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with one glance of his eye upon the paper, till he the salutations of the master before the chair came to the fatal place where he was stabbed. where the stranger is to be seated; for he salutes
South. it most profoundly, and wipes the dust away I shall not trouble my reader with the first salutes with the skirts of his robe. The lower class of of our three friends.
Addison. People are equally nice in these punctilios; and SALUTATION, VARIOUS MODES OF. Modes of ambassadors pass forty days in practising them salutation have, in different countries, very dif- before they can appear at court. The marks of ferent characters, and it is not uninteresting to honor are frequently arbitrary ; to be seated, examine their shades. Many display a refine- with us, is a mark of repose and familiarity; to ment of delicacy; others are remarkable for their stand up, that of respect. There are countries, simplicity, or sensibility. The islanders, near however, in which princes will only be addressed the Philippines, take the hand or foot of him by persons who are seated, and it is considered they salute, and with it they gently rub their as a favor to be permitted to stand in their preface. The Laplanders apply their nose strongly sence. This custom prevails in despotic counagainst that of the persons they salute. Dampier tries : a despot cannot suffer without disgust the says that, at New Guinea, they are satisfied in elevated figure of his subjects; he is pleased to placing on their heads the leaves of trees, which bend their bodies with their genius : his presence have ever passed for symbols of friendship and must lay those who behold him prostrate on the peace. Other salutations are very incommodious; earth : he desires no eagerness, no attention; he it requires great practice to enable a man to be would only inspire terror. polite in an island in the Straits of the Sound. SALUTE, in military matters, a discharge of Houtman tells us, “They raised his left foot, which artillery or small arms, or both, in honor of some they passed gently over the right leg, and thence person of extraordinary quality. The colors over his face. The inhabitants of the Philip- likewise salute royal persons, and generals compines bend their body very low, in placing their manding in chief; which is done by lowering hands on their cheeks, and raising at the same the point to the ground. In the field, when a time one foot in the air, with their knee bent. regiment is to be reviewed by the king or his An Ethiopian takes the robe of another, and ties general, the drums beat a march as he passes it about his own waist, so that he leaves his along the line, and the officers salute one after friend half naked. Sometimes men place them- another, bowing their half-pikes or swords to the selves naked before the person whom they salute, ground; then recover and take off their bats. to show their humility, and that they are un- The ensigns salute all together by lowering their worthy of a covering in his presence. This was colors. In the navy this ceremony is variously practised before Sir Joseph Banks, when he re- performed, according to the circumstances, rank, ceived the visit of two Otaheitan ladies. Some- or situation of the parties. It consists in firing a times they only undress partially. The Japanese certain number of cannon, or volleys of small only take off a slipper; the people of Arracan arms; in striking the colors or topsails; or in their sandals in the street, and their stockings in one or more general shouts of the whole ship's the house. The grandees of Spain claim the crew, mounted on masts or rigging for that purright of appearing covered before the king to pose. The principal regulations with regard to show that they are not so much subjected to him salutes in the royal navy are as follows :- When as the rest of the nation. When two negro mo- a flag-officer salutes the admiral and commander narchs visit they embrace in snapping three times in chief of the feet he is to give him fifteen the middle finger. When the inhabitants of Car- guns; but wben captains salute him they are to mena, says Athenæus, would show a peculiar give him seventeen guns. The admiral and commark of esteem, they opened a vein, and pre- mander-in-chief of the fleet is to return two guns sented for the beverage of their friend, the blood less to flag-officers, and four less to captains. as it issued. The Franks tore hair from their Flag-officers saluting their superior or senior offihead, and presented it to the person whom they cer are to give him thirteen guns. Flag-officers saluted. The slave cut his hair, and offered it are to return an equal number of guns to flagto his master. The Chinese are singularly par- officers bearing their flags on the same mast, and ticular in their personal civilities; they even two guns less to the rest, as also to the captains. calculate the number of their reverences. The When a captain salutes an admiral of the white men move their hands in an affectionate manner, or blue he is to give him fifteen guns; but to while they are joined together on their breast, vice or rear-admirals thirteen guns. When a and bow their head a little. If two persons flag-officer is saluted by two or more of his mameet after a long separation, they both fall on jesty's ships he is not to return the salute till all their knees and bend their faces to the earth, and have finished, and then to do it with such a reathis they repeat two or three times. If a Chi- sonable number of guns as he shall judge proper. nese is asked how he finds himself in health ? he In case of the meeting of two squadrons, the two answers, Very well : thanks to your abundant chiefs only are to exchange salutes. And, if felicity. If they would tell a man that he looks single ships meet a squadron consisting of more well, they say, Prosperity is painted on your than one fag, the principal flag only is to be face; or, Your air announces your happiness. saluted. No salutes shall be repeated by the All these and many other answers are prescribed same ships unless there has been a separation of by the Chinese academy of compliments. There six months at least. None of his majesty's ships are determined the number of bows, the expres- of war, commanded only by captains, shall give sions to be employed, the genuflections, and the or receive salutes from one another, in whatsoever inclinations to be made to the right or left hand, part of the world they meet. A Aag-officer commanding in chief shall be saluted, upon his first ers or belonging to his majesty's subjects, saluting hoisting his flag, by all the ships present, with the admiral of the fleet, shall be answered by six such a number of guns as is allowed by the first, guns less; when they salute any other flag-ships, third, or fifth articles. When any of his ma- they shall be answered by four guns less; and, jesty's ships meet with any ship or ships belong- if they salute men of war commanded by cap' ing to any foreign prince or state, within his tains, they shall be answered by two guns less, majesty's seas (which extend to Cape Finisterre), If several merchant ships salute in company, no it is expected that the said foreign ships do return is to be made till all have finished, and strike their topsail, and take in their flag, in ac- then by such a number of guns as shall be knowledgment of his majesty's sovereignty in thought proper; but, though the merchant-ships those seas : and if any shall refuse, or offer to should answer, there shall be no second return. resist, it is enjoined to all flag-officers and com- None of his majesty's ships of war shall salute manders to use their utmost endeavours to com- any of his majesty's forts or castles in Great Bripel them thereto, and not suffer any dishonor to tain or Ireland on any pretence whatsoever. be done to his majesty. And if any of his ma- SALUZZO, a district of Piedmont, forming jesty's subjects shall so much forget their duty part of the continental states of the king of Sara as to omit striking their topsail in passing by his dinia, and bounded by the county of Nice, the majesty's ships, the name of the ship and inaster, valley of Lucerne, and the frontier of France, and whence and whither bound, together with extending along the province of Dauphiny. It affidavits of the fact, are to be sent up to the has a superficial extent of 750 square miles, secretary of the admiralty, in order to their being mountainous and rugged; but, from warmth of proceeded against in the admiralty court. And climate, its soil is in many parts fertile, producit is to be observed that, in his majesty's seas, his ing corn, hemp, fruit, wine, and silk. It is majesty's ships are in nowise to strike to any; commonly called the marquisate of Saluzzo. Poand that in other parts no ship of his majesty is pulation 126,000. to strike her flag or topsail to any foreigner, un- Saluzzo, a town of the Sardinian states, in the less such foreign ship shall have first struck, or north-west of Italy, the capital of the above dis. at the same time struck, her flag or topsail to his trict, situated at the foot of the Alps, not far majesty's ship. The flag-officers and commanders from the source of the Po. Including its subof his majesty's ships are to be careful to main- urbs, it has above 10,000 inhabitants. It is totain his majesty's honor upon all occasions, lerably well built, and contains a cathedral and giving protection to his subjects, and endeavour- several churches worth notice. The silk manuing, what in them lies, to secure and encourage factures are extensive. It is the see of a bishop, them in their lawful commerce ; and they are and stands on an eminence. Twenty-eight miles not to injure, in any manner, the subjects of his south of Turin. majesty's friends and allies. If a foreign admiralS ALZBURG, a province and city in the west meets with any of his majesty's ships, and salutes of Austria, lying between Styria, Tyrol, and them, he shall receive gun for gun. If he a Bavaria, Its area, since the cession of Berchbe a vice-admiral, the admiral shall answer with tolsgaden to Bavaria, is about 2800 square miles, two guns less; if a rear-admiral, the admiral and its population 142,000. It consists partly and vice-admiral shall return two less. But if of a great valley, with the Salza flowing along the ship be commanded by a captain only, the the middle, and partly of a track of mountains flag-officer shall give two guns less, and captains and defiles. The ground is highest in the south, an equal number. When any of his majesty's where it forms part of the Noric Alps. The cliships come to an anchor in any foreign port or mate of this mountainous region is much more road, within cannon-shot of its forts, the captain severe than might be expected in 46° 55' and 47° may salute the place with such a number of guns 58' N. lat. Even in the neighbourhood of Salzas has been customary, upon good assurance burg, the hills, which are here much inferior to of having the like number returned, but not those of the south, are covered with snow before otherwise. But if the ship bear a flag, the flag- October. In the south the winter lasts, with litofficer shall first carefully inform himself how tle intermission, from the beginning of Novemflags of the like rank, belonging to other crowned ber to April, and showers and frosts follow till heads, have given or returned salutes, and to in- about the end of June. The Sirocco, so well sist upon the same terms of respect. It is known in the Mediterranean, then passes along allowed to the commanders of his majesty's ships these valleys from Italy, and, though much cooled in foreign parts to salute the persons of any ad- in this mountain track, has not even here lost its mirals, commanders-in-chief, or captains of ships power, though it seldom lasts above a day. of war of foreign nations, and foreign noblemen, SAMANAP, a large town on the south-east or strangers of rank, coming on board to visit coast of the island of Madura. It is situated on the ship; and the number of guns is left to the a fine bay, which, though rather shallow, will commander, as shall be suitable to the occasion admit of large brigs or prows, lying close up to and quality of the person visiting ; but he is the town. This place carries on an extensive nevertheless to remain accountable for any ex- commerce; and the country abounds in rice, cesses in the abuse of this liberty. If the ship and teak timber. Here the Dutch used to build visited be in company with other ships of war, their largest ships for the country trade. the captain is not to make use of the civilities SAMĂNEANS, an ancient philosophical sect allowed in the preceding articles but with leave of India, mentioned by Greek writers, who deand consent of the commander-in-chief or the voted themselves entirely to the study of divine senior captain. Merchant ships, whether foreign- wisdom, and gave up all private property, com
mitting the care of their families to the State. village Ginæa, in the Campus Magnus, and endTheir Society was supported at the public ex- ing at the toparchy called Acrobatena. (Josephus). pense. They were a kind of magi, and have Its soil differed in nothing from that of Judea; been confounded by some with the Brahmins. both equally hilly and champaign, both equally They proceeded from Ariana, a province of Per- fertile in corn and fruit (id.): called the kingsia, and the neighbouring countries, spread them- dom of Samaria in Ephraim (Bible); comprising selves in India, and taught new doctrines. The the ten tribes, and consequently all the country Brahmins, before their arrival, were in the highest to the north of Judea, and east and west of Jorperiod of their glory, were the only oracles of In- dan. Both the kingdom and city are now called dia, and their principal residence was on the Naplous. banks of the Ganges, and in the adjacent moun- SAMARIA, the capital city of the kingdom of tains; while the Samaneans were settled towards Samaria, or of the ten tribes. It was built by the Indus. Others say that the Brahmins ac- Omri king of Israel, who began to reign A. M. quired all their knowledge from the Samaneans. 3079, and died in 3086. 1 Kings xvi. 24. He T'he most celebrated and ancient of the Samanean bought the hill Samaria of Shemer for two tadoctors was Boutta, or Buddah, who was born lents of silver, or for the sum of £684 : 7:6. It A. A.C. 683. His scholars paid him divine ho- took the name of Samaria from Shemer the owner nors; and his doctrine, which consisted chiefly of the hill; though some think there were alin the transmigration of souls, and in the rever- ready some beginnings of a city, because, before ence of cows, was adopted not only in India, the reign of Omri, there is mention made of Sa. but also in Japan, China, Siam, and Tartary. maria (1 Kings xiii. 32) in A. M. 3030. But It was propagated, according to M. de Saint others take this for a prolepsis, or an anticipation, Croix, in Thibet, in the eighth century, and suc- in the discourse of the man of God, who speaks ceeded there the ancient religion of Zamolxis. of Samaria under the reign of Jeroboam. HowThe Samaneans, or Buddists, were entirely de- ever' this be, it is certain that Samaria was no stroyed in India by the jealous rage of the considerable place, and did not become the Brahmins, whose absurd practices and fables they capital of the kingdom of Israel till after the affected to treat with contempt; but several of reign of Omri. Before him, the kings of Israel their books are still preserved and respected on dwelt at Shechem, or at Tirzah. Samaria was the coasts of Malabar. Several of the Brahmin situated upon an agreeable and fruitful hill, and in orders have also adopted their manner of living, an advantageous situation, and was twelve miles agd openly profess the greatest part of their doc- from Dothaim, twelve from Merom, and four trines.
from Atharoth. Josephus says it was a day's SAMAR, one of the Philippines, situated journey from Jerusalem. Besides, though it was south-east from the large island of Luzon, from built upon an eminence, yet it must have had which it is separated by a strait about five water in abundance; since we find medals leagues in breadth. In length it may be esti- struck in this city, wherein is represented the mated at 140 miles, by sixty the average breadth. goddess Astarte ireading a river under foot. In this island the soil is extremely fertile, easily And Josephus says that, when it was taken by cultivated, and rewards the industry of the la- John Hyrcanus, he caused the brook to flow borer with at least forty-fold.
over its ruins, to obliterate all marks of it. The SAMARA, in botany, a genus of the mono- kings of Samaria omitted nothing to make the gynia order, and tetrandria class of plants : CAL. city the strongest, the finest, and the richest, that quadripartite : cor. tetrapetalous : stamina im- was possible. Ahab built there a palace of mersed in the base of the petal: stigma funnel- ivory (1 Kings xxii. 39), that is there were many shaped. Species four, natives of the East and ornaments of ivory in it. Amos describes SaWest Indies, and of the Cape.
maria under Jeroboam II., as a city sunk into SAMARCAND, a great city of Asia, the for- all excesses of luxury and effeminacy. (Amos mer capital of Independent Tartary, and, under jii. 15, and iv. 1, 2). Benhadad king of Syria Timur, of an empire which extended over a great built public places or streets in Samaria (1 Kings part of this continent. Clavijo, a Spanish am- xx. 34), probably for traffic, where his people bassador, who visited it about A. D. 1400, esti- dwelt to promote trade. His son Ben-hadad mated the population of the city and suburbs at besieged it under Ahab (1 Kings xx. 1, 2, 3, &c.) 150,000. A considerable number, for want of A. M. 3203. In 3204 Ben-hadad brought av habitations, were obliged to make their habi- army into the field, but it was again cut in tations in the surrounding rocks. The country, pieces. Some years after this Ben-hadad came for two leagues round, was entirely covered with a third time, lay down before Samaria, and relarge villages, gardens, and country houses, the duced it to such necessities by famine that a residence of Tartar chiefs; so that to a stranger mother was there forced to eat her own child; approaching, a vast forest seemed to enclose it. but the city was relieved by a sensible exertion Its joland commerce was most extensive. The of the protection of God. Lastly, it was besiegpomp of Timur's court, and of his numeroused by Shalmaneser king of Assyria, in the ninth palaces, is said to have surpassed description. year of Hoshea king of Israel (2 Kings xvii. 6, 7, Our information with regard to the modern state &c.), and fourth of Hezekiah king of Judah. It of this once celebrated capital, is very imperfect. was taken three years after, in A. M. 3283. The
SAMARIA, in ancient geography, one of the prophet Hosea speaks of the cruelties exercised three larger districts on this side of the Jordan, by Shalmaneser against the besieged (Ilosea x. situated in the middle between Galilee on the 4-8); and Micah says that this city was renorth, and Judea on the south, beginning at the duced to a heap of stones. (Mic. i. 6). The Cuthites, who were sent by Esarhaddon to in- may fix the epoch of the Samaritans at the takhabit the country of Samaria, did not think it ing of Samaria by Salmaneser, in A. M. 3283. worth their while to repair the ruins of this city, This prince carried away the Israelites, and asthey dwelt at Shechem, which they made their signed them dwellings beyond the Euphrates, capital. They were still upon this footing when and in Assyria (2 Kings xvii. 24). He sent Alexander the Great came into Phænicia and other inhabitants in their stead, of whom the Judea. However the Cuthites had rebuilt some most considerable were the Cuthites, a people of the houses of Samaria, from the time of the descended from Cush, and who are probably of return from the captivity, since Ezra then speaks the number of those whom the ancients knew by of the inhabitants of Samaria (Ezra iv. 17; Nehem. the name of Scythians. See Cuth. His suciv. 2); and the Samaritans, jealous of the favors that cessor Esarhaddon, being informed that the peoAlexander the Great had conferred on the Jews, ple which had been sent to Samaria were infested revolted from him while he was in Egypt, and by lions (3 Kings xvii. 25), imputed it to their burnt Andromachus alive, whom Alexander had ignorance of the manner of worshipping the god left governor of Syria. Alexander marched against of the country; and sent a priest of the god of them, took Samaria, and put in Macedonians to Israel that he might teach them the religion of inhabit it; giving the country around it to the the Hebrews. But they blended this religion Jews; and, to encourage them to cultivate it, he with that which they professed before; so they granted them an exemption from tribute. The continued to worship their idols, in conjunction kings of Egypt and Syria, who succeeded Alex- with the God of Israel, not perceiving how inander, deprived them of the property of this compatible these two religions were. It is not country. But Alexander Balas king of Syria known how long they continued in this state; restored to Jonathan Maccabæus the cities of but, at the return from the captivity of Babylon, Lydda, Ephrem, and Ramatha, which he cut off they had entirely quitted the worship of their from the country of Samaria. (1 Mac. x. 30, idols; and, when they asked permission of the 38, and xi. 28, 34). Lastly, the Jews re-enter- Israelites that they might labor with them at the ed into the full possession of this whole country rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem, they affirmunder John Hyrcanus, the Asmonæan, who took ed, that from the time that Esarhaddon had Samaria, and ruined it as above-mentioned. It brought them into this country they had always continued in this condition to A. M. 3937, when worshipped the Lord. (Ezra iv. 1, 2, 3). And Aulus Gabinius was the proconsul of Syria, and indeed, after the return from the captivity, the gave it the name of Gabiniana. But it was still scripture nowhere reproaches them with idolainconsiderable, till Herod the Great restored it trous worship, though it does not dissemble to its ancient lustre, and named it Sebaste, the either their jealousy against the Jews, or the ill Greek for Augusta, in honor of Augustus, who offices they had done them at the court of Persia, had given him the property of it. The sacred by their slanders and calumnies, or the strataauthors of the New Testament mention but little gems they contrived to binder the repairing of of Samaria ; and when they do, it is rather of the the walls of Jerusalem. (Nehem. ii. 10, 19; iv. country about it than of the city. (See Luke 2, &c.; vi. 1, 2, &c.). It does not appear that xvii. 11; John iv. 4, 5). It was there our Lord there was any temple in Samaria, in common to had the conversation with a Samaritan woman of all those people who came thither from beyond Sychar. After the death of St. Stephen (Acts the Euphrates, before the coming of Alexander viii. 1, 2, 3), when the disciples were dispersed the Great into Judea. Till then every one was through Judea and Samaria, St. Philip the dea- left to his own discretion, and worshipped the con withdrew into the city of Samaria, where he Lord where he thought fit. But they soon commade several converts. When the apostles prehended, from the books of Moses which they heard that this city had received the word of had in their hands, and from the example of the God, they sent Peter and John thither, to con- Jews, that God was to be worshipped in that municate the Holy Ghost to such as had been place only which he had chosen. As they could baprised. There they found Simon Magus. not go to the temple of Jerusalem, which the See Simon. Sainaria is never called Sebaste in Jews would not permit, they resolved to build a the New Testament, though strangers hardly temple of their own upon Mount Gerizim, near knew it but by this name. St. Jerome says that Shechem, their capital. Therefore Sanballat, the it was thought Obadiah was buried at Samaria. governor of the Samaritans, applied to AlexanThey also showed there the tombs of Elisha and der, as Josephus says, but more probably to Daof St. John the baptist. There are found many rius Nothus, king of Persia, as Dr. Prideaux ancient medals that were struck at Sebaste and supposes (see SaxBALLAT); and told him he had Samaria ; and some bishops of this city have a son-in-law, called Manasses, son to Jaddus the subscribed to the ancient councils.
high priest of the Jews, who had retired to SaSAMARITANS, the people of the city and maria with a great number of other persons of lnis province of Samaria. In this sense, it should own nation : that he desired to build a temple in seem that we inight give the name of Samaritans this province, where he might exercise the highto the Israelites of the ten tribes, who lived in priesthood ; that this undertaking would be to the the city and territory of Samaria. However, the advantage of the king's affairs, because, in buildsacred authors give the name of Samaritans only ing a temple in the province of Samaria, the nato those strangers whom the kings of Assyria tion of the Jews would be divided, who were a sent from beyond the Euphrates to inhabit the turbulent and seditious people, and by such a kingdom of Samaria, when they carried captive division would be made weaker, and less in a conthe Israelites that were there before. Thus we dition to undertake new enterprises. The king readily consented to what Sanballat desired, and were no rule to the other Samaritans, who prothe Samaritans presently began their building of bably reckoned their years by the reigns of the the temple of Gerizim, which from that time emperors they were subject to, till they fell under they have always frequented, and still frequent as the Mahometans, under whom they live at this the place where the Lord intended to receive the day; and they reckon their year by the Hegira, adoration of his people. It is of this mountain, or according to the era of the Ishmaelites. Such and of this temple, that the Samaritan woman of as desire to be further acquainted with the hisSychar spoke to our Saviour. (John iv. 20). See tory of the ancient Samaritans, we refer to the GERIZIM. Josephus adds that the Samaritans works of Josephus. As to their religion, it is did not long continue subject to Alexander ; they said that they receive only the Pentateuch, and revolted the very next year, and he drove them reject all the other books of scripture, chiefly the out of Samaria, put Macedonians in their room, prophets, who have expressly declared the coming and gave the province of Samaria to the Jews. of the Messiah. They have also been accused This preference that Alexander gave to the Jews of believing God to be corporeal, of denying the contributed not a little to increase that hatred Holy Ghost, and the resurrection of the dead. that had already obtained between these two Jesus Christ says (John iv. 22) they worship they people. When an Israelite had deserved pup- know not what. The Samaritan woman is a sufishment, for the violation of some important point ficient testimony that the Samaritans expected a of the law, he took refuge in Samaria. When Messiah, who they hoped would clear up all their the Jews were in a prosperous condition, and doubts (John iv. 25). Several of the inhabitaffairs were favorable to then, the Samaritans ants of Shechem believed at the preaching of called themselves Hebrews, and pretended to be Jesus Christ, and several of Samaria believed at of the race of Abraham. But, when the Jews that of St. Philip. The modern Samaritans are fell under persecution, the Samaritans disowned not numerous. Joseph Scaliger, being curious them, and acknowledged themselves to be Phæto know their usages, wrote to the Samaritans of nicians originally. This was their practice in Egypt, and to the high-priest of the sect who rethe time of Antiochus Epiphanes.' The Samari- sided at Neapolis in Syria. They returned two taos, having received the Pentateuch from the answers to Scaliger, dated in the year of the priest that was sent by Esarhaddon, have pre- Hegira 998. These were preserved in the served it to this day, in the same language and French king's library, and were translated into character it was then, that is, in the old Hebrew Latin by Morin, and printed in England in the or Phænician character which we now call the collection of that father's letters, in 1682, under Samaritan, to distinguish it from the modern the title of Antiquitates Ecclesiæ Orientalis. By Hebrew character, at present used in the books these it appears that they believe in God, in of the Jews. These last, after their captivity, Moses, the holy law, the mountain of Gerizim, changed their old characters, and took up those the house of God, the day of vengeance and of of the Chaldee, which they had been used to at peace; that they value themselves upon obBabylon, and which they continue to use. It is serving the law of Moses in many points more wrong, says F. Calmet, to give this the name of rigidly than the Jews themselves." They keep the Hebrew character, for that can be said pro- the sabbath with the utmost strictness, without perly only of the Samaritan text. The critics stirring from the place they are in, but only to have taken notice of some variations between the the synagogue. They go not out of the city, and Pentateuch of the Jews and that of the Samari- abstain from their wives on that day. They tans; but these chiefly regard the word Gerizim, never delay circumcision beyond the eighth day. which the Samaritans purposely introduced to They still sacrifice in the temple on mount Gefavor their pretensions, that mount Gerizim was rizim, and give to the priest what is enjoined by the place in which the Lord was to be adored. the law. They do not marry their nieces as the The religion of this people was at first the Pa- Jews do, nor do they allow a plurality of wives. gan. Every one worshipped the deity they had Their hatred for the Jews is testified by Josebeen used to (2 Kings xvii. 29.-31). The Ba- phus, as well as in the New Testament. (See bylonians worshipped Succoth-benoth; the Cu- John iv. 9). The Jewish historian says that one thites, Nergal; the Hamathites, Ashima : the passover night, when they opened the gates of Avites, Nibhaz and Tartak; the Sepharvites, the temple, some Samaritans had scattered the Adrammelech and Anammelech. Afterwards, bones of dead men there, to insult the Jews, the Samaritans added that of the Lord, the God and to interrupt their devotions. And the Saof Israel (ibid. 32, 33). But they gave a proof maritan woman of Sychar was surprised that of their little regard to the worship of the true Jesús talked with her, and asked drink of her, God, when, under Antiochus Epiphanes, they being a Samaritan. When our Saviour sent his consecrated their temple at Gerizim to Jupiter apostles to preach in Judea, he forbad them to Argivus. In the time of Alexander the Great, enter into the Samaritan cities (Matt. x. 5); they celebrated the sabbatical year, and conse- because he looked upon them as schismatics. quently the year of jubilee also. Under the One day, when he sent his disciples to provide kings of Syria they followed the epoch of the him a lodging in one of the cities of the SamariGreeks, or that of the Seleucidæ. After Herod tans, they would not entertain him, because they had re-established Samaria, and given it the name perceived he was going to Jerusalem (Luke ix. of Sebaste, the inhabitants, in their medals, and 52, 53). And, when the Jews were provoked at all public acts, took the date of this new estab- the reproaches of Jesus Christ, they told him he lishment. But the old inbabitants of Samaria, was a Samaritan (John viii. 48). Josephus reof whom the greater part were Pagans or Jews, lates that some Samaritans having killed several