« PreviousContinue »
up to the Revolution, were a nation of dancing- which it stands. He removed the obelisk which masters, were the least graceful people of Europe; stood near the mausoleum of Augustus, to the and the Apollo of Belvidere could never have front of the palace; and, not being able to disbeen imagined in the court of a Louis XV. place the Coliseum, he carried off all that was
This gallery so rich and beautiful, through the moveable from the forum, and transported that munificence of the late and present pope, was gigantic vase of oriental granite to the Monte but of bare walls' when Evelyn visited it in Cavallo, which now receives the waters of its 1643; and he observes that, as he passed beautiful fountain. The state apartments of the through it on his way to the vatican library, it Quirinal are sufficiently noble; they were inhawas full of poor people, to the number of 1500 bited by the emperor of Austria and his family or 2000, to each of whom, in his passage to St. on his visit to Rome; and in their gaudy dress Peter's, the pope gave a mezzo-grosso' (half a when we saw them, bore testimony to the farthing). This is a curious episode in the his- still unpaid-for honors offered to the imperial tory of the palace of the Vatican-of that palace guests. The gardens of the Quirinal are spaciwhose uses and magnificence furnished Milton ous and delightful, but encumbered with stones with his splendid imagery alike of hell and hea- and marbles, as usual, disputing the soil with ven-his palace of Pandemonium, and that nature and vegetation. But all that is bright • Where sceptred angels held their residence.
and fair in the Quirinal is brightest and fairest
in that chapel in which the pope himself pontiThe library of the vatican, described as it me- ficates on Sundays and other holydays. When rits, would fill the pages of an ample volume. lighted by the mid-day beams, it looks like the The locale is a palace in itself; and its galleries temple of the sun, which once occupied its site. and various chambers might be visited as a “Here,' says lady Morgan, pictured saints apsplendid museum, had they no other attraction. pear as demi-gods; and the high altar exhibits a One of the most striking circumstances in the cross, brilliant and beautiful as that which lies greatest library of Europe is, that not a book is on a lady's bosom. Here sounds that enchant, to be seen, although of MSS. alone there are and odors that intoxicate, fill the air; and myssaid to be 30,000 volumes. The cases in which teries are consummated with forms so beautiful, the collection is preserved give no indication of and amidst obiects so alluring, that the rigid their contents; and the whole edifice, all campo or the ignorant might doubt whether he witd'ore and ultra-marine, looks rather like some nesses Christian ceremonies or heathen rites, Gothic hall of grotesque festivity than the re- and whether this is the temple of Apollo or the treat of learning. The principal gallery, 317 chapel of the pope.' The chapel of the Quirinal palmi in length, is divided into naves, separated is on Sundays filled to suffocation. The tribunes by pillars; and the walls are painted with re- on either side are occupied by the elegantes of presentations of the most celebrated ancient li- London and Paris, Petersburgh and Vienna, braries, of general councils, and of the inventors Cracow or New York. In the central nave the of the characters of various languages. Low throng is composed of abbots, priors, and dignicabinets, richly and fantastically painted, sur- taries in grand costun
taries in grand costume—the mamelukes of the round this superb saloon, and contain the most church! Roman generals, all armed for the precious of the MSS.; and tables of Egyptian military service of the altar, the only service: granite, marble sarcophagi, and other fragments they have ever seen : monks. guards, friars. of antiquity, are scattered over its centre. Two Swiss soldiers, and officers of state! Outside a vast corridors to the right and left, divided into cordon
ided into cordon, drawn round the choir, are placed the various apartments, open out of this main gallery. foreign gentlemen. The choir, the scene of Here are modern book cases filled with choice action, ali brilliant and beautiful, is still a void. works; and objects of art, of great value and when the
e and When the signal is given, the crowd divides ! antiquity, are profusely scattered. In one of and the ne
one of and the procession begins! Mutes and others these is a picture of the design of the Façade of form the avant-garde of the pageant, and lead the St. Peter's by Michael Angelo, far superior to that which has been adopted. From the hall of i Then comes personified infallibility ! feeble as the papyrus, painted by Mengs, opens another womanhood! helpless as infancy!withered by time spacious gallery, ornamented with gold and
and bent by infirmity; but borne aloft, like some mirrors, and containing the most precious books idol of Pagan worship, on the necks of men, above in the collection ; and cabinets devoted to me- all human contact. The conclave follows, each of dals, engravings, inscriptions, succeed, and termi- its princes robed like an eastern sultan! Habits nate this wing. On the other side a suite of beau- of silk and brocade, glittering with gold and siltiful rooms, with columns of porphyry, are filled ver, succeeded by robes of velvet, and vestments with book cases, decorated with Etruscan vases; of point lace, the envy of reigning empresses.* and the wall is decorated with a series of paintings illustrating the trials of the late and present
* We must find room for the note of our spirited popes, during the Revolution :-the crowning
guide. The details of the cardinal's toilette, which, and restoration of Pius VII., closes these fasti of
at my own very womanish desire, were exhibited to papal sensibility and endurance.
me, are minute, splendid, and numerous, beyond The Quirinal is a stupendous fabric, only less
description ; for every ceremony has its dress. On vast than the Vatican, and crowns the Quirinal
some days the cardinals dress and undress as often hill, which commands a noble view of the city. as the three Mr. Singletons in the farce. The etole, Pope Pius VI. did much to adorn both the or scarf, is now a sash superbly tissued : it is a sympalace and the Piazza del Monte Cavallo on bol of the lost innocence of man-not of the cardi The toilette of these church exquisites is perfect; crowd, and the cardinals chat with pretty not a hair displaced, not a point neglected, women, sport their red stockings, and ask their from the powdered toupee to the diamond shoe- opinions of the pope's pontification, as a marbuckle. The pope is at last deposited on his veilleux of the opera at Paris takes snuff, and golden throne : his ecclesiastical attendants fold demands of his chere-belle, Comment trouvez round him his ample caftan, white and brilliant vous ça, comtesse ?' as the nuptial dress of bridal queens! they The palace of the Lateran, though now unarrange his dazzling mitre: they blow his nose; inhabited, is vast and imposing; and, though they wipe his month, and exhibit the represen- little of the original building remains, it is suftation of Divinity in all the disgusting helpless- ficiently antiquated to recal its ancient destinaness of driveling caducity. His holiness being tion as the scene of much of the licentious disthus cradled on a throne to which emperors sipation and fierce feuds of popes and anti-popes once knelt, the conservators of Rome, the ca- in the dark ages. It commands a sublime view ryatides of the church, place themselves meekly of the waste its lords have made ;-of the Camat its steps; and the manikin, who represents pagna, stretching to the base of the blue Albathe Roman senate, takes his humble station nian hills; its desert, here and there spotted with near that imperial seat, more gorgeous than any ancient ruins of the tombs of heroes, or imperial the Cæsars ever mounted. Meantime the demi- aqueducts, with the walls of villas, and wrecks gods of the conclave repose their eminences in of monuments which skirted the road from the their stalls on velvet cushions, and their cau- gales of the Lateran to the suburbs of Naples. datorj (or tail-bearers) place themselves at their The church, or basilica, of San Giovanni Latefeet. In the centre stand, or sit, on the steps rano, is the principal, and one of the oldest, as of the high altar, the bishops with their superb we have seen, in Rome. mitres and tissued vestments. Then the choir In the baptistery (Battisterio Lateranense) raises the high hosannahs, the pope pontificates; adjoining the church, built by Constantine, he and the temple of Jupiter never witnessed rites is said to bave been baptised by St. Sylvester. so imposing or so splendid. Golden censers It was ravaged by frequent invaders, and long fling their odors on the air! harmony the most remained in the lower ages in a state of absolute perfect, and movements the most gracious, ruin and spoliation; until, attracting the notice delight the ear and eye! 'At the elevation of of successive pontiffs, and particularly that of the host, a silence more impressive than even Gregory XIII. and Urban VIII., it took that this solemn concord of sweet sounds' succeeds; character of richness which now distinguishes it. all fall prostrate to the earth; and the military, The baptismal font is an ancient urn of basalt, falling lower than all, lay their arms of destruc- ornamented with gold and bronze. From its tion at the feet of that mystery, operated in bosom the waters of life are still dispensed to memory of the salvation of mankind.' When the Jews, who annually seek regeneration at so the ceremony is concluded, the procession re- much per head. This edifice (its great antiturns as it entered. The congregation rush after; quity, its superb columns of porphyry, and fine and the next moment the ante-room of this reli- cornices, all plunder from the ancient monugious temple resembles the saloon of the opera. ments of Rome, excepted) has but little to The abbots and priors mingle among the lay excite admiration. Two of its pictures, how
ever, afford a curious historical evidence, worth nal's. The piviale is a mantle, like the ancient noticing. One represents the council of Nice Irish cloak : it is of massive gold tissue, insupporta- burning books written against the bishops. The bly heavy. This represents the pastoral robe of the other the breaking of the statues in the Roman patriarchs (for all in the church, Catholic or Protes- temples (probably the rivals of the Apollo and tant, is borrowed from the Jews-Christ having left the Antinous): a bishop, with the air of a connothing to copy but virtue and self-denial). This jurer, stands by, tossing his golden censer, and piviale was originally pluviale, and worn (as its purifying the spot defiled by the works of Praxiname imports) to keep out the weather, before gold teles and Phidias This was before a bull was brocades were invented. The Soutane is a truly fulming
y fulminated to prevent (but too late) the converteastern habit : it is of violet velvet or silk, and its long and flowing train is held up by the caudatori. 1:
ing of marble statues into lime, to build dwelThis was surely not the cloak' which St. Paul left ling houses. behind him · at Troas.' Next comes the golden pi
. Opposite to the great entrance of the palace
Opposite to the great entranc anelli, and the manipolo, of embroidered satin, stands the venerable chapel of the Scala Santa which hangs on the arm, like a fine lady's reticule, (holy steps), once a part of the ancient building. and is the scrip of the patriarchal herdsman, in which This chapel is the shrine of daily pilgrimage to he carried his bread and cheese. Then comes the the peasantry, many of whom were ascending camicia, a dress of the richest point lace. I saw its holy steps on their knees, on the several days three of these dresses belonging to one cardinal, that we passed by it. The veneration paid to said to be worth £2000; and I know it for a fact, this flight of stairs arises from the five centre that more than one petty reigning sovereign has en- steps, said to be part of the staircase of Pontius deavoured to wheedle his eminence out of a camicia
Pilate's house, which were sanctified by the
Pil worn upon state days. The mitres are of gold and silver. upon white or red grounds, according to the
blood of Christ. None can ascend it but on cardinal's various ranks. In private society their their knees; and lateral steps are provided for dress is a suit of black, edged with scarlet ; scarlet those whose piety may not lead them to genustockings, and a little patch of red, called the calotte, flexion. on the crown of their heads, with their cardinal hat There are family mansions, here termed paunder the arm.'
laces, in great numbers; but the far greater part are less remarkable for their architecture, than to the present cardinal Albani, is, according to for their size and decorations : their spacious lady Morgan, the most perfect and freshest of all courts and porticos, their halls and lofty apart- Roman villas. It looks like some pure and ments, with the pillars, the marble, the statues, elegant Grecian temple-a little Pantheon ! deand the paintings, that place them oa a level dicated to all the rural gods, with whose statues with royal residences in the north of Europe. (the most perfect specimens of antiquities) its The Palazzo Doria is one of the finest, presenting marble colonnades and galleries are filled. It three large fronts, enclosing a spacious court. might be deemed too ideal for a human habitaIts stair-case, supported by light pillars of orien- tion ; yet is sufficiently commodious to be one; tal granite, leads to a magnificent picture gallery. and, of all other villas, this alone realizes the The Palazzo Ruspoli has a still finer staircase, preconceived image of fervid fancies of a true consisting of four flights, of thirty steps each, Italian villa. Its walls are encrusted with bassoeach step being composed of a single piece of relievoes-its corridors grouped with fauns and marble, nearly ten feet long and two broad. nymphs-its ceilings all azure and gold-its saThe Corsini Palace is also remarkable for its loons perfumed by breezes, loaded with the size, its furniture, and its gardens. The Palazzo odors of orange-flowers. Its gardens, studded Farnese occupies one side of a handsome square. with temples, command a view, terminated by a Twelve massive pillars of Egyptian granite sup- waving line of acclivities, whose very names are port the vestibule; three ranges of arcades rise poetry. When I visited it, a distant blue mist one above the other around a spacious court; veiled the intervening wastes of the Campagna, and noble apartments follow. The Palazzo and the dews and lights of morning lent their Costaguti and Palazzo Mattei are chiefly rich ių freshness and lustre to a scene and fabric such paintings. The Borghese palace is remarkable as Love might have chosen for his Psyche for its porticoes, its columns, and its antiques. when he bore her from the wrath of Venus. In the Palazzo Spada stands the celebrated sta- But, when the first glimpse of this vision faded, tue of Pompey, at the foot of which Cæsar is the true character of the Roman villa came forth; supposed to have fallen. The Barberini palace for artichokes and cabbages were flourishing has been much improved by the present prince, amidst fauns and satyrs, that seemed chiselled but serves chiefly to remind the reflecting Pro- by a Praxiteles ! The eminentissimo padrone of testant of the wretched policy by which the this splendid villa rarely visits its wonders but illegitimate children and nephews of the popes in the course of a inorning drive: and his garhave been formerly enriched. Here once reigned dens are hired out to a Roman marketman, to the famous beauty and bumorist, Cecca Buffona, raise vegetables during the spring and winter. the mistress of cardinal Francisco Barberini, In summer even the custode vacates his hovel, whose impudicity caused her to be publicly and the Villa Albani is left in the undisputed whipped in the streets of Rome.
possession of that terrible scourge of Roman - Rome, like most other Catholic cities, is well policy and Roman crimes—the Mal-aria; the supplied with inferior and antiquated hospitals. causes and effects all morally connected, and The largest, the Spedale di St. Spirito, is open in- the strictest poetical justice every where visible.' discriminately to the poor of both sexes, the in- Rome contains, beside its celebrated Propasane, and to foundlings. That of St. Michele ganda Fide, several literary associations, as the is appropriated to the education of the children Arcadian academy, the archæological, the acadeof the poor, but it receives likewise the sick and mia Tiberiana, the academy of the fine arts. A the aged. Here is also a house of correction, monthly publication, partaking of the nature of
The most splendid villas of Rome, as that of a review and magazine, appears under the title the Borghese, Farnesina, &c., are situated within of Giornale Arcadico de Scienze, letere, ed arti; the walls. The first was built by cardinal Scipio and, since 1819, there has been published weekly Borghese, the nephew of Paul V.; and, with its a Giornale encyclopedico, containing chiefly gardens and lake, occupies a space of nearly three translations on scientific subjects, along with miles in circumference. The interior is filled some pieces of poetry. Of the libraries of Rome, with antique and modern sculpture, pictures, the largest, after the Vatican, are the Augustines', and mosaics without, its grounds are covered the Dominicans', and those of the Barberini, with casinos, temples, citadels, aviaries, and all Chigi, Colonna, and Corsini families; that of that a gorgeous and false taste, with wealth be- Collegio Romano has a museum of antiquities yond calculation, could crowd together: Mont- and cabinet of natural history. The university faucon says there is nothing better worth seeing library is called, from its founder, pope Alexin Rome.
ander VII., the Alexandrine library; and the The villa Pamfili-Doria, one of the finest in library del Emo contains a collection of medals the neighbourhood of Rome, was erected in the and mathematical instruments, together with a seventeenth century, by the nephew of the Pamfili museum. pope Innocent X., whose extravagant passion In 1817 the inhabitants of Rome amounted for his sister-in-law, Donna Olimpia Maldachini, to 130,000, a number which seems to have is one of the most notable traits in his life. The formed, with little variation, its population for grounds, woods, and gardens are truly delicious: about a century. Of these, no fewer than 9000 the palace itself has all the generic features of are said to be Jews, who are restricted to a parsuch edifices, and is filled with pictures and ticular quarter, the gates of which are closed statues, dreary and neglected.
every night. This place is very dirty, but a The Villa Albani, raised in the middle of the similar charge may be made against all modern last century by the late cardinal, and belonging Rome. The number of inhabitants connected
with the church, as priests, monks, or nuns, is Cæsars for their few accommodations : and the computed at another 8000. The manufacturing conduits for water, miraculously constructed establishments, though small, are in considerable during the darkest ignorance on the subject of variety, viz. woollens, silks, velvets, hats, gloves, hydraulics, were at the end of twenty centuries, stockings, liquors, pommade, and artificial flowers. and are still, the principal means of purification Rome has a bank, and Monte di Pieta, or house afforded for cleansing a city, which seems to for advancing money on deposited goods. Its have benefited but little by the advantages lent foreign trade is limited to imports of colonial ar- it by antiquity. The Cloaca Maximæ obtrude ticles, and a few manufactured goods: its exports their neglected openings in vain; and streets consist of the produce of the adjacent country, lined with palaces, and palaces walled with marviz, olive oil, alum, vitriol, puzzuolano sand, bles, have even now few sewers to carry off their anise, &c.
accumulated filth. No part of the world has been more agitated Before Italy was conquered, Rome entered by the French revolution and its consequences— into the revolutionary projects of France. Hugo none perhaps so much improved -as modern de Basseville, a man of letters and talent, was Rome. Its nobles were, at the latter end of the chosen by the national convention to sound the sixteenth century, a race of banditti : laying disposition of those who were no longer the powaste their native city, and carrying desolation pulation worked on by the eloquence of the and ruin into the bosom of domestic life. The monk Arnoldo, or the tribune Rienzi. Pius VI., people, always insurgents or slaves, were the who had refused to acknowledge the French most demoralised of Italy; and though the dark republic, watched with jealous vigilance the and cruel despotism of the clever Sixtus V., motions of this emissary; and de Basseville whose love of blood induced him to envy Eliza- affected to be occupied with the interests of the beth the cutting off of Mary's head, stemmed for French academy at Rome. At length an imprua time the torrent of iniquities, and broke for dence on the part of de Basseville called forth ever the spirit of the Roman barons, yet at his the public opinion. After a dinner, given by death the people were but the more debased by him to the young men of the French academy, the loss of their ferocity. During succeeding de Basseville drove with his wife and son to the periods, on the testimony of all travellers, the Corso, permitting his footmen to mount the tricivil and religious state of Rome was an anomaly colored cockade. This was the signal of tumult. in human society. The court of the Quirinal, The street was accidentally or designedly filled like that of France under Louis XIII. and XIV., with the common people and Trasteverini! A was directed by the intrigues of priests and dreadful riot arose : de Basseville in vain sought courtiers : the cardinals governed by cabal, and to save himself by taking shelter at his banker's; all places were disposed of through their mis. he was pursued by the mob, and murdered. The tresses and their laquais. The princes or pa- first slab was given by a soldier of the pontifical tricians, rich, idle, ignorant, and avaricious, were guard. The French academy was next attacked surrounded by dependents and parasites, the in- and pillaged; the houses of foreigners were digent followers of rank and opulence : the peo- plundered; and, during the tumult, the virgin, ple, without domestic habits, lived like the whose name was the mot d'ordre, was seen in commoners of nature, satisfied if bread and several of the churches to open her eyes (lest the church ceremonies sustained life and amused it. people should open theirs), and to give testimony The parasite came after the prince, and the beg- of the part she took in this crusade to her honor. gar after the saint. The women of all ranks, But if, in 1793, an emissary of the convention divided into vestals and concubines, were either was assassinated in Rome, in 1797 the Gauls of shut up in a convent, or let loose upon society, the eighteenth century had passed the Rubicon, the mistresses of authorised paramours, and the conquered Romagna, the duchy of Urbino, and wives of other women's lovers. The passions of tht Marsh of Ancona. The murder of general all classes were unsubdued by education, unre- Duphot at Rome, under the eyes of the accredited strained by law. Murder had its price, from a ambassador of France, urged on the fate of the basket of figs to a purse of gold; and the mur- Niobe of Nations.' The military occupation of derer his asylum, froin the high altar of the Rome followed, and the proud capital of the church to the cabinet of the palace. Assassina- world became a French province, by the name tion was a deed of nightly occurrence. In the of the department of the Tiber! midst of all this corruption of private manners, Whatever reform, or feature of change, may the inquisition placed its sbirri upon the intellect be found in the circles of Roman society, beof the whole population. The capital punish- longs almost exclusively to the Cittadini of the best ments were barbarous, but rarely inflicted ; and description, including persons of liberal profesif the people sometimes suffered the torture, or sion, artists, some of the employés, and the mersubmitted to the estrapado, they, in their turn, canti di campagna, or gentlemen farmers or occasionally hung up a cardinal, or derided the agriculturists, whose landed property has grown vices of the conclave and the pontiff, through the out of the sales of the church estates during the medium of Pasquino. In 1786 cardinal Tor. Revolution; and who, though chiefly resident at tona so exasperated the people by his cruelties, Rome, live by the produce of their farms. If in his office of grand inquisitor, that they dragged something of cleanliness and order is visible in him from his carriage, and hung him on a gibbet a Roman ménage, if stairs are found lighted at in the street.
night, and rooms look not dirty by day, the As there was no internal police, the public innovation on ancient manners is only to be depended on the works of the Tarquins and the found in the dwellings of this respectable class.
It is in this class also that what little social in- fatuous as an Indian fakeer, and sunk in the tercourse is kept up at Rome is most frequent. dusky niche of its splendid sty, vegetates the It was this class that chiefly participated in the Roman patrician, or prince of the empire ! The benefits of the recent changes; and they look morning is lounged away by the heir of the back to the past with a regret in which personal Gregories and the Clements in a dusty great interests and self-love may have no inconsider. coat (the modern Roman toga), rarely changed at able influence. While the Roman shopkeeper any season of the day for a better garb. An (who lolls and lounges in his bulk all day, and early, but not a princely dinner, follows; sucasks a price à capriccio for his French and British ceeded by the siesta and the Corso, a funereal wares), seeks his recreation at the pulicorda or drive in a long narrow street, relieved in sumthe comic opera; while the inferior dealer knows mer by a splashy course in the Piazza Navona. no enjoyment beyond stuffing, with twenty The prima sera is passed in some noble palace, others, into a hired calesh, on Sunday noons, and where, at the end of a long suite of unlighted driving through the hot and dirty streets, per rooms, sits the signora principessa, twinkling fare il pizzacarolo,' the cittadini have more re- her eyes before a solitary lamp, or pair of canfined sources of recreation; they hold a musical dles, whose glimmer is scarce visible in the academia in each other's houses, or assemble to gloomy space, which a fire never cheers; while assist at a tragedia alla tavola' (the reading the caldanini, whose embers have expired in the round a table some favorite tragedy of Alfieri or atmosphere of her petticoat, is presented to the Monti); or, if the higher order, they attend the most distinguished of her visitors; and such a conversazione of some mezza dama, or half lady; conversation ensues aś minds without activity or a class of provincial nobility, who come from resource may be supposed to supply: a sermon the cities of La Marca, or the legations, to pass of the popular preacher, Padre Pacifico, if it be the winter at Rome, and who, if permitted by Lent; a cecisbio faithless or betrayed, if at the courtesy to visit a signora principessa, are never carnival, fill up the time till the opera compresumed to be of her circle, nor admitted to mences, or until the only two genuine Roman ihe house of such ambassadors as rightly under. houses open to society in Rome light up their siand the true Roman dignità !'
Rouge et noir tables, the sole ohject for which Apart from the great mass of the population, company is received or for which company go.'. separated by the distinctions of ages, foul and
ROMFORD, 2 market town of Essex, siConfessor, and consists of a nave, chancel, and tuated on the road from London to Colchester; north aisle, with a tower at the west end. In seventeen miles south-west of Chelmsford, and the east window of the chancel is a whole length twelve E.N. E, of London. This town is sup- on glass of Edward the Confessor. Not far from posed by Stukeley to occupy the site of the the church is a charity-school for forty boys, and Roman station Durolitum, and he conjectures another for twenty girls, founded and endowed that its present name is a contraction for Roman- in 1728; and at a short distance from the western ford, in which opinion he is supported by Mr. end of the town are barracks for the accommoLethieullier. Lysans, however, derives it from dation of a regiment of cavalry, erected in 1795. the Saxon words Rom and Ford (the Broad- Romford is governed by a bailiff and wardens, Ford), in allusion to an ancient ford over a who, though forming no corporation, are emrivulet which fows past the western extremity powered by letters patent to hold a weekly court of the town. Romford is first mentioned in the for the trial of all causes, whether civil or crired book of the exchequer; where it is said that, minal, high treason itself not excepted. The in 1166, Roger Bigod, duke of Norfolk, held privilege of holding a weekly market was first • the wood of Romford by serjeancy, and pay- granted to the inhabitants by king Henry III. ment of 56. a-year. It is next noticed in 1277, To the westward, about two miles, lies Hainault at which time the manor formed part of the pos- Forest, in which is a very remarkable tree, called sessions of Adam de Cretingy. It afterwards Fairlop-oak, which Gilpin informs us, in his passed to Thomas de Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, Remarks on Forest Scenery, is traced by trafrom whom it descended by marriage to the dition half way up the Christian era.' It is Mowbrays, dukes of Norfolk; but on the death thirty-six feet in girt near the base or root, and of John, the fourth duke, without male issue, in spreads its branches over a circumference of 1477, it became vested in James lord Berkeley, 300 feet. Round the Fairlop-oak, on the first The town of Romford consists chiefly of one Friday in July, is held an annual fair. Markets long street running along the high road. Near on Monday for hogs, Tuesday for calves, sheep, the middle of the town stands the market-house and lambs, and Wednesday for corn, cattle, and town-hall which were repaired in 1768, at poultry, butchers' meat, &c. the expense of the crown. The church, which is ROMILLY (Sir Samuel), K. C., an eminent a chapel of Hornchurch, is an ancient structure, modern chancery advocate, was the son of a jewelprobably erected about the commencement of the ler, of French extraction, who carried on business fifteenth century, when the inhabitants obtained in Frith Street, Soho. Here he was born, March a bull from the pope, authorising them to con- 1st, 1757, and, receiving a private education, secrate a cemetery adjoining the town, for the was placed in the office of a solicitor, which he burial of their dead, who had previously been quitted to study for the bar, to which he was carried to Hornchurch burying-ground. It is called in 1783. His chief practice was long dedicated to the Virgin Mary and Edward the confined to draughts in equity, but he gradually