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of Ætolia, Phocis, and Baotia. From Greece noese and Venetiaps. As the enemy continued he marched into Servia; reduced the greatest to batter the walls day and night, a great part of part of it; and besieged the strong city of Bel- them was at last beaten down; while the Turks, grade; but here he met with a vigorous repulse, however, were busy filling up the ditch, a new no fewer than 15,000 Turks being slain by the wall was built. This threw the tyrant into a Christians in one sally. In his retreat he was prodigious rage, which was greatly heightened attacked by the celebrated John Hunniades, who when he saw his whole feet worsted by five cut off great numbers of his men. Not long ships, of which four were laden with corn from after he gained a still more complete victory over Peloponnesus, and the other with provisions the enemy in the plains of Transylvania, with from Chios. These made their way through the the loss of only 3000 of his own men, whereas Turkish fleet; and, to the great joy of the Chris20,000 Turks were killed on the field of battle, tians, got safe into the harbour. The Turks atand almost an equal number in the pursuit. Amu- tempted several times to force the haven; but, all rath, who was then at Adrianople, sent an army their efforts proving ineffectual, Mohammed into Trapsylvania far more numerous than the formed the design of conveying eighty galleys former ; but they were attended with no better eight miles over land into it. This he accomsuccess, being cut off almost to a man by the plished by means of certain engines, the contribrave Hungarian. He gained several other vic- vance of a renegado; and, having then either tories no less remarkable; but was at last en- taken or sunk all the Christian ships, he caused tirely defeated in 1448; and with this defeat a bridge to be built over it with surprising expeended all hopes of preserving the empire. The dition. Thus the city was laid open on that unhappy emperor was now obliged to pay an side likewise, and assaulted on all sides. Conannual tribute of 300,000 aspers to the sultan, stantine, now feeling that he could not long hold and to yield up to him some strong holds on the out against such a mighty and successful enemy, Euxine. However, as he doubted not but Amu- sent deputies to Mohammed, offering to acknowrath would soon attempt to become master of ledge himself his vassal, by paying him yearly what the capital, he renewed the union between the tribute he should impose, provided he raised Greek and Latin churches, hoping that this the siege and withdrew. The tyrant answered would induce the western princes to assist him that he was determined to become master of the in the defence of the city. This produced great city: but if Constantine would deliver it up disturbances, which the emperor did not long forthwith, he would yield to him the Peloponsurvive; as he died in 1448, leaving the empire, nesus, and other provinces to his brothers, which now confined within the walls of Constantinople, they should enjoy peaceably : but if he held out to his brother Constantine XIII.
to the last extremity, and suffered it to be taken Amurath died in 1450, and was succeeded by by assault, he would put him and the whole nohis son Mohammed II. In the beginning of his bility to the sword, carry the inhabitants into reign he entered into an alliance with Constan- captivity, and give up the city to plunder. These tine, and pretended a great desire to live in conditions were rejected by the emperor. The friendship with him ; but no sooner had he put siege was therefore renewed with vigor, and conan end to a war in which he was engaged with tinued till the 25th of May; when a report Ibrahim king of Caramania, than he built a being spread in the Turkish camp that à large strong fort on the European side of the Bospho- army was advancing to the relief of the city under rus, opposite to another in Asia ; in both of the celebrated John Hunniades, the soldiers which he placed garrisons. These two castles began to mutiny, and pressed Mohammed to commanded the Straits; and the former, being raise it. Mohammed was upon the point of but five miles from the city, kept it in a manner complying, when he was advised by Zagan, a blocked up. This soon produced å misunder- Turkish officer of great intrepidity, and an irrestanding between him and the emperor, which corcileable enemy to the Christians, to attempt ended in the siege of the city. This commenced immediately a general assault. To this he said on the 6th of April, 1453 ; Mohammed's numer- the soldiers would not be averse, provided the ous forces covering the plains before it on the sultan promised to abandon the city to be plunland side, and a fleet of 300 sail blockading it dered by them. Mohammed accordingly pubby sea. The emperor, however, had taken care lished a proclamation throughout the camp, deto secure the haven, in which were three large claring that he gave up to his soldiers all the wealth ships, twenty small ones, and a great number of of the opulent capital before them, requiring for galleys. Mohammed began the siege by plant- himself only the empty houses; and they unaniing batteries, and raising works in several places mously desired to be led to the attack. Hereas high as the walls, whence the besieged were upon Constantine was summoned for the last incessantly galled with arrows. He had in his time to deliver up the city, with a promise of his camp a piece of ordnance of prodigious size, life and liberty ; but to this .he answered that which is said to have carried a stone ball of he was unalterably determined to defend tne 100 lb. With this piece the enemy made several city or perish with it. The attack began at three breaches in the walls; which, however, were re- in the morning on the 29th of May; such troops paired with incredible expedition. Mohammed, being first employed as the sultan valued least, the better to carry on the siege, caused new levies and designed for no other purpose than to tire to be made throughout his dominions, by which the Christians. After the carnage had lasted
his army was soon increased to gear 400,000 some hours, the Janissaries and other fresh troops • men ; while the garrison consisted only of 9000 advanced in good order. The Christians mak
regular troops, viz. 6000 Greeks and 3000 Ge- ing prodigious efforts twice repulsed the enemy:
but being in the end exhausted, they were no T he most regular part of Modern Rome is longer able to stand their ground; and the enemy that adjacent to the north gate, or Porta del broke in several places into the city. In the Popolo, and the quarter of Borgo, on the right mean time Justiniani, the commander of the of the river. The points from which it can best Genoese and a select body of Greeks, having re- be viewed are the Pincian Hill, Mount Janiceived two wounds, one in the thigh and the other culum, the tower of the Capitol, and the tops of in the hand, was so disheartened that he caused the columns of Trajan or Antonine. hiinself to be conveyed to Galata. His men, The streets have seldom any foot pavement; dismayed at the sudden flight of their general, and are in general not wider than those of the immediately quitled their posts and fled in the older parts of London. Some indeed are utmost confusion. The emperor, however, at- wretchedly narrow and irregular, but the houses tended with a few of the most resolute of the are not high; and a number of the streets are long nobility, still kept his post, striving with unpa- and straight, and not un frequently terminated by ralleled resolution to oppose the multitude of an obelisk, fountain, or church. The great barbarians that now broke in from every quarter drawback on the beauty of the city is the sinBeing in the end overpowered with numbers, gular discrepancy of its buildings, a mansion and seeing most of his friends fallen around him, entitled to the name of palace being often • What !' cried he aloud, is there no Christian placed amidst a group of hovels; and the mean left alive to strike off my head ” Scarcely had he appearance of the shops. Three of the finest uttered these words, when one of the enemy, streets of the city diverge from the Piazza di not knowing him, cut him across the face with Popolo, near the northern gate, viz. the Corso, bis sabre; and another coming behind him with extending to the foot of the Capitol ; the Strada a blow on the back part of his head laid him del Babbuina, ending in the Piazza di Spagna, dead on the ground. The few Christians now and the Strada di Ripetta, leading to the Tiber. left alive fled; and the Turks, meeting with no The Corso is the great public walk, and the further opposition, entered the city, and put all crowded scene of the carnival. It is perfectly they met without distinction to the sword. straight, about a mile in length, and has a foot Many thousands took refuge in the church of St. pavement on each side. Other fine streets are Sophia, but they were all massacred in their the Strada Felice, the Strada Langara, the Strada asylum. Most of the nobility were, by the sul- Maggiore, and the Strada Pia. The houses are tan's orders, cut off, and the rest kept for purposes partly of stone and brick, frequently covered more grievous than death. Many of the inhabit- with stucco, and generally roofed with shingle. ants, among whom were some men of great Marble is less common here than in the north of learning, escaped, however, while the Turks Italy. were busied in plundering the city. These, em- The modern squares are numerous, adorned barking in the ships then in the harbour, arrived with obelisks, fountains, &c.; but also generally safe in Italy; where, with the study of the of small size. In front of St. Peter's church is Greek tongue, they revived the liberal sciences, a large oval area form, surrounded with a magwhich had long been neglected in the west. nificent colonnade; and in the middle between After the expiration of three days, Mohammed two fountains stands an Egyptian obelisk, of a commanded his soldiers to forbear all farther single piece of granite, seventy-eight feet in hostilities on pain of death ; and thus put an height. The elegant Piazza Navona, a square end to as cruel a pillage and massacre as any in the centre of the town, next in size to that of recorded in history. The next day, he made his St. Peter, is of an oblong form, and adorned by triumphal entry into Constantinople, and chose the church of St. Agnes, but its chief ornament it for the seat of the Turkish empire, which it is the fountain in its centre. It consists of a has continued to be ever since.
circular basin of seventy-three feet in diameter,
in the middle of which stands a rock surmountPART VI.
ed by an obelisk; on this rock recline four ROME, MODERN.
figures representing four great rivers, from which
streams of water issue. This is on the whole Modern Rome is built chiefly on the left or the most superb fountain of the city. The eastern bank of the Tiber, there being only a Piazza di Spagna, occupied largely by foreigners few streets on its western side. The walls are of distinction, has also a fountain; but its chief of a quadrangular figure, somewhat more than ornament is a noble flight of steps that ascend three miles each way, the circuit being in all from it to the church and square della Trinita about thirteen miles. While this is equal to the di Monte; the latter extending along the brow circumference of ancient Rome in its greatest of the Pincian Hill, and commanding a delightsplendor, there is this distinction perhaps be- ful view. The Piazza di Monte Cavallo, one of tween the ancient and modern city, that of the the finest in the city both for its situation and
seven hills' on which the former stood, several, buildings, stands on Mount Quirinal, and takes viz. Mons Aventinus, Palatinus, Cælius, and in its name from two marble horses placed on its some degree Mons Esquilinus, Viminalis, and summit, said to be the work of Phidias and Quirinalis, are covered with vineyards, corn Praxiteles. Between them stands an Egyptian fields, or villas, the closely peopled part being obelisk of granite, forty-five feet in height. Old confined to the level ground between the emi- Intermontium now forms a small square, deconences and the river. The length of this part is rated in the middle with a fine bronze equesless than two miles, its breadth from a mile to a trian statue of Marcus Antoninus, accounted a mile and a half.
master piece of ancient art. The Campidoglio
Moderno, or Modern Capitol, is ascended by a excavations made in digging out the earth used staircase adorned with statues : but all the sta- as bricks for building, are of great extent, pene tues of the forum bave disappeared; and a few trating, it is said, to a length of several miles, scattered porticoes, with here and there an insu. The oldest church of modern Rome is that lated column, fragments of marble, capitals, and of St. Clement. The church of St. Piedro di cornices, are now its only memorials. The Vincoli is a noble hall, supported by twenty Piazza di Campo Marzio, taking its name from pillars of Parian marble, and adorned with the Campus Martius, is in a great measure elegant tombs. St. Martin's and St. Silvescovered with buildings.
ter's are built of part of the materials of the baths The ancient wall of Rome is in many places of Titus. The church of St. Andrea, on Monte in good preservation; and among the ancient Cavallo, though small, is highly finished. That of edifices the Pantheon and Coliseum are still St. Cecilia, in Trastevere, as well as those of St. conspicuous. For the present state and history Maria in the same quarter, St. Sebastiano and of the latter see our article AMPHITHEATRE. St. Piedro in Montorio, are all of great antiquity. At a short distance from it, near the Viminal The last contains Raphael's famous picture of the and Quirinal hills, stands a portion of the baths Transfiguration. The churches of St. Grisogono of Dioclesian, converted into a convent.. The and St. Giovanni e Paolo are splendidly adorned principal hall forms the church, retaining its an- with pillars. Santa Maria Egiznea, a building cient walls, pillars, and vaults; there remains of the Ionic order, is supposed to be the ancient also a large square, supported by 100 pillars, temple of Fortuna Virilis, and Santa Maria Sowith a beautiful fountain in the middle of pra Minerva a temple of that goddess : while the the triumphal arches the only one remaining church of Ava Cæli is said to occupy the site of entire is the remarkable one of Constantine, the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. with its pillars, statues, and has reliefs. Thé The Pantheon and seven patriarchal basilicæ, arch of Septimus Severus, also of marble, has or cathedrals, are all of considerable antiquity. its bas reliefs much damaged : and that of Titus The pantheon, built in the reign of Augustus, has also suffered severely. Trajan's pillar is still and called from its form the rotunda, contains covered with admirable bas reliefs, representing busts of a number of eminent men. Of the his Dacian expedition. These reliefs contain cathedrals, Santa Maria Maggiore is situated on 2500 figures of men, besides a number of ele- the Esquiline Mount, and has two fronts, each phants, horses, and trophies. That in honor of of modern architecture. St. Giovanni, in Latethe emperor Marcus Aurelius is of equal height, rone, is the regular cathedral of the diocese of but of inferior execution.
Rome. It was founded by Constantine. Another Of the ancient aqueducts there remain the cathedral, that of Santa Croce, in Gierusalemme, Fontana Felice, on the Viminal Mountain, sup- was erected by Constantine on the ruins of a plied by the Aqua Claudia, and discharging itself temple of Venus, and is remarkable for its anThrough a rock under an Ionic arcade : at a tique form, and beautiful retired situation. A considerable distance, and on the other side of third church, begun by Constantine but much exthe Tiber, rises an arcade, supported by pillars tended since his reign, is that of St Paoli, outof granite, through which three streams descend side of the city wall. The cathedral of St. from the summit of an adjacent hill. 2. The Lorenzo is also outside of the city, on the Via Fontana di Trevi, an elegant building of Corin- Tiburtina. thian architecture, ornamented with statues, and The original St. Peter's was also erected by is perhaps the most finished structure of the kind Constantine, but had been giving way for some in Europe. It would be tedious to enumerate the time previous to the middle of the fifteenth century, other fountains in Rome. The sewers of the when Nicholas V. conceived the project of taking ancient city are now much ohstructed by stones it down. The work, however, was feebly proseand earth; but the Cloaca Maxima stili merits cuted, till the reign of Julius II.. Thai prelate attention. As to public baths, those great objects proceeded with it on a grand scale, and succeedof Roman luxury, there remain of those of Ca- ing popes contributed to its completion. The racalla little but the walls, and the baths of Titus, most celebrated architects of modern times, Brain tolerable preservation.
mante, Raphael, Michael Angelo, Vignola, MaThe Palatine Mount is now a shapeless mass derno, and Bernini, have here displayed their of rubbish. Of the various theatres and circuses talents. A circular court, formed by a vast coof ancient Rome hardly a vestige remains : even lonnade, first strikes the eye of tbe spectator, the Circus Maximus can be traced only by the and leads to the majestic front of the building, hollow scooped in the Aventine valley; and extending 400 feet in length, and rising to the many other monuments are of course obscured height of 180. The eye is at the same time graor demolished; so that a stranger is generally tified with the majestic dome, rising from the disappointed on his first investigation of this central part of the church to a height from the capital. It has of late been proposed to make a ground of 324 feet. The interior of the church temporary diversion of the Tiber for the purpose corresponds with its outward grandeur. Five of antiquarian research; but some attempts, in portals open into the portico, a gallery extending 1819 and 1820, to discover hidden relics, by across the width of the edifice, and resembling in means of a small vessel, with an apparatus for size a cathedral. This magnificent entrance is raising heavy bodies, have not succeeded. paved with marble, covered with a gilded vault,
Of the ancient roads, several, as the Via Latina, and closed at either end by statues. Opposite to the Via Vitellia, the Via Aurelia, still serve to ap- the five portals are five doors, leading into the proach the Capitol; and the catacombs, originally church. On entering any of these the spectator
beholds the most spacious hall ever constructed of its streets. These discouraging avenues at by human art, expanding in magnificent perspec- last waded through, the Piazza de St, Pietro in tive, its length being above 600 English feet. Vaticano bursts upon the eye, more striking The aisles and altars are adorned with a number from the contrast that its beauty and magni. of ancient pillars; the walls with festoons, ficence present to the images of poverty and wreaths, tiaras, and other ornaments of marble. disgust which have preceded it. The patriarchal chair of St. Peter is a throne, Nothing that art or judgment can dictate, or elevated to the height of seventy feet. The high criticism or pretension utter, on this great object altar has below it what is called St. Peter's Tomb; of universal wonder, has been left unsaid or unabove a magnificent canopy of brass, towering to illustrated. The profoundest Virtuosi of the last the height of 132 feet. A well lighted staircase age have commented on it; the greatest poet of leads to the roof of St. Peter's, from which the the present age has sung it; and from the folios dome can be viewed with minuteness. The ac- of Piranesi to the portefeuille of the most juvecess to every part of it, and even the ascent to, nile traveller, views of its architecture are to be the cupola, is perfectly easy. The recent part found. Little is now left to future visitants, but of the pile is the vestry or sacristi, a structure to enjoy, in silence, their own opinion (should connected with the main building by a gallery, they have any they may call their own), or at and adorned with a number of pillars, statues, most to express the impression communicated to paintings, and mosaics. It forms of itself a spa-. their own minds, on their first view of this supcious church.
posed miracle of art. The first impression of • The first visit paid to the church of St. Pe- the facade of St. Peter on the writer of these ter's,' says the spirited author of Italy,' should pages was one of utter disappointment. It did not be made by the ordinary conveyance to all not strike her by its magnitude !-and in its such sights in Rome-a carriage. It should be want of simplicity and completeness (broken up approached by pilgrim-steps, slow and difficult; as it is by pilasters, loggie, niches, balustrades, and that great temple,
&c.), it did not affect her with pleasurable emo- Where majesty,
tion. With none present to direct her judgment, Power, glory, strength, and beauty, all are hailed,
and shame her ignorance, she turned involun
tarily away, after a few minutes' observation, to should be reached on foot, and sought through contemplate objects infinitely more attractive to those various details of misery, disorder, and her unlearned apprehension. These were its degradation, which distinguish alike all its ave. beautiful semicircular colonnades; its noble nues, and are the elements out of which its gran- fountains dashing their pure bright waters into deur sprang. Around the other great Basilica mid-air, sparkling with sun-beams, and diffusing of Rome there reigns a saddening region of de- freshness as they fall; and that antique obelisk, solation; and St. Paul's and St. John de Late- whose transfer from Heliopolis (where the son ran rise on the dreary frontiers of the infected of Sesostris raised it) to the circus of Nero, deserts they denominate, like temples dedicated to where Caligula placed it, includes the history of the genius of the mal-aria. But the approach fallen empires, and of power not subdued, but to St. Peter's has another character : every nar- strangely transmuted. The impression made by row avenue is thickly colonised with a race of the facade of St. Peter's was never effaced. beings marked by traits of indigence or demo- The original design of Michael Angelo, shown ralisation; and every dark dilapidated den in the library of the Vatican, served but to conteems with a tenantry, which might well belong firm it; and the opinion of one, whose judgto other purlieus than those of the church. It ment, next to that of Michael Angelo's own, is thus that the altars of St. Peter's are approach- might be trusted, left the decision of ignorance ed, as they were raised, upon the necks of the sanctioned by the dictum of the presiding genius people. Here the streets of the filthiest city in of the art. Europe are found filthiest ! Here forms, on · But the magnitude of St. Peter's is never which Love had set his seal, are equally disfia justly estimated on a first or many following ingured by the neglect of cleanliness, or by mere- spections; which is the fault of its faultlessness : tricious ornament !-and the young plebeian for besides that it is out of the span of human rebeauty, lying on the threshold of some ruinous coguition--beyond the test of all received expefabric, withdrawing the bodkin from tresses it is rience-the harmony of its proportions is so dangerous to loosen, and submitting a fine head perfect as to leave nothing for comparison ; there to the inspection of some ancient crone, smiles Autter colossal doves in cornices lofty as the on the passing stranger with all the complacency eagle's eyrie; there frown saints of a Du Barry, when she made her toilette for
In bulk as huge the good of the public, surrounded by the dig
As whom the fables name of monstrous size, nitaries of the church, who emulously canvassed for its offices. The streets leading immediately the Briareus's of the martyrology !- while cheto St. Peter's occasionally exhibit a spacious but rubs, tall as Typhons, and letters to be read by dilapidated palace, mingled with inferior build- the cubit, diminish the height of that cupola ings; but many even of these have their façades (the Ossa piled on Pelion of architecture), and of marble disfigured by washerwomen's lines; lessen the vastness of those interminable naves, and an atmosphere of soapsuds indicates an at- whose votive chapels might serve for metropolitan tention to cleanliness, whose effects are nowhere churches. But the temple of St. Peter, with all visible in Rome, but in the stench which issues its unrivalled riches, surpassing the works of from the laundresses' windows in the very finest Memphian kings, is but a gigantic toy; and the wanton, the incalculable profusion of its gems and erection; and the talents of all ages, of all naprecious stones, its statues and pictures, its mo- tions, have contributed to fill its marble labysaics and gold, its bronzes and marbles, its spot- rinths. The elevation is divided into three lofty less freshness and unsullied lustre, separate it stories, each story surrounded by a loggia, or open from the imagination, and leave it without one corridor, richly painted; its countless halls, its of those solemn associations which blend such endless galleries, its beautiful chapels, its veneredifices with a remembrance of the mysterious able library, its twenty courts (cortili), and 200 past, and give them an interest in the mind be- stair-cases, present a wilderness of building, out yond what the eye can command.
of which the stranger, how frequent soever his Among the number of its splendid mauso- visits, can only recal those particular apartments leums, continues this writer, all raised to the more eminently distinguished than others by Inemory of pontiffs and princes of the church, or some miracle or miracles of art, from which they to enshrine the ashes of kings and queens, there take their name. The Carte du Pays he will is one which affords a striking commentary on never master; but, go where he may, he will the text of this mighty edifice. It is the tomb never forget the loggia of Raphael, the Borgia of the famous countess Matilda, the most pow. suite, the Portico del Cortile, the Belvedere, and erful ally the church ever knew; and her de- the successive cabinets dedicated to various works fence of the popes and their system, and the of antiquity, the perfection of all that genius bequest of her valuable patrimony to the church, ever conceived, or art and labor perfected. Such have obtained for her a monument in St. Peter's, are the halls of the animals, of the busts, of the to which her ashes were conveyed from Mantua muses, of the rotunda, the cabinets of the biga, by pope Urban VIII. Her effigy represents a of the candelabras, and that vast covered space stern and dogged-looking woman, one whose which takes the various names of corridore of strong volition might have passed for genius inscriptions (dei Lapidi), of the belvedere, of the she holds the papal sceptre and tiara in one hand, museo chiaramonti, and clementino. This galand in the other the keys of the church ! at her lery is divided by gates and columns, as if to feet lies her sarcophagus! and its relievoes form make artificial stages in its interminable length, the precious part of the monument. They re- and afford stations for the imagination to repose present the emperor Henry IV, at the feet of on, or memory to refer to. The first portion pope Gregory VII., where Matilda had assisted (into which the library of the vatican opens) is to place him. The abject, prostrate, half-naked lined on either side with the rarest collection of emperor, surrounded by Italian princes and ec inscriptions known in Europe. Those of the clesiastical barons, the witnesses of his sbame early Greek and Latin Christians, which have and degradation, forms a fine contrast to the been found in the catacombs, occupy the left side; haughty and all-powerful pope; who seems those of the heathen world are on the right, ready to place his foot upon the imperial neck of mingled with tombs, monuments, and sarcophagi, the unfortunate sovereign, who, thus crouching each in itself a study and a moral. The museo in the dust, represented the Roman Cæsars! chiaramonti succeeds, rich in monuments of anSuch was the church in her great day!When tiquity, statues, busts, and basso-relievoes--the the emperor Joseph II. visited St. Peter's, and work of the Phidias's of other ages, arranged by his conductors led him to this monument, he is the Phidias of the present. Here the living said to have turned from it with an ironical make their personal acquaintance with the dead, smile, and a crimson blush of indignation! It and the features of a Commudus, a Tiberius, and was then, perhaps, that his personal feelings gave a Lucius Verus, become as familiar to the mind gew impulse to his philosophical reformation, as their deeds and reigns. The Museo Pio-Cleurging him to decide on the fale of cowls, hoods, mentino, the collection of the treasures accumuand habits, with their wearers; and from that lated by the late pope, changes the scene, and moment he may have considered
belongs to the edifices occupied by the deities - Relic heads,
and priestesses and emperors of the preceding
gallery. Here are hung the appropriate ornaIndulgences, dispenses, pardons, bulls, The sport of winds.'
ments of temples, theatres, basilicas, forums, cir
cuses, baths, and palaces, all beautiful in design One of the most remarkable modern additions and perfect in execution; and to these naturally to St. Peter's is the beautiful mausoleum, the follows the vestibule of the tombs-with the work of Canova, raised to the memory of James sarcophagus of a Scipio and the sepulchral effiII., king of England, his queen, and his two gies of some fair Roman dame, over whose deathsons. This monument, and these titles, were be- couch love still hovers. In moving among these stowed by the munificence of the prince regent of consecrated images of art and time, the mind of England
the spectator catches something of their calm We shall follow the writer just quoted through and dignity; for there is in ancient sculpture a the Vatican and the other principal palaces. quietude of grandeur, a solemnity of grace, not
The Palazzo Ponteficio del Vaticano, commu- found in the works of modern genius, and which nicating with St. Peter's, is rather a congregation belong, perhaps, to the originals they copied. of palaces, than a single edifice; and its archi- This majesty of expression and tranquillity of tecture is as various as the ages and talents that form, so well known to the Egyptians, lost somewent to its completion. The genius of Bramante, thing of its monumental sobriety under the of Raphael, of San Gallo, of Fontana, of Bernini, Greeks. It is frequently found among savages, with many other eminent and scarcely inferior ar- but rarely appears amidst the artificial exaggeratists, has been concentrated on its progressive tion of corrupt civilisation. The French, who,