently; and the dry part may be sometimes open drains, made so deep as to com- ploughed while the other is drying. mand the water. The former is filled up with Some of the low parts of Scotland arc of a loose stones, with brush-wood, or with any other brick clay soil, extremely wet in winter. This porous matter that permits the water to pass. in a good measure may be prevented by proper The latter is left open. To make the former ef- enclosing, as there is scarcely a field but can be fectual, the ground must have such a slope as to drained into lower ground. But as this would give the water a brisk course. To attempt to lessen the quantity of rain in a dry climate, such execute them in a level ground is an error; the as is all the east side of Britain, it may admit of passages are soon stopped up with sand and se- some doubt whether the remedy would not be as diment, and the work is rendered useless. This bad as the disease. inconvenience takes not place in open drains ; To improve a moor, let it be opened in winter but they are subject to other inconveniences. when it is wet; and when the plough canrot be They are always filling up, and make a yearly employed at any other work." In spring, after reparation necessary; and they obstruct both frost is over, a slight harrowing will fill up the ploughing and pasturing.
seams with mould, to keep out the air, and rot The following open drain is one of the best. the sod. In that state let it lie the following It is made with the plough, cleaving the space summer and winter, which will rot the sod more intended for the drain over and over, till the fur- than if laid open to the air by ploughing. Next row be made of a sufficient depth for carrying April, let it be cross-ploughed, breaked, and off the water. The slope on either side may, by harrowed, till it be sufficiently pulverised. Let repeated ploughings, be made so gentle as to the manure laid upon it, whether lime or dung, give no obstruction either to the plough or to the be intimately mixed with the soil by repeated barrow. There is no occasion for a spade, unless harrowings. This will make a fine bed for turto smooth the sides, and to remove accidental nip sced if sown broad-cast. But, if drills be obstructions in the bottom. This drain is exe- intended, the method must be followed that is cuted at much less expense than either of the directed afterward in treating of the culture of former; and it is perpetual, as it can never be turnip. A successful turnip-crop, fed on the obstructed. In level ground indeed grass may ground by sheef, is a fine preparation for laying down a field with grass seeds. It is an improve- qualities may be pared with the most advantage, ment upon this method, to take two or three it is obvious that, as it can hardly be proper to successive crops of turnip, which will require no pare light, thin-stapled soils, to the same depths dung for the second and following crops. This as those of the more deep and heavy kinds, it will thicken the soil, and enrich it greatly. should, in some degree, be regulated by their
The best way of improving swampy ground, particular nature, and their differences in reafter draining, is paring and burning. But spect to heaviness. Boys, who is in the habit where the ground is dry, and the soil so thin as of breaking up thin chalky soils, and such that the surface cannot be pared, the way of as have been in tillage, in this way, observes bringing it into tilth from the state of nature is that in Kent, where the method of paring most to plough it with a feathered sock, laying the in use is with down-shares or breast ploughs, grassy surface under. After the new sui face is they take off turfs as thick as the nature of the mellowed with frost, fill up all the seams by har- soil will admit, from half an inch to two inches; rowing cross the field, which by excluding the air the thicker the better, provided there be a suffiwill effectually rot the sod. In this state let it cient portion of vegetable matter contained lie summer and winter. In the beginning of within thein to make them burn well. The most May after, a cross-ploughing will reduce all to usual depths of paring are from about one to small square pieces, which must be pulverised three inches. with the brake, and made ready for a May or "In regard to burning, when the season is not June crop. If these square pieces be allowed to very wet, the turfs will commonly be sufficiently lie long in the sap without breaking, they will dried in about a fortnight or three weeks, even become tough and not be easily reduced. without being turned; but in rainy weather they
On the subject of paring and burning, Mr. Lou- require a longer time, and must be turned more don says, “The season for this operation is April, than once to prevent their striking out roots and May, and June: the particular period must, how- shoots, which might hinder them from burning. ever, always depend much on the state of the As soon as the turfs have fully undergone the weather and the nature of the crop. When the process of burning, and are reduced to the state east winds prevail, in February and March, this of ashes and a powdery earthy matter, the whole sort of business may sometimes be carried op. should, as soon as possible, be spread out over But for accomplishing the work with the greatest the land in as regular and equal a manner as despatch, and also with the least trouble and ex- the nature of the work will admit of; for, without pense, a dry season is obviously the best. The great attention in this respect, great inequality prudent cultivator should not embark in the un- in the crops may take place; besides the soil dertaking unless there be a reasonable probability will be made lighter in some places than in of his accomplishing it while the weather keeps others, which may be disadvantageous in the dry and favorable. The latter end of May or the same way. The spreading, where it can by any beginning of June, when the hurry of the spring- means be accomplished, should always be perseed time is over, in the more northern districts, formed before any rain falls; as, where this point when a number of hands can be most easily pro- is not attended to, a great loss may be sustained cured may, upon the whole, be considered as the by the saline matters being carried down in a best and most convenient season ; as at this state of solution, and their beneficial effects in a period the green vegetable products are in their great measure lost before the crops are in a conmost succulent state, and of course may probably dition to receive them. In order to secure the afford more saline matter ; but in the more full influence of the ashes, the land is frequently southern counties either a much earlier season slightly ploughed over immediately after the must be taken, or the interval between the hay ashes are spread out. And it is stated by Da season and the harvest time must be fixed upon, naldson that those who are more than ordinarily the latter of which is, on the principle just stated, attentive in this respect only rib or slob furrow evidently the best, where the extent of ground the field, so that the asbes after burning may be to be burnt is not too large. In other seasons covered up with the greater expedition and deit would frequently be impossible to procure a spatch. By this mode they cannot probably. sufficient number of hands for performing the however, be so equally mixed with the soil as by business. In bringing waste lands into cultiva- that of ploughing the whole field with a very tion, where an extensive tract of ground is to un- slight furrow, so as just to cover them. The exdergo this process, the autumn may, in many pense of the operation of paring and burning cases, afford a convenient opportunity for the will vary according to the nature and situation operation. A good deal depends on the crops of the land, the method in which it is performed, that are to be sown after paring and burning. and the customs of the district in regard to the When rape or turnips are to be cultivated, the price of labor. On the thin sort of chalky soils end of May, or the beginning of June, will be it is stated by Boys that the expense for paring the most proper time: but, if barley or oats are at a moderate thickness, where the land is not to be sown, the paring and burning must be very flinty, is about equal to four or five ploughcompleted as early in spring as the nature of the ings. season will admit; and, when lands are pared We add this writer's remarks on the operation and burned as a preparation for a crop of wheat, of drying and burning clay for manure, as it is in July, or even the beginning of August, may, in several respects similar to that of paring and favorable seasons, answer; but it is better to burning. The practice of burning clay,' he have the ground ready sooner if possible. In observes, has at various times been pursued with respect to the depth to which lands of different energy and success, and at other times has fallen