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Jews, as they were going to the feast at Jerusa- its oval-clustered flowers and berries. All the lem, this occasioned a kind of war between them. sorts of elder are of the deciduous kind, very The Samaritans continued their fealty to the hardy, and grow freely any where; are generally Romans, when the Jews revolted; yet they did free shooters, but particularly the common elder not escape from being involved in some of the and its varieties, which make remarkably strong calamities of their neighbours. There were, in jointed shoots, of several feet in length, in one very modern times, Samaritans at Shechem, season; and they flower mostly in summer, exotherwise called Naplouse. They had priests of cept the racemose elder, which generally begins the family of Aaron, as they stated : a high- flowering in April; and the branches being large, priest, who resided at Shechem, or at Gerizim, spreading, and very abundant, are exceedingly who offered sacrifices there, and who declared conspicuous; but they emit a most disagreeable he feast of the passover, and all the other feasts, odor. The flowers are succeeded, in the most of to all the Samaritans. Some of them are said the sorts, by large bunches of ripe berries in austill to be found at Gaza, some at Damascus, tumn, which, though very unpalatable to eat, are in and some at Grand Cairo.
high estimation for making that well known corSAMBALLAS, a name given to a cluster of dial called elder wine, particularly the common islands near the coast of America, in the Spanish black-berried elder. The merit of the elder in Main, of which three groupes are called Cave- gardening may be both for use and ornament, sas, Mulatas, and Sagua. These islands are especially in large grounds. scattered at very unequal distances, some only SAME, adj. Sax. sam; Goth. and Teut. one, some two, some three, and some four miles SAMENESS, n. s. , same. Identical ; not different; from the shore and from one another, extending not another; being of the like sort or degree : a very considerable distance along the northern the noun substantive corresponding. shore of the isthmus of Darien.
Miso, as spitefully as her rotten voice could utter SAMBUCUS (John), a learned physician, it, set forth the same sins of Amphialus. Sidney. borr: at Ternau, in Hungary, in 1531. After study. Difference of persuasion in matters of religion ing in several universities, his abilities recom- may easily fall out, where there is the sameness of Inended him to the emperors, Maximilian II. and duty, allegiance, and subjection. King Charles. Rodolph II., who successively appointed him "Do but think how well the same he spends, counsellor and historiographer. He wrote Who spends his blood his country to relieve.
Daniel. the Lives of the Roman Emperors, and other works. He died at Vienna, in 1584.
The lenor of man's woe
Multon. Sambucus, in botany, elder, a genus of the
Holds on the same. trigynia order, and pentandria class of plants;
Th' etherial vigour is in all the same,
A natural order forty-third, dumosæ : CAL. quinquepartite : cor. quinquefid; berry trispermous.
The merchant does not keep money by him ; but, The most remarkable species are these :
if you consider what money must be lodged in the
banker's hands, the case will be much the same. 1. S. Canadensis, the Canada shrubby elder,
Locke. rises with a shrubby stem, branching eight or ten If itself had been coloured, it would have transfeet high, having reddish shoots, somewhat bi- mitted all visible objects tinctured with the same pinnated leaves, often ternate below; the other colour ; as we see whatever is beheld through a composed of five, seven, or nine oval lobes; and coloured glass appears of the same colour with the towards the ends of the branches cymose quin- glass.
Ray on the Creation. quepartite umbels of flowers, succeeded by The same plant produceth as great a variety of blackish-red berries.
juices as there is in the same animal. Arbuthnol. 2. S. nigra, the common black elder tree, rises If all courts have a sameness in them, things may with a tree stem, branching numerously into a be as they were in my time, when all employments Jarge spreading head, twenty or thirty feet high ;
went to parliamentmen's friends.
Swift. pinnated leaves, of two or three pairs of oval SAMIEL, the Arabian name of a hot wind Jobes and one odd one; and large five-parted peculiar to the desert of Arabia. It blows over umbels of white flowers towards the end of the the desert in July and August from the northbranches, succeeded by bunches of black and west quarter. Some years it does not blow at other different colored berries, in the varieties; all, and in others it appears six, eight, or ten which are, common black-berried elder-tree, times, but seldom continues more than a few miwhite-berried elder, green-berried elder, lacini- nutes at a time. It often passes with the appaated, or parsley-leaved elder, having the folioles rent quickness of lightning. The Arabs and much laciniated, so as to resemble parsley-leaves, Persians have warning of its approach by a thick gold-striped leaved elder, silver-striped elder, haze arising out of the horizon: when they inand silver-dusted elder.
stantly throw themselves with their faces to the 5. S. racemosa, racemose, red-berried elder, ground, and continue in that position till the wind rises with a tree-like stem, branching ten or has passed, which happens almost instantanetwelve feet high, having reddish-brown branches ously; but if they are not brisk enough to take and buds; pinnated leaves of six or seven oval this precaution, and they get the full force of the deeply-sawed lobes, and compound, oval, race- wind, it generally produces death. The Arabs mous clusters of whitish-green flower, suc- say that this wind always leaves behind it a very ceeded by oval clusters of red berries. It is strong sulphureous smell, and that the air at common to the mountainous parts of the south these times is quite clear, except about the horiof Europe, and is retained in our gardens as a zon in the north-west, which gives warning of its flowering shrub, having a peculiar singularity in approach. See ARABIA
SAM'LET, 11. 8. Fr. salmonet, or salmonket. verned by kings, but, like most other states in A little salmon.
Greece, became afterwards democratic. The A salmon, after he is got into the sea, becomes people enjoyed all their rights and privileges from a samlet, not so big as a gudgeon, to be a sal- under the Romans till the reign of Vespasian. mon, in as short a time as a gosling becomes a goose. By him it was reduced, with the other islands in
Walton's Angler. the Ægean Sea, to the form of a Roman province. SAMNITES, an ancient nation of Italy, who It is now under the Turks, and by them named inhabited the country situated between Picenum, Samandrachi. Campania, Apulia, and Latium. They distin- SAMOYEDES, a savage race who traverse guished themselves by their implacable enmity the immense and frozen deserts extending along against the Romans, in the early ages of that the northern coast of Asia. They do not recogrepublic; but were at last totally subdued, and, nise themselves by this name, which has been according to some, extirpated, about A. A. C. given to them by the Russians, but call them 272, after a war of seventy-one years. See selves Khasova. They extend, on the European ROME.
side, as far as the river Mesen, which falls into SAMOGITIA, or SzamAIT, a tract of Russian the White Sea; while they inhabit the shores of Lithuania, forming the north-west part of that Asia, eastward to the Olenek, and almost to the great province, and bearing the title of county. Lena : thus filling up the space between 40° and It lies to the south of Courland, and to the north 120° of E. long., a line of upwards of 2000 of Prussia Proper, having part of its western miles. The whole of this vast extent is not boundary along the Baltic, but without any har- supposed to contain a population of more than bour of consequence.
20,000. They are divided into three great tribes: SAMOLUS, in botany, round-leaved water the Vanoites, who inhabit the banks of the Petpinpernel, a genus of the monogynia order, and chora and the Obi, in the vicinity of Obpentandria class of plants; natural order twenty- dorsk ; the Tysia-Igoley, who are found on the first, preciæ : cor. salver-shaped; stamina sur- Mesen, and in the interior of the government of rounded by small scales at its throat: CAPS. Archangel; and the Khirutches, who fill the reunilocular inferior. Species four, one of which, moter and interior parts of Siberia. The rude S. valerandi, is common to the marshes of our traditions concerning their origin seem to supcountry.
port the conjecture that they were driven hither, SAMON, an island in the eastern seas, lying by war and oppressson, from happier climates. off Timor to the north-west. It is woody, hilly Like other tribes of these ungenial climates, land, but not mountainous, and towards the they are a small and stunted race, commonly besouth end low. A woody island, called Tios in tween four and five feet high. They have a flat, the charts, lies off the south-west point, which is round, broad face, large thick lips, a wide and the only thing like danger on the west side; but open nose, little beard, and black and rough hair the tides run strong here, and make formidable in small quantity, carefully arranged. The dress riplings.
of the men differs little from that of the Ostiaks; "SAMOS, in ancient geography, an island of but they are reckoned more savage, and are very Asia, in the Ægean Sea, near the promontory superstitious. Mycale, opposite to Ephesus ; in compass eighty- SAMP, a dish said to have been invented by seven miles according to Pliny, or 100 according the savages of North America, who have no corn to Isidorus; famous for a temple of Juno, with mills. It is Indian corn deprived of its external a noted asylum, whence their coin exhibited a coat by soaking it ten or twelve hours in a lixipeacock. It was the country of Pythagoras, who, vium of water and wood-ashes. This coat or to avoid the oppression of its tyrants, retired to husk, being separated from the kernel, rises to Italy. Samos was first governed by kings, after- the surface of the water, while the grain, which wards became a democracy, and at last an oli- is specifically heavier than water, remains at the garchy. It was most flourishing under Polycrates, bottom of the vessel ; which grain, thus deprived The Samians assisted the Greeks against Xerxes. of its hard coat of armour, is boiled, or rather They were conquered by Pericles A. A.C. 441: simmered, for two days, in a kettle of water near afterwards by Eumenes king of Pergamus; but the fire. When sufficiently cooked, the kernels restored to liberty by Augustus. Samos was re- swell to a great size and burst open; and this duced to a Roman province under Vespasian food, which is uncommonly sweet and nourish
Samos, an island of the Grecian archipelag, ing, may be used in a variety of ways; but the separated only by a narrow strait from the o' best way is to mix it with milk, and with posite continent of Asia Minor. See GREECE. soups and broths, as a substitute for bread. It
SAMOTHRACE, or SAMOTHRACia, in ancient is even better than bread for these purposes ; geography, an island in the Egean Sea, opposite for, besides being quite as palatable as the very the mouth of the Hebrus, thirty-two miles from best bread, it is less liable than bread to grow the coast of Thrace. It was also called Dardania, very soft when mixed with these liquids. Electria, Leucania, Leucosia, Melitis, and SAM'PHIRE, n. s. Fr. saint Pierre ; Lat. Samos; and hence Samothrace, or Thracian Sa- crithmum. A plant preserved in pickle. mos, to distinguish it from Samos in Asia Minor.
Half way down Pliny makes it thirty-eight miles in circumfer
- Hangs one that gathers samphire : dreadful trade!
and ence, but modern travellers say it is only twenty. Methinks he seems no bigger than his head. Before the age of the Argonauts it was deluged
Shakspeare to the top of the highest mountains by a sudden This plant grows in great plenty upon the rocks inundation of the Euxine. It was anciently go near the sea-shore, where it is washed by the sait water. Il as greatly esteemed for pickling, and is from the form of the arches of the gates, and sometimes used in medicine.
Miller. some ancient pieces of sculpture, intermixed with SAMPULIRE. See CRITHMUM.
the other stones, appears to have been built by SAMʻPLE, n. s.) Corrupted from example the Turks : but the town can boast of five mosques,
SAM'PLER. ) and exemplar. A speci- with minarets, and a large khan for the use of men; part of the whole shown, that judgment merchants. The ships belonging to the port may be made of the whole: a pattern of work. are navigated by the Greeks ; adjoining villages
O love, why dos't thou in thy beautiful sampler are inhabited chiefly by Christians. Inhabitants set such a work for my desire to set out, which is 2000. impossible?
Sidney. SAMUEL, an eminent inspired prophet, hisFair Philomela, she but lost her tongue, torian, and judge of Israel, and the last judge of And in a tedious sampler sewed her mind.
that commonwealth. He was the son of Elkanah,
Shakspeare. a Levite of the family of Kohath, by his belored We created with our needles both one flower, wife Hannah. The extraordinary circumstances Both on one sampler, sitting on one cushion ;
preceding his birth; his early dedication to God Both warbling of one song, both in one key,
by his mother, with her beautiful hymn on that As if our hands, our sides, voices, and minds
occasion; the revelations communicated to him
Id. Had been incorp'rate.
ne by the Almighty ; his reformation of the people, He entreated them to tarry but two days, and he himself would bring them a sample of the ore.
and their consequent victory over the Philistines;
Raleigh. the conduct of his sons, wbich excited the peoCoarse complexions,
ple to desire a change of government; his And cheeks of sorry grain, will serve to ply
description of the character of a king ; his The sampler, and to tease the housewife's wool. anointing of Saul their first monarch; his appeal
Milton. to the people respecting his own just governI have not engaged myself to any : I am not ment; 'his' repeated reproofs of king Saul for loaded with a full cargo : 'tis sufficient if I bring his improper conduct; his just punishment of a sample of some goods in this voyage. Dryden.. the murderous monarch of the Amalekites : his Determinations of justice were very summary and anointing of David. ar
anointing of David ; and his death,--are recorddecisive, and generally put an end to the vexations
ed i Sam. 1,--xxv. He is reckoned the author of a law-suit by the ruin both of plaintiff and de- ed fendant: travellers have recorded some samples of of the books of Judges and Ruth. this kind.
SAMUEL, The Books of, two canonical books From most bodies
of the Old Testament. The books of Samuel Some little bits ask leave to flow;
and the books of Kings are a continued history And, as through these canals they roll,
of the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah; Bring up a sample of the whole.
Prior. for which reason the books of Samuel are likeI design this but for a sample of what I hope more wise styled the first and second book of Kings. fully to discuss.
Woodward. Since the first twenty-four chapters contain all I saw her sober over a sampler, or gay over a that relates to the bistory of Samuel, and the jointed baby.
Pope. latter part of the first book and all the second SAMSON, the son of Manoah, of the tribe of include the relation of events that happened after Dan, and a judge of Israel. The extraordinary the death of that prophet, it has been supposed circumstances of his birth, life, miraculous that Samuel was author of the first twenty-four strength, marriage, repeated defeats of the Phi- chapters, and that the prophets Gad and Nathan Jistines, captivity, and death, are recorded in finished the work. The first book of Samuel Judges xiii.--xvi. He judged Israel twenty comprehends the transactions under the governyears. Chronologists place his death in A. M. ment of Eli and Samuel, and under Saul the first 2887, or A. A.C. 1117: Milton wrote a beauti- king; and also the acts of David while he lived ful poem on his history, entitled Samson Agonis- under Saul. The second book is wholly spent tes.
in relating the transactions of David's reign. Samson's Pcst, a sort of pillar erected in a • SAMYDA, in botany, a genus of the monoship's hold, between the lower deck and the gynia order, and decandria class of plants : CAL. kelson, under the edge of a hatchway, and fur- quinquepartite and colored : cor. none : CAPS. nished with several notches that serve as steps to the inside resembles a berry, is trivalved and mount or descend, as occasion requires. This unilocular: the SEEDS nestling. Species ten, post, being firmly driven into its place, not only natives of the East and West Indies. serves to support the beam and fortify the vessel SANADON (Noel Stephen), a Jesuit, born at in that place, but also to prevent the cargo or Rouen in 1676, and a distinguished professor materials contained in the hold from shifting to of humanity at Caen. He there became acthe opposite side by the rolling of the ship in a quainted with Huet bishop of Avranches, afterturbulent or heavy sea.
wards his intimate friend. Sanadon next taught SAMSOON, a city of Asia Minor, on the rhetoric at the university of Paris, and was enBlack Sea, and on the site of the ancient Amisus, trusted with the education of the prince of Conti which, after Sinope, was the most opulent city in after the death of Du Morceau. In 1728 he was Pontus. It is situated near the west end of a made librarian to Louis XIV., an office which bay, about four miles in length, and surrounded he retained to bis death. He died on the 21st by olive trees. The houses, which are made of September 1733, in the fifty-eighth year of his wood, plastered with mud, and white-washed, age. His works are, 1. Latin Poems, in 12mo., produce a good effect. The modern town is 1715, and by Barbou, in 8vo., 1754. These small, surrounded by a decayed wall, which, consist of Odes, Elegies, Epigrams, &c. 2. A Translation of Horace, with Remarks, in 2 vols. ing her. The regency that succeeded appointed 4to., Paris, 1727; best edition Amsterdam, 1735, bim first physician; but the revolution of 1742, in 8 vols. 12mo.; with the notes of M. Dacier. which placed Elizabeth on the throne, deprived Sanadon translated with elegance and taste ; but him of all his employments. Hardly a day his version is rather a paraphrase than a faithful passed that he did not hear of some of his friends translation. 3. A collection of Discourses; and being executed; and it was with difficulty that 4. Prieres et Instructions Chretiennes.
he obtained leave to retire from Russia. In SAN'ATIVE, adj. ? Lat. sano. Powerful 1747 he went to Paris, where he continued till
Sana'tion, n. S. Sto cure; healing: the act October 14th, 1783, when he died. His printed of curing.
works, on the Origin of the Venereal Disease, The vapour of coltsfoot hath a sanative virtue to and other subjects, are well known to the faculty. wards the lungs. Bacon's Natural History. He was a member of the Royal Medical Society
Consider well the member, and, if you have no at Paris, and of the Royal Academy of Lisbon, probable hope of sanation, cut it off quickly
to the establishment of which he had contributed.
Wiseman's Surgery. SANCHEZ (Francis), in Latin Sanctius, was SANBALLAT, the governor of the Samari- of Las Brocas in Spain. He wrote, 1. An extans, a great enemy to the Jews. He was a na- cellent treatise entitled Minerva, or De Causis tive of Horon, or Horonaim, a city beyond Linguæ Latina, which was published at AmsterJordan, in the country of the Moabites. He dam in 1714, in 8vo. The authors of the Portlived in the time of Nehemiah, who was his royal Methode de la Langue Latine have been great opponent, and from whose book we learn much indebted to this work. 2. The Art of his history. There is one circumstance related Speaking, and the Method of Translating Auof him by Josephus which has occasioned some thors. 3. Several other learned pieces on gramdispute among the learned. According to that mar. He died in 1600, in his seventy-seventh author, when Alexander the Great came into year. Phænicia, and sat down before the city of SANCHEZ (Francis), a Portuguese physician, Tyre, Sanballat quitted the interests of Darius who settled at Toulouse, and, though a Christian, king of Persia, and went at the head of 8000 was born of Jewish parents. He is said to have men to offer his services to Alexander. This been a man of genius and a philosopher. His prin ce readily entertained him, and, at his re- works have been collected under the title of quest, gave him leave to erect a temple upon Opera Medica. His juncti sunt tractatus quidam mount Gerizim, where he constituted his son-in- philosophici non insubtiles. They were printed law Manasseh the high-priest. But this is a fla- at Toulouse in 1636; where Sanchez died in grant anachronism ; for 120 years before this, 1632. that is, in A. M. 3550, Sanballat was governor of SANCHONIATHO, or SANCHONIATHON, a Samaria ; wherefore the learned Dr. Prideaux Phænician philosopher and historian, who is said (in bis Connexion of the Histories of the Old and to have flourished before the Trojan war, about New Testament) supposes two Sanballats, and the time of Semiramis. Of this most ancient endeavours to show it to be a mistake of Jose- writer the only remains extant are fragments of phus, in making Sanballat to flourish in the time cosmogony, and of the history of the gods and of Darius Codomannus, and to build his temple first mortals, preserved by Eusebius and Theoupon mount Gerizim by license from Alexander doret ; both of whom speak of Sanchoniatho as the Great; whereas this was performed by leave an accurate and faithful historian ; and the for, from Darius Nothus, in the fifteenth year of his mer adds that his work, which was translated by reign.
Philo Byblius from the Phenician into the Greek SANCHES (Anthony Nunes Ribeiro), M. D., language, contains many things relating to the a learned physician, born at Penna-Macor in history of the Jews which deserve great credit, Portugal, in 1699. His father, an opulent mer- both because they agree with the Jewish writers, chant, gave him a liberal education, intending and because the author received these particulars him for the law, and, on finding him prefer from the annals of Hierombalus, a priest of the physic, withdrew bis protection; on which his god Jao. Several modern writers, however, of maternal uncle, Dr. Nunes Ribeiro, a physician great learning, have called in question the very at Lisbon, furnished him with the means of pro- existence of Sanchoniatho, and have contended secuting his studies, at Coimbra and Salamanca; that the fragments which Eusebius adopted as where he took his degree in 1724. In 1725 he genuine, upon the authority of Porphyry, were was appointed physician to the town of Bene- forged by that author, or the pretended translator vente. 'About 1727 he came over to London, Philo, from enmity to the Christians, that the where he spent two years; after which he studied Pagans might have something to show of equal at Leyden under Boerhaave; who, in 1731, re- antiquity with the books of Moses. These opcommended him to the empress Anne of Russia. posite opinions have produced a controversy On his arrival at Petersburg Dr. Bidloo, then that has filled volumes. We can, however, only first physician to the empress, gave him an ap- refer such of our readers as are desirous of fuller pointment in the hospital at Moscow, where he information to the works of Bochart, Scaliger, continued till 1734, when he was appointed phy- Vossius, Cumberland, Dodwell, Stillingfleet, sician to the arıny, and was present at the siege Mosheim, Cudworth, and Warburton. The conof Asoph. In 1740 he was appointed one of the troversy respects two questions, 1. Was there in physicians to the empress, who had labored reality such a writer ? 2. Was he of the very reeight years under a disease which he asserted to mote antiquity which his translator claims for be a stone in the kidney. His opinion was con- him ? firmed at her death, six months after, upon open- That there was really such a writer, and that
fae mens preserved by Eusebios are indeed all their posterity and all before them; to these Tons de 23 y, aterpolaced pertaps by the they made their seat and drink offerings.' Then ensing, we are for perscades Essebus, he cooclades, These were the devices of worwho insed them to his work as authens, $3 azteeing with the weakness and want of
s e dé the mos learned sen of his age. He boveness in De n Let us suppose Eusetai besar mens en ny sodern wit can bees to bave been s veak and credelous as the tute of Susiratiese we respect to the an. darces Dock the darkest zze of Earope, a DESDOT a very entaocdrary work, she possa ash so
make who knows hat den bir been trassiszed to the way t g of bi urtas, what could be see in
a rte, asade Federa. Bon; s seoseias pga s eren a dreaming Ziné ne s enge the work iteit, or at least monk woud te of eapuoging in support of se s o
c h be bas preserved. Cetty! Ezzel.s rest y styles it direct Chat 30 Dace a wise aud good man to oo athensam., bai
c h e agine that an ancient Sud t oe be posse as geoxne, bad bees system of aches voci coctribate so much to sez suspecead a obe school. Toe many of make the Pazzes of us age afat as divide revethe Circoces were deed very credajees kanns the books of the 04 and New Testaant a t the sectory of w as ees, that he sobe sadeced to adops, withvoor verta be sens of the cen; det eneste, a godet forgery pot 200 inut sen such as were e ars beivered to peers oid as res temes of the most remote de fare pe CARTRIX, a
2.s ! Iss Piezas cossogony be a Pa Ty no me of cesto sase fabricance of Pacyny, oe oć the pretended OLJŠ succose e CONDOSET OF SasebC220 traaslase, it most scey bave been fabricated functie - De cine a Tejad re a for some perpose: Tis possible to coeEnar procé crecebe red saam mibe a certe pose ender of these writers could
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