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celebrated for her wit and beauty. He was edu- a new war in Europe. His brother, the elector cated with Frederick Augustus, the electoral of Saxony, offered him the command of all prince, afterwards king of Poland. He served his forces, but he preferred the French service, his first campaign in the army commanded by and repaired to the duke of Berwick, who was prince Eugene and the duke of Marlborough, encamped on the Rhine. The count, at the head when only twelve years old. He signalised him- of a regiment of grenadiers, forced the enemy's self at the sieges of Tournay and Mons, and lines, and by his bravery decided the victory. particularly at the battle of Malplaquet. During He behaved at the siege of Philipsburg with the campaign of 1710 prince Eugene and the no less intrepidity. For these services he was, in duke of Marlborough paid many public enco- 1734, rewarded with the rank of lieutenantmiums to his merit. Next year the young count general. Peace was concluded in 1736; but the accompanied the king of Poland to the siege death of the emperor Charles VI. kindled a new of Stralsund, the strongest place in Pomerania, war. Prague was besieged by the count in 1741, and displayed the greatest intrepidity. He swam near the end of November, and taken by assault. across the river in sight of the enemy, with a The conquest of Egra followed a few days after : pistol in his hand. His valor shone no less con- and Charles VII. wrote a congratulatory letter spicuously on the bloody day of Gaedelbusck, to Saxe with his own hand. In 1744 he was where he commanded a regiment of cavalry. He made marshal of France, and commanded a part had a horse killed under him, after he had three of the French army in Flanders. During that times rallied his regiment, and led them on to campaign he displayed the greatest ipilitary the charge. Soon after that campaign, his conduct. Though the enemy was superior in mother prevailed on him to marry the countess of number, he watched their motions so skilfully Lubin, a lady both rich and beautiful. This that they could do nothing. In January 1745 union lasted but a short time. In 1721 the an alliance was concluded at Warsovia, between count procured a dissolution of the marriage; a the queen of Hungary, the king of England, step of which he afterwards repented. In 1717 and the states of Holland. He went soon after, he went to Hungary, where the emperor had an though exceedingly ill, to take the command of army of 15,000 men under prince Eugene. the French army in the Low Countries. When Young count Saxe was present at the siege of the battle of Fontenoy was fought, M. Saxe was Belgrade, and at a battle which the prince gained at the point of death, yet he caused hiinself to be over the Turks. On his return to Poland, in put into a litter, and carried round all the posts. 1718, he was made a knight of the golden eagle. During the action he mounted on horseback, The wars in Europe being concluded by the though very weak. The victory of Fontenoy, treaties of Utrecht and Possarowitz, count Saxe owing entirely to his vigilance and capacity, was went to France. He spent his time during the followed by the reduction of Tournay, Bruges, peace, in studying mathematics, fortification, and Ghent, Oudenarde, Ostend, Ath, and Brussels : mechanics. At sixteen he invented a new exer- this last city was taken on the 28th of February cise, which was taught in Saxony with the 1746; and very soon after the king sent to the greatest success. Having obtained a regiment in marshal a letter of naturalisation in the most France, in 1722, he formed it according to his flattering terms. The succeeding campaigus new plan. In 1726 the states of Courland chose gained him additional honors. After the victory him for their sovereign. But botlı Poland and of Raucoux, which he gained on the 11th of OctoRussia rose in arms to oppose him. The czarina ber 1746, the king of France inade him a present wished to bestow the duchy on prince Menzikoff, of six pieces of cannon. He was, on the 12ti of Menzikoff sent 800 Russians to the new chosen January 1747, created marshal of all the French duke in his palace. Count Saxe, who had only armies, and, in 1748, commander-general of all sixty men, defended himself with astonishing in- those parts of the Netherlands which he had contrepidity. The siege was raised, and the Rus- quered. Holland now began to tremble for her sians obliged to retreat. Soon after he retired safety. Maestricht and Bergen op Zoom had alto Usmaiz, and prepared to defend his people ready fallen, and nothing but misfortunes seemed against the two hostile nations. Here he re- to attend the further prosecution of the war. The mained with only 300 men, till the Russian states general therefore offered terms of peace, general approached at the head of 4000 to force which were accepted, and a treaty concluded on his retreat. That general invited the count to a the 18th of October 1748. M. Saxe retired to conference, during which he intended to surprise Chambord, a country seat which the king of him, and take him prisoner. The count, in- France had given him. Some time after he went formed of the plot, avoided the conference. to Berlin, and, on his return to France, he spent About this time he wrote to France for men and his time anong men of learning, artists, and phimoney. Madame le Couvreur, a famous ac- losophers. He died of a fever, on the 30th of tress, pawned ber jewels and plate, and sent him November 1750, aged fifty-four. His life had 40,000 livres. The count, unable to defend been, he said, an excellent dream. He was rehimself against Russia and Poland, was obliged markably careful of the lives of his men. One in 1729 to leave his new dominions and retire day a general officer was pointing out to him a into France. Count Saxe, thus stript of his post which would have been of great use. It territories, devoted himself to the study of ma- will only cost you, says he, a dozen grenadiers. thematics. He composed also, in thirteen nights, That would do very well, replied the marshal, and during the intervals of an ague, his Reve were it only a dozen lieutenant-generals. He had ries, which he corrected afterwards. The death been educated and died in the Lutheran re of the king of Poland his father, in 1733, kindled ligion. His heart was put into a silver gilt box, und Louis XV. was at the charge of his funeral. they produce very large pyramids of flowers, His corpse was interred with great splendor in which make a fine appearance. All these spethe Lutheran church of St. Thomas, at Strasburg, cies are easily propagated by offsets, or by parton the 8th of February, 1751. The best edition ing their roots. of his Reveries was printed at Paris 1757, in 2 S AXʻIFRAGE, n. s.) Fr. sarifrage ; Lat. vols. 4to. It was compared with the original SAXIFRA'Gous, adj. S sarum and frango. A MS. in the king's library. It is accompanied plant: dissolvent of the stone. See below. with many designs exactly engraved, and a Life Sarifrage, quasi saxum frangere. to break the of the Author. M. d'Espagnac published the stone, is applicable to any thing having this property; count's life, in 2 vols. 12mo.

but it is a term most commonly given to a plant, SAXIFRAGA, saxifrage, in botany, a genus from an opinion of its medicinal virtues to this effect. of the digynia order and decandria class of

Quincy, plants; natural order thirteenth, succulentæ : Because goat's blood was found an excellent meCAL. quinquepartite: cor. pentapetalous : CAPS. dicine for the stone, it might be conceived to be able birostrated, unilocular, and polyspermous. There to break a diamond ; and so it came to be ordered are thirty-eight species ; of which the most re- that the goats should be fed on saxifragous herbs, markable are these :

and such as are conceived of power to break the

Browne's Vulgar Errours. 1. S. granulata, or white saxifrage, which stone. grows naturally in the meadows in many parts of SAXO GRAMMATICUS, descended from an ilEngland. The roots of this plant are like grains lustrious Danish family, was born about the of corn, of a reddish color without; from which middle of the twelfth century. Stephen, in his arise kidney-shaped hairy leaves, standing upon edition of Saxo Grammaticus, printed at Soroë, pretty long foot-stalks. The stalks are thick, a asserts that he must have been alive in 1156, but foot high, hairy, and furrowed; these branch out cannot ascertain the exact place and time of his from the bottom, and have a few small leaves birth. On account of his learning, Saxo was like those below, which sit close to the stalk: distinguished by the name of Grammaticus. the flowers terminate the stalk, growing in small He was provost of the .cathedral church of clusters; they have five white petals, enclosing Roskild, and warmly patronised by the learned ten stamina and the two styles. There is a va- and warlike Absolon, the celebrated archbishop riety of this with double flowers, which is very of Lunden, at whose instigation he wrote the ornamental.

History of Denmark. His epitaph, a dry pane2. S. oppositifolia grows naturally on the gyric in bad Latin verses, gives no account of the Alps, Pyrenees, and Helvetian mountains : it is era of his death, which happened, according to also found pretty plentifully growing upon Ingle- Stephens, in 1204. His history, consisting of borough Hill in Yorkshire, Snowdon in Wales, sixteen books, begins from the earliest accounts of and some other places. It is a perennial plant, the Danish annals, and concludes with the year with stalks trailing upon the ground, and are sel- 1186. The first part, which relates to the origin dom more than two inches long, garnished with of the Danes, and their ancient kings, is full of small oval leaves standing opposite, which lie fables; but the last eight books, and particularly over one another like the scales of a fish : they those which regard the events of his own times, are of a brown-green color, and have a resem- deserve the utmost credit. He wrote in Latin : blance of heath. The flowers are produced at the style, if we consider the barbarous age in the end of the branches, of a deep blue; and thus which he flourished, is, in general, elegant. make a pretty appearance during their continu- Mallet, in his Histoire de Dannemarc, vol. i. p. ance, which is great part of March and the be- 182, says that Sperling, a writer of great erudiginning of April.

tion, has proved, in contradiction to the asser3. S. punctata, London pride, grows naturally tions of Stephens and others, that Saxo Gramon the Alps, and also in great plenty on a moun- maticus was secretary to Absolon; and that the tain of Ireland called Maugerton in the county Saxo, provost of Roskild, was another person, of Kerry. The roots of this are perennial; the and lived earlier. leaves are oblong, oval, and placed circularly at SAXONS, the natives of Saxony, ancient and bottom. They have broad, flat, furrowed foot- modern. The ancient Saxons were a brave but stalks, and are deeply crenated at their edges, fierce people. The Britons, or inhabitants of which are white. The stalk rises a foot high, is South Britain, being deserted by the Romans, of a purple color, stiff, slender, and hairy. It about the middle of the fifth century, and sends out from the side on the upper part several threatened with utter extirpation by the Scots short foot-stalks, which are terminated by white and Picts, invited the Saxons over from Germany flowers spotted with red.

to assist and defend them; in consequence of 4. S. pyramidata, mountain heath, with a py- which a numerous body of them came over ramidal stalk, grows naturally on the mountains under Hengist and Horsa, A. D. 449 or 450 ; of Italy. The leaves are tongue-shaped, gathered and, repeated emigrations of fresh adventurers into heads, rounded at their points, and have car- successively arriving afterwards, they soon contilaginous and sawed borders. The stalk rises quered and divided all South Britain, since two feet and a half high, branching out near the called England, into seven kingdoms, commonly ground, forming a natural pyramid to the top. denominated the Saxon heptarchy. See ENGThe flowers have five white wedge-shaped LAND. With regard to the history of the Saxons, petals, and ten stamina, placed circularly the previous to the fourth century, we have very few length of the tube, terminated by roundish particulars. The Saxons,' says Mr. Whitaker, purple summits. When these plants are strong, have been derived by our historians from very different parts of the globe; India, the north of equally surprising, and has been equally unnoticed Asia, and the forests of Germany. And their by the critics, the Welsh distinguish England by appellation has been equally referred to very dif- the name of Loegr or Liguria, even to the present ferent causes; the name of their Indian progeni- moment. In that irruption, these Saxons, Amtor, the plundering disposition of their Asiatic brones, or Ligurians, composed a body of more fathers, and the short hooked weapons of their than 30,000 men, and were principally concerned warriors. But the real origin of the Saxons, and in cutting to pieces the large armies of Manlius the genuine derivation of their name, seem clearly and Cæpio. Nor is the appellation of Saxons to be these :- In the earlier period of the Gallic less Celtic than the other. It was originally the history, the Celtæ of Gaul crossed the Rhine in same with the Belgic Suessones of Gaul; the considerable numbers, and planted various colo- capital of that tribe being now entitled Soissons nies in the regions beyond it. Thus the Volcæ by the French, and the name of the Saxons proTectosages settled on one side of the Hercynian nounced Saisen by the Welsh, Sason by the Scots. forest and about the banks of the Neckar; the and Saisenach or Saxsenath by the Irish. And the Helvelii upon another, and about the Rhine Suessones or Saxones of Gaul derived their own and Maine; the Boii beyond both; and the Se- appellation from the position of their metropolis nones in the heart of Germany. Thus also we on a river, the stream at Soissons being now desee the Treviri, the Nervii, the Suevi, and the nominated the Aisne, and formerly the Axon: Marcomanni, the Quadi, the Venedi, and others Uess-on, or Axon, importing only waters, or a in that country ; all plainly betrayed to be Gallic river, and S-uess-on or S-ax-on the waters of the nations by the Gallic appellations which they river. The Suessones, therefore, are actually debear, and all together possessing the greatest part nominated the Uessones by Ptolemy; and the of it. And, even as late as the conclusion of the Saxones are actually entitled the Axunes by first century, we find one nation on the eastern Lucan. These, with their brethren and allies the side of this great continent actually speaking the Cimbri, having been more formidable enemies language of Gaul, and another upon the northern to the Romans by land than the Samnites, Carusing a dialect nearly related to the British. thaginians, Spaniards, Gauls, or Parthians, in the But as all the various tribes of the Germans are second century applied themselves to navigation. considered by Strabo to be yevndi. Talatai, or and became nearly as terrible by sea. They soon genuine Gauls in their origin; so those particu- made themselves known to the inhabitants of the larly, who lived immediately beyond the Rhine, British isles by their piracies in the northern and are asserted by Tacitus to be indubitably channels, and were denominated by them Lochnative Germans, are expressly denominated Tala- lyn or Lochlynach; lucd-lyn signifying the tai, or Gauls, by Diodorus, and as expressly de- people of the wave, and the D being quiescent clared by Dio to have been distinguished by the in the pronunciation. They took possession of equivalent appellation of Celtæ from the earliest the Orkney Islands, which were then merely large period. And the broad line of nations, which shoals of land, uncovered with woods, and overextended along the ocean, and reached to the grown with rushes; and they landed in the north borders of Scythia, was all known to the learned of Ireland, and ravaged the country. Before in the days of Diodorus by the same significant the middle of the third century they made a appellation of ralatai, or Gauls. Of these, the second descent upon the latter, disembarked a most noted were the Si-Cambri and Cimbri; considerable body of men, and designed the the former being seated near the channel of the absolute subjection of the island. Before the Rhine, and the latter inhabiting the peninsula of conclusion of it, they carried their paval operaJutland. The denominations of both declare their tions to the south, infested the British Channel original, and show them to have been derived with their little vessels, and made frequent des from the common stock of the Celtæ, and to be scents upon the coasts. And in the fourth and of the same Celtic kindred with the Cimbri of our fifth centuries, acting in conjunction with the own Somersetshire, and the Cymbri or Cambrians Picts of Caledonia and the Scots of Ireland, they of our own Wales. The Cimbri are accordingly ravaged all the east and south-east shores of Bri denominated Celtæ by Strabo and Appian: and tain, began the formal conquest of the country, they are equally asserted to be Gauls by Diodo- and finally settled their victorious soldiery in rus; to be the descendants of that nation which Lancashire. sacked the city of Rome, plundered the temple The division of Germany into circles took of Delphi, and subdued a great part of Europe place towards the close of the fifteenth century, and some of Asia. Immediately to the south of when the large tract of country known vaguely these were the Saxons, extending from the isthmns by the name of Saxony, was formed into three of the Chersonesus to the current of the Elbe; circles, Westphalia, Upper Saxony, and Lower and they were equally Celtic in their origin as Saxony. Upper might with more propriety have their neighbours. They were denominated Am- been styled Eastern Saxony, being bounded by brones, as well as Saxons; and, as such, are in- Poland, Silesia, and Lusatia on the east, and by cluded by Tacitus under the general appellation Bohemia and Franconia on the south. Its exof Cimbri, and comprebended by Plutarch under tent was about 43,000 square miles; its populathe equal one of Celto-Scythæ. The name of Am- tion about 4,000,000. It comprised the electobrones appears particularly to have been Gallic; rates of Saxony and Brandenburg, the duchy of being common to the Saxons beyond the Elbe, Pomerania, and a number of small principalities. and the Ligurians in Cisalpine Gaul; as both The name of Upper is to be understood as imfound, to their surprise, on the irruption of the plying a surface of such comparative elevation former into Italy with the Cimbri. And, what is as, to cause several rivers (the Elbe, Spree, and

Square Population.

o;heis) to flow to the westward towards Lower metallic ores. The rocks, called in this country Saxony. That country, which might have been weiss-stein (white-rock), contain a variety of termed Western Saxony, had Westphalia and the heterogeneous substances, such as feldtspar, mica, Rhine to the west, and Sleswick with the Baltic garnet, and cyanite. Basalt is found in various to the north. Its area contained 26,000 square parts, towering above the others in lofty polygomiles, and comprised the electorate of Hanover, nal columns. The topaz occurs frequently, and the duchies of Mecklenburg, Brunswick, and there are found also chrysolites, amethysts, chalHolstein, the free towns of Hamburgh, Bremen, cedonies, cornelians, agates, jasper, garnets, and Lubeck, with a number of small states. In 1806 tourmalins; serpentine, asbest, amianthus, bathe distinction of circles was finally abolished, rytes, and fluates of lime. The porcelain clay and the names of Upper and Lower Saxony are in the neighbourhood of Meissen is well known; now of use only in history.

here are also fullers'-earth, terra-sigillata, and SAXONY, a modern kingdom of Europe, is other argillaceous minerals. There are also a situated towards the north-east of Germany, and few silver mines. The lofty primitive mountains bounded on the south by Bohemia, and on the abound in iron; the secondary in copper and north by the Prussian states. Previous to 1814 lead. Next to these are arsenic, cobalt, antiit contained 2,000,000 of inhabitants (exclusive mony, manganese, zinc, sulphur, alum, vitriol, of the part of Poland subject to this crown); but and borax. it was reduced by the congress of Vienna. At The manufactures and trade are of great expresent its divisions, extent and population, are, tent, and are somewhat similar to those of Eng

land. The weaving of linen is an employment of old date, and is carried on in almost every

village of the kingdom, but more particularly in miles.

Upper Lusatia, at Zittau, Bautzen, and Herrnhut.

Woollens are likewise manufactured extensively, Circle of Meissen

1600 300,000 and cotton spinning and weaving on a good Leipsic

1460 207,000 scale. The machinery used in Saxony, though Erzgebirge 2175 460,000 inferior to the English, has of late years been Vogtland

700 90,000 much improved ; labor also is cheap. There | Part of Merseburg 73 10,000 are silk manufactures on a small scale at Leipsic Upper Lusatia

170,000 and other towns. Tanneries are more general,

and paper manufactories are not inconsiderable, Total 7188 1,237,000 Every town of consequence has its breweries

and distilleries. The manufactures connected

with the mines are of course of considerable exThe length of Saxony is 140 miles, its greatest tent. At Dresden there are foundries of candon breadth about seventy-five.

and balls. Cobalt is made into smalts and blue No part of Europe in the same latitude enjoys dye in several towns in the mining district; other a milder climate. Towards the north-east of the places are noted for the manufacture of verdifrontier line, and in a quarter where the lofty gris and green dye. range of the Erzgebirge is succeeded by a lower, The exports from Saxony consist in wool and called the Wohlische Kamm, the Elbe issues minerals ; linen, yarn, woollens, and lace. The from Bohemia. The other considerable rivers imports are silk, fax, cotton, coffee, sugar, wine, are the two Elsters, the two Muldas, and the and in certain seasons corn. The most trading Queiss, all rising in the south of Saxony, and place is Leipsic, which is remarkable both for flowing northward, but not navigable here. The its half-yearly fairs, and for being the centre of Elbe, on the other hand, is navigable, and, by the book trade. its course through the centre of the country, Saxony reckons among its inhabitants a great affords a noble conveyance for merchandise. The majority of Lutherans, but the reigning family mountainous districts in the south contain exten- have been Catholics since 1697. The institutions sive forests, which are kept up with care as the for education in this country are numerous and supply of fuel for the mines." Coal and turf are well conducted, it being a common remark that used for domestic fuel. In the southern and in no country, except Scotland and the Pays de mountainous parts the valleys only are well cul- Vaud, are the lower classes so generally taught tivated; but in the level districts, particularly the to read and write. In no country of equal excircles of Meissen and Leipsic, the products are tent is the number of printing and book estabwheat, barley, oats, and other grain, tobacco and lishments so great. Halle now belongs to Prussia, hops. Vines are found in a few situations. but Leipsic remains to Saxony, and maintains

The number of sheep is large, and great care its reputation. The German character predomihas been bestowed on the Merino rams, first im- nates among this people, as is evinced, among ported about the year 1768; the Saxon wool, other things, by the minuteness with which they indeed, has been rendered, by good management, too often treat an insignificant subject; also in the best in Germany. Hogs are also numerous. the more creditable points of the general modesty

Few countries equal Saxony in mineral riches of their females. The rocks of the Erzgebirge furnished Werner The revenue of Saxony, after defraying all with the facts on which he founded a system of local expenses, probably exceeds £1,000,000 geology. The basis of the Erzgebirge is granite, sterling, and Saxony has long been burdened covered by gneiss, mica, and clay slate in suc- with a national debt. The army, which in this cession. Between these are strata, containing country was never large in proportion to its po

pulation, is on a peace establishment of 12,000 distinct military division; the chief town is men, the best disciplined part of whom are Madgeburg. cavalry and artillery.

This province is in general level, the only After being, during many centuries, an electo- hills being part of the Hartz, in the south-west rate, Saxony was formed in 1806 into a kingdom, corner, and a detached part of the Thuringian in consequence of the occupancy of Prussia by forest. The rest is varied only by insignificant Buonaparte. This change of title was not accomo elevations. The soil, however, varies, being in panied by an extension of prerogative, the sove- some places dry and sandy, and in others a reign continuing to share the legislative functions heavy loam. No part of the Prussian states with the states. The states are divided into two possesses a more fertile land and good husbanhouses, viz. the prelates and nobles in one, and dry. There are some large forests, but in the in the other the country gentry and deputies of far greater part wood is scarce. The objects of the towns. The higher offices of administration cultivation are corn, hemp, flax, and chicory for are entrusted to a cabinet council, a board of making coffee. Pit coal and metals are found in finance, a military board, a high court of appeal the mountains of the Hartz; porcelain clay in for judicial questions, and an upper consistory the level ground in the south; but the product for ecclesiastical. Each circle has a court of hitherto most profitable is salt obtained from justice, and offices for the transaction of provin- brine springs by evaporation. The richest of cial business. The peasantry are here in the these springs is in the government of Merseburg, enjoyment of complete personal freedom. where it is often difficult to find pure water for

The king, as a member of the Germanic con- drinking. The inhabitants are alixost all Protesfederation, has the fourth rank in the smaller, tants, except in the little district called the and four votes in the larger assembly.

Eichsfeld. Having enjoyed the benefits of an Saxony remained neutral in the war of 1740 enlightened government, both under Prussia and between Prussia and Austria. In that of 1756 Saxony, they are in general active and industrishe was tempted to take part by Austria ; but, in- ous. The commerce is insignificant. stead of an accession of territory, she saw her do- SAY, v. a., v. n. & n. s.) Sax. rectan; Bely. minions ravaged and many of her subjects ruined.

SAY'ING, n. s.

seggan; Teut. sagen. The peace of 1763 left her country loaded with To speak ; utter in words; allege; repeat : to an enormous debt. In the war of 1793 the con

pronounce; utter; relate: as a noun-substantire, tingent furnished by Saxony against Frances

Saxony against France a speech, and (abridged from Assay) a sample ; was not large, and no decided part was taken in trin the war, until 1806, when the elector sent all

trial : saying is an expression; a word; a proverb. his troops to the support of the king of Prussia.

And hise britheren seiden to him, passe fro hennis, The overthrow of that power enabled Buona

and go into Judee, that also thi disciplis seen thi parte to attach the Saxons to his cause. The

werkis that thou doist. title of elector was changed to that of king.

Speak unto Solomon ; for he will not say thee nay. Prussian Poland was added to the Saxon domi

1 Kings nions, and in 1809 was nearly doubled by ces

He said moreover, I have somewhat to say at sions from Austria. But these acquisitions led

Ten thee; and she said, Say on. to disastrous results. The Russians re-occupied Say nothing to any man, but go thy way. Mark. Poland in the beginning of 1813, and, joined by Moses fled at this saying, and was a stranger in the Prussians, made Saxony the scene of the Midian. great struggle against Buonaparte. Many of the Then shall be said or sung as follows. people, however, hattered themselves that their

Common Praget. attachment to the cause of Germany, evinced by

So good a say invites the eye, the defection of their troops from the French

A little downward to espy

The lively clusters of her breast. Sidney. army on the 18th October, would secure the in

Say it out, Diggon, whatever it hight. Spenkt tegrity of the territory. The interval between the

With flying speed, and seeming great pretence, battle of Leipsic and the decision of the congress of Vienna (nearly eighteen mouths) was balanced

Came messenger with letters which his message

Faerie Queen between hope and fear, and cruel was the disap- Some obscure precedence that hath tofore her pointment of the Saxons, on finding that the sain.

Shakspant. northern and eastern part, containing no less Since thy outside looks so fair and warlike, than 850,000 inhabitants, was to be transferred And that thy tongue some say of breeding breathes, to Prussia. The king protested against this dis- By rule of knighthood I disdain.

k. memberment; but, dreading bloodshed, he

I thank thee, Brutus, thought proper to acquiesce.

That thou hast proved Lucilius's saying true. . SAXONY, a province of the Prussian states, The council-table and star-chamber hold, as Thesituated to the west of Brandenburgh, and north cydides said of the Athenians, for honourable Wies of the kingdom of Saxony. It comprises almost which pleased, and for just that which profited.

Claresder. the whole of the cessions made by the latter

Many are the sayings of the wise, power at the congress of Vienna, the principali

Extolling patience as the truest fortitude. Mitter. ties to the north of the duchy of Anhalt, and to

Say first what cause the west of the rivers Elbe and Havel ; so that Moved our grand parents to fall off? the whole now forms an area of 9830 square King John succeeded his said brother in the big miles, with more than 1,000,000 of inhabi- dom of England and duchy of Normandy. Hata tants. It is divided into the governments of This gentleman having brought that earth to the Magdeburg, Merseburg, and Erfurt, and forms a publick 'say masters, and upon their being seable to

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