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but our readers may wish to accompany him ceivable that a writer so acute as Porphyry, or through the bistory of Ouranos and Chronus, two indeed that any man of common sense, would of his greatest gods; whence it will appear how forge a book filled with such stories as these, to little his writings are calculated to support the remove the Christian's objections to the immoral tottering cause of Paganism against the objec- characters of the Pagan divinities? The suppotions urged to it by the Christian apologists. sition is impossible. Nor is Sanchoniatho here • Quranos,' says he, taking the kingdom of his writing allegorically, and by his tales of Ourafather, married Ge his sister, and by her had nos, and Ge, and Chronus, only personifying the four sons; Ilus, who is called Chronus; Betylus; heaven, the earth, and time. On the contrary, Dagon who is Siton, or the god of corn; and he assures us that Ouranos, or Epigeus, or AuAtlas. But by other wives Ouranos had much tochthon, was the son of one Eliaun or Hypsisissue, wherefore Ge, being grieved at it and jea- tos, who dwelt about Byblus, and that from him lous, reproached Ouranos, so that they parted the element which is over us was called heaven, from each other. But Ouranos, though he parted on account of its excellent beauty, as the earth from her, yet by force invading her, and lying was named Ge after his sister and wife. And with her when he listed, went away again; and he his translator is very angry with the Neoteric also attempted to kill the children he had by her. Greeks, as he calls them, because that, ‘by a Ge also often defended or avenged herself, great deal of force and straining, they labored to gathering auxiliary powers unto her. But when turn all the stories of the gods into allegories Chronus came to man's age, using Hermes Tris- and physical discourses.' This proves that the inegistus as his counsellor and assistant (for he author of this book did not mean to veil the great was his secretary), he opposed his father Oura- truths of religion under the cloak of mythologic nos, avenging his mother. But Chrouus had allegories; and therefore, if it was forged by Porchildren, Persephone and Athena; the former phyry in support of Paganism, the forger so far died a virgin, but by the council of the latter mistook the state of the question between him Athena, and of Hermes, Chronus made of iron a and his adversaries, that he contrived a book, scimitar and a spear. Then Hermes, speaking which, if admitted to be ancient, totally overto the assistants of Chronus with enchanting words threw his own cause. The next enquiry with wrought in them a keen desire to fight against respect to Sanchoniatho is his antiquity. Did Ouranos in the behalf of Ge; and thus Chronus he really live and write at so early a period as warring against Ouranos, drove him out of his Porphyry and Philo pretend? We think he did kingdom, and succeeded in the imperial power. not; and what confirms our opinion is that In the fight was taken a well-beloved concubine mark of national vanity and partiality in making of Ouranos big with child. Chronus gave her in the sacred mysteries of his own country original, marriage to Dagon, and she brought forth at his and conveyed from Phænicia into Egypt. This, house what she had in her womb by Ouranos, however, furnishes an additional proof that Porand called him Demaroon. After these things phyry was not the forger of the work; for he well Chronus builds a wall round about his house, and knew that the mysteries had their origin in Egypt founds Byblus the first city in Phenicia. After- (see MYSTERIES), and would not have fallen into wards Chronus, suspecting his own brother Atlas, such a blunder. He is guilty, indeed, of a very with the advice of Hermes, throwing him into a great anachronism, when he makes Sanchoniatho deep hole of the earth, there buried him, and contemporary with Semiramis, and yet pretends having a son called Sadid, he despatched him that what he writes of the Jews is compiled from with his own sword, having a suspicion of him, the records of Hierombalas the priest of the god and deprived his own son of life with his own Jau; for Bochart has made it appear bighly prohand. He also cut off the head of his own bable that Hierombalus or Jerom-baal is the daughter, so that all the gods were amazed at Jerub-baal or Gideon of Scripture. Between the mind of Chronus. But, in process of time, the reign of Semiramis and the Trojan war a Ouranos being in banishment, sends his daughter period elapsed of nearly 800 years, whereas GiAstarte, with two other sisters Rhea and Dione, deon flourished not above seventy years before to cut off Chronus by deceit, whom Chronus tak- the destruction of Troy. But, supposing Saning, made wives of these sisters. Ouranos, under- choniatho to have really consulted the records of standing this, sent Eimarmene and Hore, Fate Gideon, it by no means follows that he flourished and Beauty, with other auxiliaries, to war against at the same period with that judge of Israel. him; but Chronus, having gained the affections His atheistic cosmogony he does not indeed preof these also, kept them with himself. Ouranos tend to have got from the priest of Jao, but from devised Batulia, contriving stones that moved as records deposited in his own town of Berytus by having life. But Chronus begat on Astarte seven Thoth, a Phænician philosopher, who was afterdaughters, called Titanides or Artemides ; and wards king of Egypt. Stillingfleet indeed thinks he begat on Rhea seven sons, the youngest of it most probable that Sanchoniatho became acwhom, as soon as he was born, was consecrated quainted with the most remarkable passages of a god. Also by Dione he bad daughters, and the life of Jerub-baal from annals written by a by Astarte two sons, Pothos and Eros, i. e. Cupid Phænician pen. He observes that, immediately and Love. But Dagon, after he had found out after the death of Gideon, the Israelites, with bread, corn, and the plough, was called Zeus their usual proneness to idolatry, worshipped Aratrius. To Sedyc, or the just, one of the Ti-' Baal-berith, or the idol of Berytus, the town in tanides bare Asclepius. Chronus had also in which Sanchoniatho lived; and from this cirPeræa three sons : 1. Chronus, his father's name- cumstance he concludes that there must have sake. 2. Zeus Belus. 3. Apollo.' Is it con- bein such an intercourse between the Hebrews

Vol. XIX.

and Berycans, that in process of time the latter Machiavel, Borgia. and other authors; Familiar people might assume to themselves the Jerub- Letters to Mr. North, an 8vo. pamphlet, and baal of the former, and hand down his actions to three of his sermons were printed together after posterity as those of a priest instead of a great his death. commander. All this may be true; but, if so, it SANC'TIFY, v. a. ) Fr. sanctifier; Lat. amounts to a demonstration, that the antiquity of SanCTIFICA'TION, n. s. sanctifico. To make Sanchoniatho is not so high by many ages as SANCTIFIER,

holy; free from sin, that which is claimed for him by Philo and Por

IMON

or moral taint; make phyry, though he may still be more ancient, as SANCTIMONY, n. s. La means of holiness ; we think Vossius has proved him to be, than any SANCTITUDE,

| secure from pollution other profane historian whose writings have come SANC'TITY,

or violation : sanctifdown to us, either entire or in fragments. (De SanCTUARIZE, v. a. cation and sanctifier Hist. Græc. lib. i. c. 1). But, granting the au- SANCTUARY, n. s. correspond with the thencity of Sanchoniatho's history, what, it may verb: sanctimonious is having the appearance of be asked, is the value of his fragments, that we sanctity or sanctitude, which are synonymous, should take the trouble to ascertain whether they and signify holiness; goodness; godliness : to be genuine remains of high antiquity, or the for- sanctuarize is to shelter under sacred privileges geries of a modern impostor? We answer, with (obsolete): a sanctuary is a holy place; the the illustrious Stillingfleet, that though those most sacred part of a temple or place of worship; fragments contain such absurdities as it would place of protection; asylum ; shelter. be a disgrace to reason to suppose credible; For if the blood of bulls, sprinkling the unclean, though the whole cosmogony is the grossest sink sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much of atheism; and though many persons make a more shall the blood of Christ! Heb. ix. 13. figure in the history, whose very existence may The grace of his sanctification and life, which was be doubted; yet we, who have in our hands the first received in hiin, might pass from him to his light of divine revelation, may in this dungeon whole race, as malediction came from Adam unto all discover many excellent relics of ancient tradient triadi mankind.

Hooker, tion, which throw no feeble light upon many

The gospel, by not making many things unclean,

as the law did, hath sanctified those things generally passages of Holy Scripture, as they give us the

to all, which particularly each man to himself must origin and progress of that idolatry which was so

sanctify by a reverend and holy use.

Id. long the opprobrium of human nature. They

Her pretence is a pilgrimage, which holy underfurnish too a complete confutation of the extra- taking, with most austere sanctimony, she accomvagant chronology of the Chaldeans and Egyp- plished.

Shakspeare. tians, and show, if they be genuine, that the

At his touch, world is indeed not older than it is said to be by Such sanctity bath heaven given his hand, Moses. We would therefore recommend to our They presently amend. readers an attentive perusal of Cumberland's No place indeed should murder sanctuurise. Id Sanchoniatho.

Come, my boy, we will to sanctuary.

Id. SANCROFT (William), 'archbishop of Can

Oft have I heard of sanctuary men; terbury, was born at Fresingfield, in Suffolk, in

But sanctuary children ne'er 'till now. Id. 1616; and admitted into Emanuel College,

There was great reason why all discreet princes Cambridge, in 1633.

ge; should beware of yielding hasty belief to the robes In 1642 he was elected a of sanctimony.

Raleigh. fellow; and, for refusing to take the covenant, He fled to Beverly, where he and divers of his was ejected. In 1660 he was chosen one of the company registered themselves sanctuary men. university preachers ; in 1663 was nominated

Bacon's Henry VII. dean of York; and in 1664 dean of St. Paul's. Those judgments God hath been pleased to send In this station he began to repair the cathedral, upon me, are so much the more welcome, as a means till the fire of London in 1666 employed his which his mercy hath sanctified so to me as to make thoughts on the more noble undertaking of re- me repent of that unjust act.

King Charles. building it, toward which he gave £1400. He

In their looks divine also rebuilt the deanery, and improved the reve.

The image of their glorious maker shone, nue of it. In 1668 he was admitted archdeacon

Truth, wisdom, sanctitude, serene and pure.

Milton. of Canterbury on the king's presentation. In

God attributes to place 1677, being prolocutor of the convocation, he No sanctity, if none be thither brought was promoted to be archbishop of Canterbury. By men who there frequent.

Id. In 1678 he was committed to the Tower with About him all the sanctities of heav'n six other bishops, for presenting a petition to Stood thick as stars, and from his sight received king James against reading the declaration of Beatitude past utt'rance. indulgence. Upon the king withdrawing himself,

They often plac'd he concurred with the lords in a declaration to Within his sanctuary itself their shrines. Id. the prince of Orange for a free parliament, and The bishop kneels before the cross, and devoutly due indulgence to the protestant dissenters. But. adores and kisses it: after this follows a long prayer when that prince and his consort were declared for the sanctification of that new sign of the cross, king and queen, his grace, refusing to take the

Stillingflect.

The holy man, amazed at what he saw, oaths, was suspended and deprived. He lived Made

4 Made haste to sanctify the bliss by law. Dryden. privately till his death in 1693. His learning, The admirable works of painting were made fuel integrity, and piety, made him an exalted orna- for the fire ; but some reliques of it took sanctuary ment of the church. He published a volume under ground, and escaped the common destiny. in 12mo., entitled Modern Politics, taken from

Id. Dufresnoy.

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A sanctimonious pretence, under a pomp of form, tinguish the sanctuary from the sanctum sanctowithout the grace of an inward integrity, will not rum, and maintain that the whole temple was serve the turn.

L'Estrange. called the sanctuary. To try and examine any What are the bulls to the frogs, or the lakes to the thing by the weight of the sanctuary, is to exameadows ?-Very much, says the frog; for he that's mine it hva inst

's mine it by a just and equal scale; because, among worsted will be sure to take sanctuary in the fens.

the Jews, it was the custom of the priests to'keep

Id. Those external things are neither parts of our de

stone weights, to serve as standards for regulatvotion, or by any strength in themselves directing all weights by, though these were not at all causes of it; but the grace of God is pleased to different from the royal or profane weights. move us by ways suitable to our nature, and to SANCTUARY, in the Romish church, is also sanctify these sensible helps to higher purposes. used for that part of the church in which the

South. altar is placed, encompassed with a rail or baWhat actions can express the entire purity of lustrade. thought, which refines and sanctifies a virtuous man? SANCTUS, SANcus, or SANGUS, a deity of the

Addison. Sabines, introduced among the gods of ancient It was an observation of the ancient Romans, Rome, by the name of deus fidius. He was the that their empire had not more increased by the father

by the father of Sabinus, the first king of the Sabines. strength of their arms than the sanctity of their man

SAND, n. $. Sax. sand; and all the nefs.

Id. Let it not be imagined that they contribute no

SANDBLIND, adj. northern languages. Parthing to the happiness of the country who only serve

SAND'ED,

ticles of loam, stone, or God in the duties of a holy life, who attend his

Sand'ish, ( gravelly earth; in fact, sanctuary, and daily address his goodness.

SAND'STONE, n. s. sundered stone : hence

Roger's Sermons. Sand'y, adj. j barren country covered To be the sanctifier of a people, and to be their with sand : sandblind, having a disease in which God, is all one. Derham's Physico-Theology. sand, or small matters, appears to fly before the

Truth guards the poet, sanctifies the line. Pope. sight : sanded is, covered with sand; barren;

SANCTION, n. s. Fr. sanction; Lat. sanctio. marked with small spots : sandish, loose ; havThe confirmation which gives to any thing its ing the nature of sand : sandstone, stone that obligatory power; ratification,

easily crumbles to sand : sandy, abounding with, I have killed a slave,

or like, sand; loose. And of his blood caused to be mixed with wine :

Most of his army being slain, he, with a few of Fill every man his bowl. There cannot be

his friends, sought to save themselves by flight over A fitter drink to make this sanction in. Ben Jonson. the desert sands.

Knolles. Against the public sanctions of the peace,

Here i' the' sands With fates averse, the rout in arms resort,

Thee I'll rake up, the most unsanctified. Shakspeare. To force their monarch.

Dryden's Æneis. My true begotten father, being more than sandThere needs no positive law or sanction of God blind, high gravelblind, knows me not. to stamp an obliquity upon such a disobedience.

Id. Merchant of Venice.

South. My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, This word is often made the sanction of an oath: So flewed, so sonded, and their heads are hung it is reckoned a great commendation to be a man of With ears that sweep away the morning dew. honour. Swift.

Shakspeare. The satisfactions of the Christian life, in its pre- Safer shall he be on the sandy plains, sent practice and future hopes, are not the mere rap. Than where castles mounted stand. tures of enthusiasm, as the strictest professors of Sand hath always its root in clay, and there be no reason have added the sanction of their testimony veins of sand of any great depth within the earth. Watts.

Bacon. Wanting sanction and authority, it is only yet a Favour, so bottomed upon the sandy foundation of private work.

Baker on Learning personal respects only, cannot be long lived. SANCTORIUS, or Santorius, an ingeni

Bacon to Villiers. ous and learned physician, was a professor in the

Her sons spread university of Padua in the beginning of the se

Beneath Gibraltar to the Libyan sands. Milton.

Engaged with money bags, as bold venteenth century. He contrived a kind of

As men with sand bags did of old. Hudibras. weighing chair, by means of which, after esti

A region so desert, dry, and sandy, that travellers

A mating the aliments received, and the sensible are fain to carry waters

nd the sensible are fain to carry waters on their camels. discharges, he was enabled to determine with

Browne's Vulgar Errours. great exactness the quantity of insensible perspi- Calling for more paper to rescribe, king Philip ration, &c. On these experiments he erected a shewed him the difference betwixt the ink box and curious system, which he published under the sand box.

Howel. title of De Medicina Statica, of which we have If quicksilver be put into a convenient glass vesan English translation by Dr. Quincy. Sancto- sel, and that vessel exactly stopped, and kept for ten

chodcovom other treatises which weeks in a sand furnace, whose heat may be constant, rius published several other treatises, which

the corpuscles that constitute the quicksilver will, showed great abilities and learning.

after innumerable revolutions, be so connected to one SANCTUARY, among the Jews, also called

another, that they will appear in the form of a red sanctum sanctorum, or holy of holies, was the

powder.

Boyle. holiest and most retired part of the temple of " The force of water casts gold out from the bowels Jerusalem, in which the ark of the covenant was of mountains, and exposes it among the sands of preserved, and into which none but the high rivers.

Dryden. priest was allowed to enter, and that only once In well sanded lands little or no snow lies. a-year, to intercede for the people. Some dis

Mortimer.

Rough unwieldy earth, nor to the plough

give the following instances from Mr. Pennant: 'I Nor to the cattle kind, with sandy stones

have more than once,' says he, on the east coasts of And gravel o'er-bounding.

Philips. Scotland, observed the calamitous state of several Plant the tenuifolia's and ranunculus's in fresh sandish earth, taken from under the turf. Erelyn.

extensive tracts, formerly in a most flourishing

condition, at present covered with sands, unstable So, where our wild Numidian wastes extend, Sudden the impetuous hurricanes descend,

as those of the deserts of Arabia. The parish of Wheel through the air, in circling eddies play,

Fyvie, in the county of Aberdeen, is now reduced Tear up the sands, and sweep whole plains away.

to two farms. Not a vestige is to be seen of any he helpless traveller with wild surprise,

buildings, unless a fragment of the church. The sees the dry desert all around him rise,

estate of Coubin, near Forres, is another melanAnd smothered in the dusty whirlwind dies. choly instance. This tract was once worth £300

Addison. a-year, at this time overwhelmed with sand. Celia and I, the other day,

This distress was brought on about 100 years Walked o'er the sand hills to the sea. Prior.

ago, and was occasioned by the cutting down The finer matter called sand is no other than very some trees, and pulling up the bent-star which small pebbles.

Woodward.

grew on the sand hills; which at last gave rise Grains of gold in sandstone, from the mine of Costa Rica, which is not reckoned rich; but every

to the act of 15 Geo. II. c. 33, to prohibit the hundred weight yields about an ounce of gold. Id.

destruction of this useful plant. The Dutch O'er sandy wilds were yellow harvests spread.

perhaps owe the existence of part at least of Pope.

their country to the sowing of it on the mobile The river pours along

solum, their sand banks. Mr. Stillingfieet reResistless, roaring dreadful down it comes ;

commended the sowing of this plant on the Then o'er the sanded valley floating spreads. sandy wilds of Norfolk, that its matted roots

Thomson. might prevent the deluges of sand which that SAND, in natural history, a genus of fossils, country experiences. It has been already rethe characters of which are, that they are found marked that, wheresoever this plant grows, the in minute concretions; forming together a kind salutary effects are soon observed to follow. A of powder, the genuine particles of which are single plant will fix the sand, and gather it into all of a tendency to one determinate shape, and a hillock; these hillocks, by the increase of vegeappear regular though more or less complete tation, are formed into larger, till by degrees a concretions; not to be dissolved or disunited by barrier is often made against the encroachments water, or formed into a coherent mass by means of the sea; and might as often prove prevenof it, but retaining their figure in it; transparent, tative of the calamity in question. The plant vitrifiable by extreme heat, and not dissoluble in, grows in most places near the sea, and is known nor effervescing with acids. Sands are subject to the highlanders by the name of murah ; to the to be variously blended, both with homogene and English by that of bent-star, matgrass, or marheterogene substances, &c., and hence, as well ram. Linnæus calls it arundo arenaria. The as from their various colors, are subdivided into, Dutch call it helm. This plant has stiff and 1. White sands, whether pure or mixed with sharp-pointed leaves, growing like a rush, a foot other arenaceous or heterogeneous particles; of and a half long : the roots both creep and peneall which there are several species, differing no trate deeply into their sandy beds: the stalk less in the fineness of their particles than in the bears an ear five or six inches long, not unlike different degrees of color, fron: a bright and rye; the seeds are small, brown, and roundish. shining white, to a brownish, yellowish, green- By good fortune, as old Gerard observes, no ish, &c., white. 2. The red and reddish sands, cattle will eat or touch this vegetable, allotted both pure and impure. 3. The yellow sands, for other purposes, subservient to the use of whether pure or mixed, are also very numerous. mankind. 4. The brown sands distinguished in the same Sand Box Tree. See Hura. manner. 5. The black sands whereof there are SANDA, or Sanday, one of the Orkneys, only two species, viz. a fine shining grayish-black twelve miles long, and from one to three broad. sand, and another of a fine shining reddish-black Its form is irregular, it is separated from Stroncolor. 6. The green kind of which there is only say on the south by a channel three miles broad; one known species, viz. a coarse variegated from Eda, or Eday, on the west by a channel of dusky green sand, common in Virginia. Sand one mile and a half broad; and from north Rois of great use in the glass manufacture; a white noldshay on the north by a channel of from one kind of sand being employed for making of the to two leagues and a half. The surface is fiat, white glass, and a coarse greenish looking sand particularly on the east coast, which renders it for the green glass. In agriculture it seems to subject to inundations during the spring tides, be the office of sand to make unctuous earths accompanied with an east wind. The soil is fertile, and fit to support vegetables, &c. A mixed with sand, but produces good crops, when vegetable planted only in sand, or in a fat glebe, well manured with sea-ware; which abounds or in earth, receives little growth or increase; on the coast, and is made into kelp in greater but a mixture of both renders the mass fertile. quantity than in any other island in Orkney. Common sand is therefore a very good addition, SAN'DAL. n. s. Fr. sandale : Lat, sandalium. by way of manure, to all sorts of clay lands : it

A loose shoe. warms them, and makes them more open and loose.

Thus sung the uncouth swain to the oaks and rills, By the sand from the sea-shore many valuable While still the morn went out with sandals grey. pieces of land have been entirely lost; of which we

Milion.. From his robe

the economical use of this tree; probably beFlows light ineffable : his harp, his quiver,

cause, being not common in the northern part of And Lycian bow are gold : with golden sandals Barbary, the inhabitants find little advantage in His feet are shod.

Prior. collecting the resin which exudes from it. M. The sandals of celestial mold,

Schousboe, who saw the species of thuia in Fledged with ambrosial plumes, and rich with gold,

question, says that it does not rise to more than Surround her feet.

Pope's Odyssey.

twenty or thirty feet at most, and that the diaThe Sandal, in antiquity, was a rich kind of meter of its trunk does not exceed ten or twelve slipper worn on the feet by the Greeks and Ro- inches. It distinguishes itself on the first view, mans, made of gold, silk, or other precious stuff; from the two other species of the same genus consisting of a sole, with a hollow at one ex- cultivated in gardens, by having a very distinct treme to embrace the ancle, but leaving the upper trunk, and the figure of a real tree; whereas in part of the foot bare. It was fastened on with the latter the branches rise from the root, which leather strings, which crossed several times round gives them the appearance rather of bushes. Its the lower part of the leg. Besides these san- branches are also more articulated and brittle. dals, the ancients used also other coverings for Its flowers, which are not very apparent, show the feet, which, like those of our own day, left themselves in April; and the fruits, which are no part bare. Those, indeed, often ascended as of a spherical form, ripen in September. When high as the ancle, and even the calf of the leg. a branch of this tree is held to the light, it apThe proper term given by the Romans to this latter pears to be interspersed with a number of transarticle of dress was calceus. These were, how- parent vesicles which contain the resin. When ever, generally regarded as troublesome and un- these vesicles burst, in the summer months, a easy. The wearers took care to provide them of resinous juice exudes from the trunk and branches, leather extremely supple, which was termed aluta, as is the case in other coniferous trees. This derivative of alumen, alum, that substance being resin is the sandarach, which is collected by the employed to produce the requisite softness. The inhabitants of the country, and carried to the Roman matrons, when assembled on occasions of ports, from which it is transported to Europe. solennity, wore the alutæ of white leather : the It is employed in making some kinds of sealing courtezans, on the other hand, preferred the wax, and in different sorts of varnish. sandal, of elegant shape and handsomely em- SANDEC, one of the eighteen circles or districts broidered, this not hiding at all the shape of a of Austrian Galicia. It lies in the south-west of pretty foot. For this reason, Ovid, in his Art of the province, on the borders of Hungary, and is Love, counsels these amiable fair to conceal watered by the Donajetz and the Poprad, the latter their feet, if ill formed, in an aluta of dazzling being the only river common to Galicia and white.

Hungary. It is of irregular form, and contains SANDAL is also used for a shoe or slipper 1400 square miles, with 195,000 inhabitants. worn by the pope and other Romish prelates SANDEMAN (Robert), was born at Perth in when they officiate. It is also the name of a 1723, and educated at the university of St. Ansort of slipper worn by several congregations of drew's. Becoming a member of the society of reformed monks. This last consists of no more Independents, he in 1757 published a work enthan a mere leathern sole, fastened with latches titled, Letters on Theron and Aspasio, 2 vols. or buckles, all the rest of the foot being left bare. 8vo., in which he attacked the Rev. James The capuchins wear sandals; the recollets, Hervey, author of Theron and Aspasio, in the clogs ; the former are of leather, and the latter most severe terms, and analysed all the most of wood.

popular doctrines advanced in that work, with SANDARACII Gum is a dry and hard resin, the most satirical criticism. Mr. Sandeman in usually met with in loose granules, of the size 1766 went over to America, where a meeting of a pea or a borse-bean, of a pale whitish yel was erected for him; but preaching the doctrine low color, transparent, and of a resinous smell, of submission to the powers that be,' this did brittle, very inflammable, of an acrid and aro- not suit the spirit of resistance to British taxmatic taste, and diffusing a very pleasant smellation which was then becoming daily more powhen burning. Sandarach is esteemed good in pular in the American colonies. He died in diarrhæas and in hæmorrhagies. The varnish- New England in 1772. makers make a kind of varnish of it, by dis- SANDEMANIANS, a sect of Independents, solving it in oil of turpentine or linseed, or in so named from the preceding writer. In Scotspirit of wine. That gum sandarach is only land they are called Glassites, from their founder produced from a species of juniper was long a Mr. John Glas, who was a minister of the estavery common opinion; but it appears to be a blished church in that kingdom; but, being mistake. The juniperus communis, from which charged with a design of subverting the national many have derived this gum, does not grow in covenant, and sapping the foundation of all naAfrica; and sandarach seems to belong exclu- tional establishments by the kirk judicatory, was sively to that part of the world. The gum san- expelled by the synod from the church of Scotdarach of our shops is brought from the southern land. His sentiments are fully - plained in a provinces of Morocco. The tree which pro- tract published at that ime, enti'd The Testiduces it is a Thuia, found also by M. Vahl in mony of the King of Martyrs, and preserved in Tunis. It was made known several years ago the first volume of his works. In consequence by Dr. Shaw, who named it Cypressus fructu of Mr. Glas's deposition, in 1728, his adherents quadrivalvi, Equiseti instar articulatis : but nei- formed themselves into churches, conformable ther of these learned men was acquainted with in their institution and discipline to what they

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