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and about two minutes after that scatter through- The duties on salt in this country are not. out the pan, as equally as may be, an ounce and wholly insignificant. three quarters of common alum, pulverised very Salt, in chemistry. This term has been fine; then instantly, with the common iron usually employed to denote a compound, in scrape-pan, stir the brine very briskly in every definite proportions, of any acid, with an alkali, part of the pan for about a minute; then let the earth, or metallic oxide. When the proportions pan settle, and constantly feed the fire, so that of the constituents are so adjusted that the the brine may never be quite scalding hot, yet resulting substance does not affect the color of always a great deal more than luke-warm; let infusion of litmus, or red cabbage, it is then the pan stand working thus for about three days called a neutral salt. When the predominance and nights, and then draw it, or take out the of acid is evinced by the reddening of these insalt. The brine remaining will, by this time, be fusions the salt is said to be acidulous, and the so cold that it will not work at all, therefore prefix super, or bi, is used to indicate this excess fresh coals must be thrown upon the fire, and of acid. If, on the contrary, the acid appears to the brine must boil for about half an hour, but be less than is necessary for neutralising the alkalinot near so violently as before the first drawing; nity of the base, the salt is then said to be with then, with the usual instrument, take out such excess of base, and the prefix sub is attached salt as is beginning to fall, and put it apart; to its name. See CHEMISTRY, and the various then let the pan settle and cool. When the brine acids and metals in the alphabetical arrangement. becomes no hotter than one can just put one's Salt, ARSENICAL, NEUTRAL OF MACQUER. hand into it, proceed as before, and let the Superarseniate of potash. quantity of alum not exceed an ounce and a SALT, BITTER, CATHARTIC. Sulphate of quarter, and about eight-and-forty hours after magnesia. draw the pan, and take out all the salt. SALT, Common. Muriate of soda. Lowndes's Brine Salt improved.
SALT, DIGESTIVE, of SylviUS. Acetate of Mr. Lowndes afterwards directs cinders to be potash. chiefly used in preparing the fires, the better to SALT, DIURETIC. Acetate of potash. preserve an equal heat, and by, that means also Salt, Epsom. Sulphate of magnesia. he proposes saving a considerable expense, as- Salt, FebrIFUGE, OF SYLVIUS. Muriale of serting that at present cinders are so little valued potash. in Cheshire as to be thrown out into the high- SALT, FUSIBLE. Phosphate of ammonia. ways. Mr. Lowndes adds that, in a pan of the Salt, FUSIBLE, OF URINE. Triple phosphate size before-mentioned, there may be prepared, of soda and ammonia. at each process, 1600 lbs. weight of salt" from SALT, GLAUBER's. Sulphate of soda. the best brine in Cheshire, and 1066 lbs. from SALT, MARINE. Muriate of soda. the ordinary brine of that county. This, as the Salt, MARINE, ARGILLACEOUS. Muriate of process continues five days, is a little more than alumina. five bushels and a half of salt a day from the SALT, MICROCOSMIC. Triple phosphate of best brine, and a little more than four bushels a soda and ammonia. day from the ordinary kind.
SALT, NITROUS, AMMONIACAL. Nitrate of The commerce of salt has formerly brought ammonia. an immense profit to France, or rather to the Salt or Amber. Succinic acid. royal treasury than to the makers and sellers, Salt or Benzoin. Benzoic acid. on account of the heavy duty. The English and SALT OF CANAL. Sulphate of magnesia. Dutch, and (when they are at war with France) SALT OF COLCOTHAR. Sulphate of iron. the Swedes and Danes, have taken off most of Salt of Egra. Sulphate of magnesia. the salt of the Comté Nantois; paying for it, com Salt of LEMONS, ESSENTIAL. Superoxalate munibus annis, from twenty to thirty-five livres of potash. the load. That of Guerande has been preferred, Salt oF SATURN. Acetate of lead. by the English and Irish, to all the rest, as the SALT OF SEDLITZ. Sulphate of magnesia. best. Yet that of Borneuf, though browner and SALT OF SEIGNETTE. Triple tartrate of potheavier, is most used in France, as also through- ash and soda. out the Baltic; particularly in Poland, where, SALT OF SODA. Subcarbonate of soda. besides the ordinary uses, it serves in tilling the Salt of SORREL. Superoxalate of potash. ground; being found to warm it, and prevent SALT or TARTAR. Subcarbonate of potash. little vermin from gnawing the grain. The Eng SALT OF VITRIOL. Purified sulphate of zinc. lish and Dutch have often striven hard, in times SALT, PERLATE. Phosphate of soda. of war, to do without the French salt; and to Salt, POLYCHREST, OF GLASER. Sulphate of that end have endeavoured to take salt from the potash. Spaniards and Portuguese; but there is a dis- SALT, SEDATIVE. Boracic acid. agreeable sharpness and serosity natural to this SALT, Spirit of. Muriatic acid was formerly salt, which renders it very unfit for the salting of called by this name, which it still retains in flesh, fish, &c. To remove this they boil it with commerce. sea-water, and a little French salt, which they SALT, SULPHUREOUS, OF STAHL. Sulphate of procure by means of neutral nations, which not potash. only softens it, but increases its quantity by one- Salt, WONDERFUL PERLATE. Phosphate of third. But it should seem their refining does soda. not succeed to their wish, by the eagerness with SALT MInes. The salt mines of Vielicza, which they return to the salt of Bretagne, &c. near Cracow, Poland, are very extraordinary caverns. Wraxall describes them thus, in his SALTA'TION, n. 3. Lat. saltatio. The act Memoirs of the Courts of Berlin, Dresden, War- of dancing; jumping : beat; palpitation. saw, Vienna :- After being let down,' says he, The locusts being ordained for saltation, their
by a rope to the depth of 230 feet, our con- hinder legs do far exceed the others. ductors led us through galleries which, for lofti
Browne's Vulgar Errours. ness and breadth, seemed rather to resemble the If the great artery be hurt, you will discover it avenues to some subterranean palace than pas- by its saltation and florid colour. sages cut in a mine. They were perfectly dry
Wiseman's Surgery. in every part, and terminated in two chapels, SALTCOATS, a sea-port town of Ayrshire, composed entirely of salt, hewn out of the solid five miles north-west of Irvine. It has an excelmass. The images which adorn the altars, as lent harbour, capable of admitting vessels of 220 well as the pillars and ornaments, were all of tons. In 1700 it became the property of Sir the same transparent materials; the points and Robert Cunningham, who began to work the spars of which, reflecting the rays of light from valuable strata of coals in the neighbourhood, the lamps which the guides held in their hands, and built a harbour at Saltcoats to export them. produced an effect equally novel and beautiful. He also erected several large pans for the manuDescending lower into the earth, by means of facture of salt; which proved so successful that ladders, I found myself in an immense hall or there is now made above 3000 bolls annually. cavern of salt, many hundred feet in height, Ship-building was also commenced and carried length, and dimensions, the floor and sides of on with success. Notwithstanding the populawhich were cut with exact regularity; 1000 per- tion and prosperity of this town it has neither sons might dine in it without inconvenience, magistrates, nor police, nor even a weekly marand the eye in vain attempted to trace or define ket, but only one annual fair. A bailiff levies its limits. Nothing could be more sublime than the dues of anchorage, and executes such regulathis vast subterranean apartment, illuminated by tions as are necessary for loading the vessels, flambeaux, which faintly discover its prodigious sailing, &c., and the masters or owners of these magnitude, and leave the imagination at liberty vessels enter into a written obligation to observe to enlarge it indefinitely. After remaining about these regulations. Saltcoats lies ten miles northtwo hours and a half under ground, I was drawn west of Ayr, and twenty-two south-west of Glasup again in three minutes with the greatest facility.' gow,
SALTA, or San Miguel De Salta, a city Salter (John), an English officer, born in and district of Tucuman, South America, was 1709, who by his merit rose from the ranks to founded in 1582, under the name of San Clemente be a major-general, and lieutenant-colenol, of the de la Nueva Sevilla, but was afterwards changed first regiment of foot. The duke of Cumberland, to its present site in the beautiful valley of Lerma. then in the guards, first noticed him, made him Its environs are very fertile, abounding in wheat, serjeant in his own company, and some time rye, and vines, with pastures for the cattle ex- after gave him a commission, and patronised ported from this place to Peru ; and its commerce him publicly in presence of all the other officers. consists in corn, meal, wine, cattle, salt meat, fat, . He died in 1787, aged seventy-eight. hides, and other commodities, which are sent to SALTER (Samuel), D.D., a learned English all parts of Peru. It is computed that the num- divine, born at Norwich, and educated at the ber of mules fattened in the valley of Lerma Charter House. He was admitted of Benet amount, during the months of February and College, Cambridge, in 1730, where he obtained March, when the annual fair is held, to 60,000; the degree of B. A. and a fellowship. He beand, besides these, there are generally 4000 came soon after preceptor to the sons of Sir Phihorses and cows. The natives are subject to a lip Yorke, chief justice of the king's bench, who species of leprosy, and nearly all the women, also made him his chaplain, a prebendary of after they have attained the age of twenty, have Gloucester, and rector of Burton Coggles, in the goitrous swelling in the throat, which dis- 1740, where he married Miss Secker, a relation figures them very much. It is fifty miles south of the bishop of Oxford. In 1750 he was made of Jujui; and the river which washes the town minister of Great Yarmouth; in 1751 archbishop turns east, and enters the Vermeijo.
Herring created him D.D.; in 1756 the lord SALTASH, a borough and market town of chancellor made him rector of St. Bartholomew; Cornwall, seated on the side of a steep hill, on and, in 1761, master of the Charter House. He the banks of the Tamar; it has three streets, published Pindaric Odes, in Greek, on the nupwhich, from the declivity, are washed clean by tials of the Princes of Wales and Orange; Latin every shower of rain that falls. It possesses Verses on the Death of Queen Caroline; and many privileges, and has jurisdiction on the Sermons, Tracts, &c. He died May 2, 1778. Tamar, to the mouth of the port, claiming an- SALTFLEET, a sea-port town of Lincolnchorage dues of all vessels that enter the harbour; shire, with a market on Saturday; seven miles and their coroner sits upon all bodies found south of the mouth of the Humber, thirty-three drowned in the river. It has sent two members north-east of Lincoln, and 158 north of London. to parliament ever since the reign of Edward VI., SALTIER, n. s. Fr. saultiere. A term of who are elected by the mayor, recorder, six al- heraldry, dermen, and twenty freeholders It has a market A saltier is in the form of a St. Andrew's cross, on Saturday, and sufficient depth of water in its and by some is taken to be an engine to take it harbour for large vessels. It lies six miles beasts; in French it is called un sautoir : it is an north-west of Plymouth, and 220 W.S. W. of honourable bearing.
SALTIER. See HERALDRY. This, says G.
SAL : Leigh, in his Accidence of Arms, was anciently divided into high and low, the latter consisting made of the height of a man, and driven full of of streets filled with store houses on the shores pins, the use of which was to scale walls, &c. of the bay, for the convenience of loading and Upton derives this word from saltus, i.e. a forest. unloading. The French call this ordinary sautoir, from sauter, SALVADOR (St.), the name given by the Portuto leap ; perhaps because it may have been used guese missionaries to the capital of the kingdom by soldiers to leap over walls of towns, which in of Congo, in Western Africa. We have no acformer times were low; but some think it is count of it, except theirs, which is somewhat borne in imitation of St. Andrew's cross. antiquated. They describe it as built at the top
SALTINBANCO, n. $. Lat. saltare in banco, of a rocky and steep hill, in a plain about ten to climb as a mountebank mounts a bank or miles in circumference. The king's palace conbench. A quack or mountebank.
sists of a vast enclosure, about a league in cirSaltinbancoes, quacksalvers, and charlatans, deceive cuit. The Portuguese had a quarter assigned to them : were Æsop alive, the Piazza and Pont-neuf them, they tell us, which they built partly of could not speak their fallacies.
stone and enclosed. They had erected a church, Browne's Vulgar Errours. and invested one of their number with the title He played the saltinbanco's part,
of bishop. The late British expedition, though Transformed to a Frenchman by my art. Hudibras.
they found no Portuguese on any part of the SALTPETRE. See GUNPOWDER and NITRIC Zaire, were yet informed that a few still reAcid.
mained in this capital. 'ABLE, adj. ì. Lat. salvo. Possible SALVADOR (St.), a district of Guatimala, in SALVABILITY, N. s. / to be saved; the noun South America, which produces in great abund. SAL'VAGE, Ssubstantive correspond: ance sugar-cane and indigo. SALVATIÓN. (ing: salvage is a legal SALVADOR (St.), the capital of the above pro
SAL'VATORY. ) claim for assisting a vince, situated on the banks of a river, at the wrecked vessel: salvation, preservation from distance of twelve miles from the Pacific. It eternal death : the act of saving.
has a little trade, and is the residence of a goAs life and death, mercy and wrath, are matters
vernor. Population about 5000 Indians, whites, of understanding or knowledge, all men's salvation,
and castes." 140 miles E.S. E. of Guatimala. and all men's endless perdition, are things so oppo. site, that whosoever doth affirm the one must neces.
SALVADOR (St.), one of the Bahama Islands, sarily deny the other.
Hooker, discovered by Columbus in 1492. It is also Why do we Christians so fiercely argue against the known by the name of Cat Island, and, except salvability of each other, as if it were our wish that at the south extremity, is very narrow. The all should be damned, but those of our particular population in 1797 amounted, including whites, sect ?
Decay of Piety. to 657, and in 1803, the era of patented estates Our wild fancies about God's decrees have in granted by the crown for cultivation, to 28,903. event reprobated more than those decrees, and have SALVADORA, in botany, a genus of the mobid fair to the damning of many whom those left
nogynia order, and tetrandria class of plants : salvable.
CAL. quadrifid : CoR. none : BERRY monosperHim the most High.
mous; species one only, a Persian shrub; the Wrapped in a balmy cloud with winged steeds,
seed covered with an antlus or loose coat.
SALVAGE, adj. Fr. saulvage; Ital. sel-
I consider the admirable powers of sensation, Now spoken and written Savage, which see phantasy, and memory, in what salvatories or reposi
May the Essexian plains
Hule's Origin of Mankind. But suvage beasts, or men as wild as they. Waller.
coverable in an action at law to be brought by Go study salvo and treacle : ply the respective persons to whom the same shall Your tenant's leg, or his sore eye. Chaveland.' be allotted by the justices. And, in case no per- If they shall excommunicate me, hath the doc- ' son shall appear to make his claim to all or any trine of meekness any salve for me then ?
Hammond. of the goods saved, then the chief officer of the
The royal sword thus drawn has cured a wound, . customs of the nearest port shall apply to three
For which no other salve could have been found. of the nearest justices, who shall put him or some
Waller. responsible person in possession of such goods,
Though most were sorely wounded, none were tuch justices taking an account thereof in writ- slain ; ing, to be signed by such officers of the customs; The surgeons soon despoiled them of their arms, i and if the goods shall not be legally claimed And some with salves they cure.
Dryden. within twelve months, by the right owners, they It will be hard if he cannot bring himself off at last shall be publicly sold, or, if perishable, forthwith some salvo or distinction, and be his own conwith sold, and the produce of the sale, after all fessor.
L'Estrange. charges deducted, with a fair account of the He has printed them in such a portable volume whole, shall be transmitted to the exchequer, that many of them may be ranged together on a there to remain for the benefit of the owner, single plate; and is of opinion that a salver of when appearing: who, upon affidavit, or other spectators would be as acceptable an entertainproof of his right, to the satisfaction of one of ment for the ladies, as a salver of sweetmeats.
Addison. the barons of the coif, shall, upon his order, re
If others of a more serious turn join with us deliceive the same out of the exchequer.
berately in their religious professions of loyalty, SALVAGES, a group of uninhabited islands,
us, with any private salvoes or evasions, they would do or rather rocks, off the coast of Africa, immedi
well to consider those maxims in which all casuists ately north of the Canaries.
Id. SALU'BRIOUS, adj. ) Latin salubris. There must be another state to make up the ine
SALU'BRITY, n. s. " Wholesome; health- qualities of this, and salve all irregular appearances. ful; promoting health ; wholesomeness.
Between each act the trembling salver ring. The warm limbeck draws
From soup to sweet wine.
Pope. Salubrious waters from the nocent brood. Philips. This conduct might give Horace the hint to say,
SALVE, n. s. & v. a.) Originally and pro* that, when Homer was at a loss to bring any difficult SA'LVER,
perly salf, which hav matter to an issue, he laid his hero asleep, and this Sal'vo. ing salves in the salved all difficulty.
Broome. plural, the singular in time was borrowed from it. SALVE REGINA, among the Romanists, the Sax. sealf; Lat. salvus, salvo. A glutinous name of a Latin prayer, addressed to the Virgin. matter applied to wounds and hurts; a plaster; It was help ; remedy: to cure by medicaments; help
It was composed by Peter, bishop of Compos
tella. The custom of singing it at the close of by a salvo; salute (obsolete): a salver is a dish the office was begun by order of St. Dominic, to save what is left: salvo, an exception, reser in the congregation of Dominicans at Bologna, vation, or excuse.
about 1237. Gregory IX. first appointed it to Some seek to salve their blotted name
be general. St. Bernard added the conclusion, With others blot, 'till all do taste of shame. Sidney. O dulcis ! O pia, &c.
Our mother tongue, which truly of itself is both SALVI (John), an eminent Italian historical full enough for prose, and stately enough for verse, painter, born near Urbino in 1504. He excelled hath long time been counted most bare and barren of chiefly in copying the works of the great masters, both; which default, when as some endeavoured to which he did with surprising accuracy. He died salve and cure, they patched up the holes with rags in 1590. from other languages. That stranger knight in presence came
SALVIA, sage, a genus of the monogynia And goodly salved them; who mought again
order, and digynia class of plants; natural order Him answered as courtesy became. Faerie Queene.
forty-second, verticillatæ : COR. unequal; filaMany skilful leeches him abide,
ments placed crosswise on a pedicle. The most To salve his hurts.
remarkable species are these :Ignorant I am not how this is salued : they do it
1. S. auriculata, common sage of virtue, is but after the truth is made manifest. Hooker. well known in the gardens and markets. The Let us hence, my sovereign to provide
leaves are narrower than those of the common A salve for any sore that may betide.
sort; they are hoary, and some of them are in'Shakspeare. Henry VI. dented on their edges towards the base, which My more particular,
indentures have the appearance of ears. The And that which most with you should salve my spikes of flowers are longer than those of either
going, Is Fulvia's death.
the second or fourth species, and the whorls are Id. Antony and Cleopatra.
eopatra. generally naked, having no leaves between them. The schoolmen were like the astronomers, who, to The flowers are smaller, and of a deeper blue salve phenomena, framed to their conceit eccentricks and epicycles ; so they, to salve the practice of the
than those of common red sage. church, had devised a great number of strange posi
2. S. officinalis, the common large sage, wbich tions.
is cultivated in gardens, of which there are the Sleep is pain's easiest salve, and doth fulfil following varieties :-1. The common green sage. All offices of death except to kill. Donne. 2. The wormwood sage. 3. The green sage with
They admit many salvos, cautions, and reservations, a variegated leaf. 4. The red sage. 5. The red so as they cross not the chief design. King Charles. sage with a variegated leaf. These are accidental
variations, and therefore are not enumerated as who became professor of Greek at Florence.' species. The common sage grows naturally in He translated Homer's Iliad and Odyssey ; with the southern parts of Europe, but it is here cul- the poems of Hesiod, Theocritus, Anacreon, and tivated in gardens for use; that variety with red many of the minor Greek poets, into Italian or blackish leaves is the most common in the verse. He was a member of the academy de la British gardens; and the wormwood sage is in Crusca, and assisted in the compilation of their greater plenty here than the common green-leaved Dictionary, in 6 vols. He died in Florence in sage, which is not common in gardens.
1729. 3. S. pomifera, with spear-shaped oval entire SALUS, in the Roman mythology, the godleaves, grows naturally in Crete. It has a dess of health, and the daughter of Æsculapius, shrubby stalk, which rises four or five feet high, called Hygiæa by the Greeks. We find her name dividing into several branches. The flowers on many medals of the Roman emperors, with grow in spikes at the end of the branches; they different inscriptions ; as, SALUS PUBLICA, SALUS are of a pale blue color, and have obtuse em- REIPUBLICÆ, SALUS AUGUSTI, &c. palements. The branches have often punctures. SALUSTE (William de), Du Bartas, a French made in them by insects, at which places grow poet, who lived in the sixteenth century. He large protuberances as big as apples, in the same was employed by Henry IV. of France in Engmanner as the galls upon an oak, and the rough land, Denmark, and Scotland; and commanded balls on the briar.
a troop of horse in Gascony, under marechal de 4. S. tomentosa, generally called balsamic Martignan. He was a Calvinist, and died in sage by the gardener. The stalks do not grow 1590, aged forty-six. He wrote a great number so upright as those of the common sage; they of poems; the most famous are, i. The Week, are very hairy, and divide into several branches, or the Creation of the World, in seven books. garnished with broad heart-shaped woolly leaves 2. The Poem of Judith : and, 3. The Battle of standing upon long foot-stalks; they are sawed Ivry, gained by Henry IV. in 1590. He wrote on their edges, and their upper surfaces are in a bombastic style. rough; the leaves which are upon the flower. SAL'UTARY, adj. ? Fr. salutaire; Lat. stalks are oblong and oval, standing upon shorter SAL'UTARINESS, n. s. ) salutaris. Wholesome; foot-stalks, and are very slightly dentated on their healthful; safe; contributing to health or safety : edges; they grow in whorled spikes toward the the noun substantive corresponding. top of the branches; the whorls are pretty far The gardens, yards, and avenues are dry and clean; distant, but few flowers in each ; they are of a and so more salutary as more elegant. Ray. pale blue, about the size of those of the common It was wapt of faith in our Saviour's countrymen, sort. This sage is preferred to all the others for which hindered him from shedding among them the making sage tea. All the sorts of sage may be salutary emanations of his divine virtue; and he did propagated by seeds, if they can be procured ; not many mighty works there, because of their unbut as some of them do not perfect their seeds belief.
Bentley. in this country, and most of the sorts, especially
SALUTATION, n. s.) Fr. salutation; the common kinds for use, are easily propagated
SALUTE', v. a. & n. s. Lat. salutatio. The by slips, it is not worth while to raise them from
act or style of saluseeds. . SALVIANS, or Salvianus, an ancient father
ting ; greeting : to greet; kiss : a kiss : one who
salutes. of the Christian church, who flourished about A. D. 440, and was well skilled in the sciences.
The early village cock Some say he was a Gaul ; others a German. He
Hath twice done salutation to the morn. resided long at Triers, and was called the Jere
One hour hence miah of the fifth century. He acquired such
area such Shall salute your grace of York as mother. reputation for his piety and learning that he was
'Would I had no being. named the master of the bishops. He wrote A If this salute iny blood a jot: it faints me, Treatise on Providence; another on the Avarice To think what follows.
Id. Henry VIII. of the Clergy; and nine epistles, of which Ba- In all publick meetings, or private addresses, use luze has given an excellent edition ; that of Con- those forms of salutation, reverence, and decency. rad Rittershusius, in 2 vols. 8vo., is also esteemed. used amongst the most sober persons. SALVIATI (Francis), an eminent painter,
Taylor's Rule of Holy Living. born in Florence, 1510. His manner of design
On her the angel haii
Bestowed, the holy salutation used ing approached very near that of Raphael ; and
To blest Mary.
Milton. he worked in distemper, fresco, and oil. His
0, what avails me now that honour high naked figures are peculiarly graceful, as well as
To have conceived of God, or that salute, those in drapery. He died in 1563.
Hail highly favoured, among women blest! Id. SALVIATI (Joseph), an eminent painter and
The custom of praying for those that sneeze is mathematician, born in Venice in 1535. His
more ancient than these opinions hereof; so that original name was Porta. He was often employed
not any one disease has been the occasion of this in conjunction with Paul Veronese and Tintoret. salute and deprecation.
Browne. His skill was equally great in designing and color- There cold salutes, but here a lover's kiss. ing; and he wrote several useful Treatises on Mathematics. He died in 1585. Both these Court and state he wisely shuns ; painters took the name of Salviati from a cardi- Nor bribed to servile salutations runs. Dryden, nal, who patronised them greatly.
Continual salutes and addresses entertaining him SALVINI (Antonio Marie), a learned Italian, all the way, kept him from saving 30 great a life, but