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is thus conducted : the strands of which the rope to a length, again adjusts their tightness, and is composed consist of many yarns, and require joins them all together in a knot, to which he a considerable degree of hardening. This cannot fixes the hook of a tackle, the other block of be done by a whirl driven by a wheel-band; it which is fixed to a firm post, called the warpingrequires the power of a crank turned by the hand. post. The skein is well stretched by the tackle, The strands, when properly hardened, become and then separated into its different strands. very stiff, and, when bent round the top, are not Each of these is knotted apart at both ends. able to transmit force enough for laying the The knots at their upper ends are made fast to heavy and unpliant rope which forms beyond it. the hooks of the cranks in the tackle-board, and The elastic twist of the hardened strands must those at the lower ends are fastened to the cranks therefore be assisted by an external force. All in the sledge. The sledge itself is kept in its this requires a different machinery and a different place by a tackle, by which the strands are process. At the upper end of the walk is there again stretched in their places and every thing fore fixed a tackle-board : this consists of à adjusted, so that the sledge stands square on the strong oaken plank, called a breast-board, having walk, and then a proper weight is laid on it. The three or more holes in it and fitted with brass or tackle is now cast off, and the cranks are turned iron plates. Into these are put iron cranks called at both ends in the contrary direction to the heavers, which have hooks or forelocks, and keys twist of the yarns (in some kinds of cordage the on the ends of their spindles. They are placed cranks are turned the same way with the spinat such a distance from each other that the work- ning twist). By this the strands are twisted and men do not interfere while turning them round. hardened up, and as they contract by this opeThis breast-board is fixed to the top of strong ration the sledge is dragged up the walk. When posts, well secured by struts or braces facing the foreman thinks the strands sufficiently the lower end of the walk. At the lower end is hardened, which he estimates by the motion of another breast-board fixed to the upright post of the sledge, he orders the heavers at the cranks a sledge, which may be loaded with stones or to stop. The middle strand at the sledge is other weights. Similar cranks are placed in the taken off from the crank; this crank is taken holes of this breast-board; the whole goes by out, and a stronger one put in its place. The the name of the sledge.
other strands are taken off from their cranks, The top necessary for closing large cordage is and all are joined on the hook which is now in too beavy to be held in the hand, it therefore has the middle hole; the top is then placed between a long staff, which has a truck on the end. This the strands, and, being pressed home to the point rests on the ground, but even this is not enougb of their union, the carriage is placed under it, in laying great cables. The top must be sup- and it is firmly fixed down; some weight is ported on a carriage, where it must lie very taken off the sledge. The heavers now begin to steady, and it needs attendance, because the turn at both ends; those at the tackle-board master workman has sufficient employment in continue to turn as they did before, but the attending to the manner in which the strands heavers at the sledge turn in the opposite direcclose behind the top, and in helping them by tion to their former motion, so that the cranks various methods. The top is therefore fixed to at both ends are now turning one way. By the the carriage by lashing its staff to the two up- motion of the sledge-crank the top is forced right posts. A piece of soft rope or strap is away from the knot, and the rope begins to attached to the handle of the top by the middle, close. T'he heaving at the upper end restores to and its two ends are brought back and wrapped the strands the twist which they are constantly several times tight round the rope in the direc- losing by the laying of the rope. The workmen tion of its twist, and bound down. This greatly judge of this by making a chalk mark on the inassists the laying of the rope by its friction, termediate points of the strands, where they lie which both keeps the top from flying too far on the stakes which are set up along the walk from the point of union of the strands, and for their support. If the twist of the strands is brings the strands more regularly into their diminished by the motion of closing they will places. The first operation is warping the yarns. lengthen, and the chalk mark will move away At each end of the walk are frames called warp- from the tackle-board ; but, if the twist increases ang frames, which carry a great number of reels, by turning the cranks at the tackle-board, the or winches, filled with rope-yarn. The foreman strands will shorten and the mark will come of the walk takes off a yarn end from each, till nearer to it. As the closing of the rope adhe has made up the number necessary for his vances the whole shortens, and the sledge is rope or strand, and, bringing the ends together, dragged up the walk. The top moves faster, he passes the whole through an iron ring fixed and at last reaches the upper end of the walk, to the top of a stake driven into the ground, and the rope being now laid. draws them through; then a knot is tied on the In the mean time the sledge has moved several end of the bundle, and a workman pulls it fathoms from the place where it was when the through this ring till the intended length is laying began. These motions of the sledge and drawn off the reels. The end is made fast at top must be exactly adjusted to each other. The the bottom of the walk, or at the sledge, and rope must be of a certain length, therefore the the foreman comes back along the skein of yarns, sledge must stop at a certain place. At that moto see that none are hanging slacker than the ment the rope should be laid ; that is, the top rest. He takes up in his trand such as are slack should be at the tackle-board. In this consists and draws them tight, keeping them so till he the address of the foreman. He has his attention reaches the upper end, where he cuts the yarns directed both ways. Ile looks at the strands, and, when he sees any hanging slacker between The fibres of hemp are twisted into yarns, that the stakes than the others, he calls to the heavers they may make a line of any length, and stick at the tackle-board to heave more upon that among each other with a force equal to their strand. He finds it more difficult to regulate the own cohesion. The yarns are inade into cords motion of the top. It requires a considerable of permanent twist by laying them; and that we force to keep it in the angle of the strands, and may have a rope of any degree of strength many it is always disposed to start forward. To pre- yarns are united in one strand, for the same reavent or check this, some straps of soft rope are son that many fibres were united in one yarn ; brought round the staff of the top, and then and in the course of this process it is in our wrapped several times round the rope behind power to give the rope a solidity and hardness the top, and kept firmly down by a lanyard or which make it less penetrable by water, which bandage. This both holds back the top and would rot it in a short while. Some of these greatly assists the laying of the rope, causing the purposes are inconsistent with others : and the strands to fall into their places, and keep close skill of a rope-maker lies in making the best to each other, which is sometimes very difficult, compensation, so that the rope may, on the especially in ropes composed of more than three whole, be the best in point of strength, pliancy, strands. It will greatly improve the laying the and duration, that the quantity of hemp in it can rope, if the top has a sharp, smooth, tapering produce. The following rule for judging of the pin of hard wood, pointed at the end, projecting weight which a rope will bear is not far from the so far from the middle of its smaller end that it truth. It supposės them rather too strong; but gets in between the strands which are closing. it is so easily remembered that it may be of use. This supports them, and makes their closing Multiply the circumference in inches by itself, more gradual and regular. The top, its notches, and take the fifth part of the product, it will exthe pin, and the warp or strap, which is lapped press the tons which the rope will carry. Thus, round the rope, are all smeared with grease or if the rope has six inches circumference, six soap, to assist the closing. The foreman judges times six is thirty-six, the fifth of which is seven of the progress of closing chiefly by his acquaint- tons and one-fifth. ance with the walk, knowing that when the It is usual in cables, and in other cases, to have sledge is a-breast of a certain stake the top should recourse to the operation of tarring. This is often be a-breast of a certain other stake. When he done in the state of twine or yarn, as being the best finds the top too far down the walk he slackens mode by which the hemp can be uniformly penethe motion at the tackle-board, and makes the trated. The yarn is made to wind off from one reel, men turn briskly at the sledge. By this the top and, having passed through a vessel of liquid hot is forced up the walk, and the laying of the rope tar, is wound on another reel; the superfluous tar accelerates, while the sledge remains in the is taken off by passing through a hole surroundsame place, because the strands are losing their ed with oakum : or it is sometimes tarred in twist, and are lengthening, while the closed rope skeins, which are drawn by a capstern througli a is shortening. When, on the other hand, he tar-kettle, and a hole formed by two plates of thinks the top too far advanced, and fears that it metal, held together by a lever, loaded with a will be at the head of the walk before the sledge weight. There is this peculiarity to be noticed has got to, its proper place, he makes the men --tarred cordage is weaker, when new, than heave briskly on the strands, and the heavers at white, and the difference increases by the keepthe sledge crank work softly. This quickens the ing. From some very accurate experiments made motion of the sledge by shortening the strands; more than half a century ago, it was found that, and, by thus compensating what has been over- on newly-made cordage, the white was one-eighth done, the sledge and top come to their places at stronger than that which was tarred; that, at the once, and the work appears to answer the inten- expiration of three months, the difference in tion. When the top approaches the tackle-board favor of the new was almost one-fourth ; and, in the heaving at the sledge could not cause the about three years and a half, the difference was strands immediately behind the top to close well, as twenty-nine to eighteen. From these, and without having previously produced an extravaother experiments, it was ascertained, 1. That gant degree of twist in the intermediate rope. white cordage in continual service is one-third The effort of the crank must, therefore, be assist- more durable than that which is subjected to the ed by men stationed along the rope, each fur- operation of tarring. 2. That it retains its nished with a tool called a woolder. This is a strength much longer while kept in the warestout oaken stick, about three feet long, having a house. 3. That it resists the ordinary injuries strap of soft rope-yarn or cordage, fastened on of the weather one-fourth longer. It may then be its middle or end. The strap is wrapped round asked, Why is tar ever used by the rope-maker! the laid rope, and the workman works with the Because white cordage, when exposed to be alterstick as a lever, twisting the rope round in the nately very wet and dry, is weaker than that direction of the crank's motion. The woolders which is tarred, and to this cables and groundshould keep their eye on the man at the crank, tackle are continually subjected. It has also been and make their motion correspond with bis. pretty well ascertained that cordage which is Thus they send forward the iwist produced only superficially tarred is constantly stronger by the crank, without either increasing or dimi- than that which is tarred throughout. nishing it, in that part of the rope which lies Before we conclude this article we may notice between them and the sledge. Such is the Mr. Chapman's method of making ropes and general and essential process of rope making. cordage, for which he obtained, some years since, Gay.
his majesty's letters patent. lue specifications able to the distance from the centre of the strand, may be found in the ninth volume of the First and the angle which the yarns make with a line Series of the Repertory. It is too long to be parallel to it, and which gives them a proper poadmitted in our work; the following is, however, sition to enter. 3. A cylindrical tube which coman outline of the whole:
presses the strand, and maintains a cylindrical Rope-yarns are spun either by hand, or by figure to its surface. 4. A gauge to determine machinery : in the practice of the first method the angle which the yarns in the outside shall rope-walks are necessary, and the fibres of the make with a line parallel to the centre of the hemp are drawn into the yarn of different lengths strand when registering ; and, according to the proportionate in a given degree to their position angle made by the yarns in this shell, the length on the outside or inside of the yarn; accordingly, of all the yarns in the strand will be determined. when this yarn is strained, and its diameter col- 5. By hardening up the strand, and thereby inlapses, the inside fibres of hemp bear the greatest creasing the angle in the outside shell, which strain, and thus they break progressively from the compensates for the stretching of the yarns and inside. In the spinning by a mill the fibres are the compression of the strand. all brought forward in a position parallel to each ROPE-YARN, among sailors, is the yarn of other, previously to their receiving their twist. any rope untwisted, but commonly made up of They are consequently all of one length; and, juuk : its use is to make sinnet, mats, &c. when twisted, the outside fibres are most short ROQUELAURE, n. S. Fr. roquelaure. A ened by forming the same number of spirals cloak for men, round a greater axis than the interior, and thus Within the roquelaure's clasp tlry hands are pent. they must consequently break the first, on the same principle that the outside yarns of strands RORAAS, an inland town of Norway, in the of ropes manufactured in the old method break bishopric of Drontheim. It stands on a high before the interior yarns; and consequently with mountain the most elevated inhabited situation less strain than ropes of the improved principle, in the country. Frost and snow prevail during where the strands (or immediate component almost the whole year. It contains 3000 inhabparts of the rope) have been formed in such a itants, principally occupied in the copper mines manner as that all the yarns shall bear equally of the neighbourhood. Sixty-seven miles S. S. E. at the time of the rope's breaking. Nevertheless of Drontheim. yarns spun by a mill have been found stronger ROʻRID, adj. Lat. roridus. Dewy. than common yarns, on account of the great vehicle conveys it through less accessible cavievenness with which they are spun; the manual ties into the liver, from thence into the veins and so Jabor in manufacturing is much less than in the in a rorid substance through the capillary cavities. common method: but on the other hand there is
Brown's Vulgar Errours. the expense of machinery, and the greater waste RORIDULA, in botany, a genus of the moof hemp in preparing it for being drawn out in the nogynia order, and pentandria class of plants : progressive stages of its advance to the spindle. COR. pentapetalous : cal. pentaphyllous : CAPS.
The method invented by Mr. Chapman differs bivalved; the antheræ scrotiform at the base. from both the preceding, in causing, by an easy Species one only, a Cape shrub... and simple contrivance, the fibres of the hemp to ROSA (Salvator), a celebrated painter, born be laid in the yarn in such a manner as the yarns in Naples in 1614." He was first instructed by themselves are laid in the strands of the rope Francis Francazano, a kinsman : but the death of manufactured on the new principle. The ma- his father reduced him to sell drawings sketched chinery consists only of a spindle divided into upon paper, one of which falling into the hands two parts, the upper containing apparatus to of Lanfranc, he took him under his protection, draw forward the hemp from the spinner with and enabled him to enter the school of Spagnotwist sufficient to combine the fibres; which letto, where he was taught by Daniel Falcone, a enables him to employ women, children, and in- distinguished painter of battles at Naples. Salvalids, and also to appropriate the rope-ground vator had a fertile imagination. He studied nasolely to the purpose of laying ropes. The re- ture with atteution and judgment; and always maining parts of the invention consist chiefly represented her to the greatest advantage. He in giving from a stationary power internal mo- was equally eminent for painting battles, anition to a loco-inotive machine, viz. to the roper's mals, sea or land storms; and he executed these sledge, on which the strands and the rope itself different subjects in a style altogether unequalled. are twisted, by which contrivance they are ena- His pieces are exceedingly scarce and valuable; bled to apply a water-wheel or steam-engine to one of the finest is that representing Saul and the whole process of making ropes of all kinds the witch of Endor, which was preserved at whatever.
Versailles. He died in 1673; and, as his paintMr. Huddart likewise obtained a patent forings are in few hands, he is more generally an improved method of registering or forming known by his prints; of which he etched a great strands in the machinery for manufacturing number. They are chiefly historical. He is of cordage ; which he effects in the following said to have spent the early part of his life among manner :-1. By keeping the yarns separate a troop of banditti; and that the rocky desolate from each other, and drawing them from bobbins scenes in which he was accustomed to take rewhich revolve to keep up the twist whilst the fuge furnished him with those romantic ideas in strand is forming. 2. By passing them through landscape, in the representation of which he so á register, which divides them by circular shells greatly excels. His robbers, as his detached uf holes ; the number in each shell being agree- figures are commonly called, are supposed also to have been taken from the life. He was also &c., grows from about three or four to six or a musician; as appears from his musical MSS. eight feet high, with pinnated three and fivepurchased at Rome by Dr. Burney. other colored flowers in different sorts. This purplish-red flowers, that blow irregularly, and species is very extensive in supposed varieties, have but little fragrance. bearing the above specific distinction, several of 9. R. moschata, the musk-rose, supposed to be which have been formerly considered as distinct a variety only of the ever-green musk-rose, has species, but are now ranged among the varieties weak smooth green stalks and branches, rising of the Galician rose, consisting of the following by support from six to eight or ten feet high, or noted varieties : common red officinal rose, grows more thinly armed with strong spines, pinnated erect, about three or four feet high, having small seven-lobed smooth leaves, with prickly footbranches, with but few prickles, and large spread- stalks, hispid peduncles, oval hispid germen; ing balf-double deep red flowers. Rosa mundi and all the branches terminated by large um(rose of the world) or striped red rose is a va- bellated clusters of pure-white musk-scented riety of the common red rose, growing but three flowers, in August, &c. or four feet high, having large spreading semi- 10. R. pimpinellifolia, the burnet-leaved rose, double red flowers, beautifully striped with grows about a yard high, aculeated sparsedly; white and deep red. York and Lancaster small neatly pinnated seven lobed leaves, having variegated rose grows five, six, or eight feet obtuse folioles and rough petioles, smooth pehigh, or more; bearing variegated red flowers, duncles, a globular smooth germen, and small consisting of a mixture of red and white; also single flowers. There are varieties with red frequently disposed in elegant stripes, sometimes flowers, and with white flowers. They grow in half of the flower, and sometimes in some of wild in England, &c., and are cultivated in shrubthe petals. Monthly rose grows about four or beries for variety. five feet high, with green very prickly shoots; 11. R. sempervirens, the ever-green musk producing middle-fixed, moderately double, de- rose, has a somewhat trailing stalk and branches, licate flowers, of different colors in the varieties. rising by support five or six feet high or more, The varieties are, common red-flowered monthly having a smooth bark armed with prickles; rose, blush-flowered, white-flowered, and stripe pinnated five-lobed smooth shining ever-green flowered. All of which blow both early and leaves, with prickly petioles, hispid pedunculi, late, and often produce flowers several months oval hispid germen; and all the branches termiin the year, as May, June, and July; and fre- nated by clusters of pure white-flowers of a quently again in August or September, and musky fragrance; appearing in the end of July, sometimes, in fine mild seasons, continue till and in August. The ever-green property of this November or December: hence the name elegant species renders it a curiosity; it also monthly rose. Double-virgin rose grows five makes a fine appearance as a flowering shrub. or six feet high, having greenish branches with There is one variety, the deciduous musk-rose. scarcely any spines; and with large double pale. This species and variety flower in August, and red and very fragrant flowers. Red damask-rose are remarkable for producing in numerous clusgrows eight or ten feet high, having greenish ters, continuing in succession till October or branches, armed with short aculea ; and mode- November. rately double, fine soft red, very fragrant flowers. 12. R. spinosissima, the most spinous, dwarf White damask-rose grows eight or ten feet high, burnet-leaved rose, commonly called Scotch rose, with greenish very prickly branches, and whitish- grows but two or three feet high, very closely red flowers, becoming gradually of a whiter color. armed with spines; small neatly pinnated sevenBlush Belgic rose grows three or four feet lobed leaves, with prickly foot-stalks, prickly high, or more; having greenish prickly branches, pedunculi, oral smooth germen, and numerous five or seven-lobed leaves, and numerous, very small single flowers, succeeded by round darkdouble, blush-red flowers, with short petals, purple heps. The varieties are common whiteevenly arranged. Red Belgic rose, having fowered, red-fowered, striped-flowered, and greenish and red shoots and leaves, and fine marble-flowered. They grow naturally in Engdouble deep-red flowers. Velvet rose grows land, Scotland, &c. The first variety rises nearly three or four feet high, armed with but few a yard high, the others about one or two feet, all prickles, producing large velvet-red flowers com- of which are single-flowered; but the flowers, prising semi-double and double varieties, all very being numerous all over the branches, make a beautiful roses. Marbled rose grows four or five pretty appearance in the collection. feet high, having brownish branches, with but 13. R. villosa, the villose apple-bearing rose, few prickles; and large, double, finely-marbled, grows six or eight feet high, having strong erect red flowers. Red-and-yellow Austrian rose brownish-smooth branches, aculeated sparsedly; grows five or six feet high, having slender reddish pinnated seven-lobed villose or hairy leaves, branches, armed with short brownish aculea; downy underneath, with prickly foot-stalks, and with flowers of a reddish copper-color on hispid peduncles, a globular prickly germen; one side, the other side yellow. Yellow Austrian and large single red flowers, succeeded by large rose grows five or six feet high, having reddish round prickly heps, as big as little apples. This very prickly shoots, and numerous bright-yellow species merits admittance into every collection flowers. Double yellow rose grows six or seven as a curiosity for the singularity of its fruit, feet high; with brownish branches, armed with both for variety and use; for it, having a thick numerous large and small yellowish prickles; pulp of an agreeable acid relish, is often made and large very double yellow flowers. Francfort into a tolerably good sweetmeat. The above rose grows eight or ten feet high, is a vigorous thirteen species of rosa, and their respective vashooter, with brownish branches thinly armed rieties, are of the shrub kind; all deciduous exwith strong prickles, and produces largish double cept R. sempervirens, and of hardy growth, suc
lobed leaves ; and large very double red flowers, Rosa, in botany, the rose, a genus of the po- having very numerous petals, and of different lygamia order, and icosandria class of plants; shades in the varieties. The varieties are, comnatural order thirty-fifth, senticosæ : CAL. ur mon Dutch hundred-leaved rose, grows tliree or ceolated, quinquefid, corneous, and straightened four feet high, with erect greenish branches, but at the neck; petals five. The SEEDS are nume- moderately armed with prickles; and large rous, hispid, and affixed to the inside of the remarkably double red flowers, with short regucalyx. The different kinds of roses are very larly arranged petals. Blush hundred-leaved numerous; and botanists find it very difficult to rose, grows like the other, with large very double determine with accuracy which are species and pale-red flowers. Provence rose grows five or which are varieties. On this account Linné, and six feet with greenish-brown prickly branches, some other eminent authors, are inclined to and very large double globular red flowers, with think that there is only one real species of rose, large petals folding over one another, more or which is the rosa canina, or dog-rose of the less in the varieties. The varieties are, common hedges, &c., and that all the other sorts are ac- red Provence rose, and pale Provence rose; cidental varieties of it. However, according to both of which having larger and somewhat the Linnæan arrangement, they stand divided looser petals than the following sort :-cabbage into fourteen species, each comprehending va- Provence rose; having the petals closely folded rieties, which in some sorts are but few, in others over one another like cabbages. Dutch cabbage numerous. The supposed species and their rose, very large. Childing Provence rose. Great varieties, according to the arrangement of Gme- royal rose, grows six or eight feet high, prolin, are as follow:
ducing remarkably large, somewhat loose, but 1. R. alba, the common white rose, grows five very elegant flowers. All these are large double or six feet high, having a green stem and red flowers, soinewhat globular at first blowing, branches, armed with prickles, hispid pedunculf, becoming gradually a little spreading at top, and oval smooth germina, and large white flowers. are very ornamental fragrant roses. Moss ProThe varieties are, large double white rose, dwarf vence rose, supposed a variety of the common single white rose, maiden's-blush white rose, being rose; grows erectly four or five feet high, having large, produced in clusters, and of a white and brownish stalks and branches, very closely armed blush red color.
with short prickles, and double crimson-red 2. R. alpina, the alpine inermous 'rose, grows flowers ; having the calyx and upper part of five or eight feet high, having smooth or un- the peduncle surrounded with a rough mossyarmed reddish branches, pinnated seven-lobed like substance, effecting a curious singularity. smooth leaves, somewhat hispid pedunculi, oval This is a fine delicate rose, of a high fragrance, germina, and deep-red single flowers ; appearing wbich, together with its mossy calyx, renders it in May. This species, as being free from all a most beautiful flower. kind of armature common to the other sorts of 6. R. cinnamonea, the cinnamon rose, grows roses, is esteemed as a singularity; and from five or six feet high, or more, with purplish this property is often called the virgin or thorn- branches thinly aculeated; pinnated five or seven less rose.
lobed leaves, having almost inermous petioles, 3. R. canina, the canine rose, wild dog-rose smooth pedunculi, and smooth globular germina; of the hedges, or hep-tree, grows five or six feet with small purplish red cinnamon-scented flowers high, having prickly stalks and branches, pin- early in May. There are varieties with double nated, five or seven-lobed leaves, with aculeated flowers. foot-stalks, smooth pedunculi, oval smooth ger- 7. R. eglanteria, the eglantine rose or sweet mina, and small single flowers. There are two briar, grows five or six feet high, having green varieties, red-flowered and wbite-flowered. They branches, armed with strong spines sparsedly; grow wild in hedges abundantly all over the pinnated seven-lobed odoriferous leaves, with kingdom; and are sometimes admitted into acute folioles and rough foot-stalks, smooth pegardens, to increase the variety of the shrubbery dunculi, globular smooth germina, and small collection,
pale-red flowers. The varieties are, common 4. R. Carolinensis, the Carolina and Virginia single flowered, semi-double flowered, doublerose, &c., grows six or eight feet high, or more, flowered, blush double-flowered, and yellowhaving smooth reddish branches, very thinly flowered. This species grows naturally in some aculeated; pinnated seven-lobed smooth leaves, parts of England, and in Switzerland. It claims with prickly foot-stalks; somewhat hispid pe- culture in every garden for the odoriferous produnculi, globose hispid germen, and single red perty of its leaves : and should be planted in the flowers in clusters, appearing mostly in August borders, and other compartments contiguous to and September. The varieties are, dwarf Penn- walks, or near the habitation, where the plants sylvanian rose, with single and double red will impart their refreshing fragrance very proflowers, and American pale-red rose. This spe- fusely around ; and the young branches are excies grows naturally in different parts of North cellent for improving the odor of nosegays and America, and often continues in blow from Au- bow-pots. gust until October; and the flowers are suc- 8. R. gallica, the gallican rose, &c., grows ceeded by numerous red berry-like heps in from about three or four to eight or ten feet autumn, causing a variety all winter.
high, in different varieties; with pinnated, three, 5. R. centifolia, the hundred-leaved red rose, five, or seven-lobed leaves, and large red and