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the Tweed is the first in point of quantity caught, of the Rev. Thomas Salmon, M. A., rector of which is sometimes quite astonishing, several Mepsall. He was admitted of Benet College, hundreds being taken at a single draught of the Cambridge, June 11th, 1690, and took the denet. Formerly it was all pickled and kitled, gree of LL. D. in 1695. He then entered into after being boiled, and sent to London under the orders, and became curate of Westmill, in Hertname of Newcastle salmon; but the present mode fordshire; but, although he had taken the oaths has so raised the value of the fish as nearly to to king William III., he refused to do so to have banished this article of food from the in- queen Anne; and, being therefore turned out of habitants in the environs of the fishery, except as his cure, he studied physic, and practised at St. an expensive luxury. Within memory, salted Ives and Bishop's Stortford. He was married, salmon formed a material article of economy in and left three daughters. He published, 1. A all the farm houses of the vale of Tweed, inso- Survey of the Roman Antiquities in the Midland much that indoor servants often bargained that counties of England; in 8vo., 1726. 2. A Surthey should not be obliged to take more than vey of the Roman Stations in Britain, according two weekly meals of salmon. It could then be to the Roman Itinerary ; 8vo., 1728. 3. The bought at 2s. the stone, of nineteen pounds History of Hertfordshire, &c., fol., 1728. 4. The weight; it is now never below 12s., often 36s., Lives of the English Bishops from the Restoraand sometimes two guineas.

tion to the Revolution; 1733. 5. The Antiqui7. S. thymallus, the umber, or grayling, ties of Surrey, &c., 8vo., 1736. 6. The History haunts clear and rapid streams, and particularly and Antiquities of Essex, folio. This work was those that flow through mountainous countries. left unfinished at bis death, in 1738. It is found in the rivers of Derbyshire ; in some SALMON (Thomas), an eminent English histoof those of the north ; in the Tame near Ludlow; rian and geographer, younger brother to the Dr. in the Lug, and other streams near Leominster. He wrote many useful works, particularly, 1. A It is also very common in Lapland; the inhabitants Geographical Grammar; 8vo., which went make use of the entrails of this fish instead of through numberless editions. 2. A History of rennet, to make the cheese which they get from England. 3. An examination of Bishop Burnet's the milk of the rein deer. It is a voracious fish, History of his own times. He died in April rises freely to the fly, and will very eagerly take a 1743. bait. It is a very swift swimmer, and disappears SALMONE, a town of Peloponnesus, in Elis, like the transient passage of a shadow, whence it with a fountain, forty stadia from Olympia ; derived the name of umbra.

thence called Salmonis. 8. S. trutta, the sea trout, migrates like the SALMONEUS, in fabulous history, a king of salmon up several of our rivers, spawns, and re- Elis, the son of Æolus and Enarete, and brother turns to the sea. The shape is more thick than the of Sisyphus. He married Alcidice by whom he common trout; the irides silver ; the head thick, had Tyro. Ambitious to be reckoned a god, he smooth, and dusky, with a gloss of blue and imitated thunder and lightning by artificial firegreen ; the back of the same color, which grows works. Jupiter therefore struck him with a real fainter towards the side line. The back is plain, thunderbolt, and placed him in hell near his brobut the sides, as far as the lateral line, are marked ther Sisyphus. with large distinct irregular-shaped spots of SALON, a town in the south-east of France, black; the lateral line straight; the sides beneath in Provence, department of the mouths of the the line and the belly are white. Tail broad, Rhone. It is situated on a height, on the canal and even at the end. The flesh when boiled is of Capronne, and its trade consists in the produce of a pale red, but well flavored.

of the neighbouring country, viz. corn, cattle, SALM'ON, n. S. Lat. salmo; Fr. saúmon. A wool, olives and silk. Inhabitants 6300. Eighwell-known fish.

teen miles W.N.W. of Aix, and nineteen east of They poke them with an instrument somewhat like the salmon spear. Carew's Survey of Cornwall. SALONA, a town of Austrian Dalmatia, on a

They take salmon and trouts by groping and tick- bay of the Adriatic, once a town of importance, ling them under the bellies in the pools, where they having been taken and destroyed in the reign of hover, and so throw them on land. Carew. Augustus, but rebuilt by Tiberius, who sent

Of fishes, you find in arms the whale, dolphin, thither a Roman colony, and made it the capital salinon, and trout.

Peacham. of Illyricum. This rank it long held ; but seems The salmon is accounted the king of fresh water to have declined after the reign of Dioclesian. fish, and is bred in rivers relating to the sea, yet so Two miles north-east of Spalatro. far from it as admits no tincture of brackishness. SALONA, a considerable town of Livadia, Dear Sir Francis Bacon observes the age of a salmon exceeds not ten years. After he is got into the sea he

i a bay called the gulf of Salona, which is an inlet becomes from a samlet, not so big as a gudgeon, to

from the gulf of Corinth. Salona is situated in

" be a salmon in as short a time as à gosling becomes a fertile and highly cultivated plain, at the foot a goose.

Walton's Angler. of mount Parnassus, and is supposed to occupy There is in many rivers that relate to the sea sal- the site of the ancient Amphissa. The modern mon trouts as much different from others, in shape town has no fortifications. Its population is and spots, as sheep differ in their shape and bigness. estimated at 8000, and its trade is considerable.

Id. Salona is the see of a bishop, subject to the archSalmon, in ichthyology. See Salmo, No. 6. bishop of Athens. Forty-eight miles north-east SALMON FISHERY, &c. See FISHERY.

of Lepanto, SALMON (Nathaniel), a celebrated English SALONICA anciently called Thessalonica, divine, physician, and antiquarian, was the son Hallia, and Therma, a large and handsome city

Arles.

of Macedon, standing at the northern extremity The salsoacids help its passing off; as sal prunel. of a great bay, and on the acclivity of a steep

Floyer. hill, which rises from the bay at its north-east SALSOLA, glass-wort; a genus of the digyextremity. The circumference of the walls is nia order, and pentandria class of plants, natuabout five miles, and the fortress has seven ral order twelfth, holoraceæ : Cal. pentaphyltowers. The domes and minarets of mosques lous : caps. monospermous, with a screwed seed. are seen rising from among the other buildings, The species are these :environed by cypresses, and giving a general air 1. S. kali, growing naturally in the salt marshes of splendor to the place. In ancient times this was in divers parts of England. It is an annual a comparatively small place, and is indebted for plant, which rises above five or six inches high, its increase to the advantage of its position. sending out many side branches, which spread With the country to the north, one of the most on every side, garnished with short awl-shaped fertile districts in Macedon, it communicates by leaves, which are fleshy, and terminate in acute land, or by the river Vardari, the ancient Axius. spines. The flowers are produced from the side The articles collected in Salonica, viz. cotton, of the branches, to whicn they sit close, and are tobacco, corn, and wool, are exported to different encompassed by short prickly leaves; they are parts of Europe. The Turks never carried on small, and of an herbaceous color. The seeds much business here; it is in the hands of Greeks, are wrapped up in the empalement of the flower, Jews, and Frank or French, Italian, English, or and ripen in autumn; soon after which the plant Dutch merchants, all of whom have consuls here. decays. The population is computed at 70,000.

2. S. rosacea, growing naturally in Tartary, is Salonica has few antiquities, except the pro- an annual plant, whose stalks are herbaceous, and pylæa of the ancient Hippodrome, the alto re- seldom rise more than five or six inches high. lievos on which are represented in a series of The leaves are awl-shaped, ending in acute beautiful and accurate engravings, in Stuart's points; the empalements of the flowers spread Antiquities of Athens. 272 miles west of Con- open; the flowers are small, and of a rose color, stantinople, and 252 E.S. E. of Ragusa. Long. but soon fade; the seeds are like those of the 22° 56' E., lat. 40° 38' 7" N.

other kinds. SALONINA, the wife of the emperor Gallie. 3. S. soda rises with herbaceous stalks, nearly nus, eminent for her public and private virtues. three feet high, spreading wide. The leaves on She patronised the arts and sciences, and to her the principal stalk, and those on the lower part Rome was greatly indebted for a short period of of the branches, are long, slender, and have no prosperity. But her virtues could not preserve spines ; those on the upper part of the stalk and her from the murderers of her husband, who branches are slender, short, and crooked. At assassinated both, A. D. 268.

the base of the leaves are produced the flowers, SALSETTE, an island on the western coast which are small and hardly perceptible; the emof Hindostan, and province of Aurungabad, palement of the flower afterwards encompasses formerly separated from Bombay by a strait 200 the capsule, which contains one cochleated seed. yards wide, across which, in the year 1805, a All the sorts of glass-wort are sometimes procauseway was carried. This island is eighteen miscuously used for making kali, but this species miles lang, by fourteen broad, and is well adapt- is esteemed best. The manner of making it is ed for sugar, cotton, hemp, indigo, &c.; but it as follows:-Having dug a trench near the sea, has hitherto been kept in a state of nature, for they place laths across it, on which they lay the the purpose of supplying Bombay with wood, herbs in heaps; and, having made a fire below, charcoal, and sea salt. Salsette is remarkably the liquor which runs out of the herbs drops to rich in antiquities, and the remains of reservoirs, the bottom, which at length thickening, becomes with flights of stone steps round them, the ruins kali, which is partly of a black, and partly of an of temples, &c. The most remarkable object, ash color, very sharp and corrosive, and of a however, is the caverns at Kennere, which con- saltish taste. This, when thoroughly hardened, tain two colossal statues of Boodh. One of becomes like a stone; and in that state is transthese was converted by the Portuguese into a ported to different countries for the making of church. In 1773, during a rupture with the glass. Mahrattas, it was occupied by the British troops, 4. S. tragus grows naturally on the sandy and has ever since remained in their possession. shores of the south of France, Spain, and Italy, Janna is the chief town.

This is also an annual plant, which sends out SAL'SIFY, n. s. A plant.

many diffused stalks, garnished with linear leaves Salsify, or the common sort of goatsbeard, is of a an inch long, ending with sharp spines. The very long oval figure, as if it were cods all over flowers come out from the side of the stalks in streaked, and engraven in the spaces between the the same manner as those of the former ; their streaks, which are sharp-pointed towards the end. empalements are blunt, and not so closely en

Mortimer's Husbandry, compassed with leaves as those of the other. SALSOACID, n. s. Lat. 'salsus and acidus. 5. S. vermiculata grows naturally in Spain. Having a taste compounded of saltness and sour. This has shrubby perennial stalks, which rise ness.

three or four feet high, sending out many side The distinction of salts, whereby they are discri- branches, garnished with fleshy, oval, acute minated into acid, volatile, or salsuginors, if I may pointed leaves, coming out in clusters from the so call the fugitive salts of animal substances, and side of the branches, they are hoary, and have fixed or alcalizate, may appear in much use in na- stiff prickles. The flowers are produced from tural philosophy.

Boyle. between the leaves toward the end of the

Id.

branches; they are so small as scarcely to be out the water of the salt springs on them, always discerned unless they are closely viewed. The after rain. seeds are like those of the other kinds.

Many give a lump of salt, which they usually SALT, n. s., adj., & v. a.

call a salt-cat, made at the saltern, which makes Saxon realt;

the pigeons much affect the place. Id. Husbandry. SALT-CAT, n. S.

Goth., Swed., and

A leap into salt waters very often gives a new moSALT-CELLAR,

( Dan. salt; Fr. sel; tion to the spirits, and a new turn to the blood. SALTER, (Lat. sal. A well

Addison. SALTERN,

known coinbina- A particle of salt may be compared to a chaos, SALTPETRE.

tion of an acid being dense, hard, dry, earthy in the centre, and with an alkali, earth, or metallic oxide: impreg- rare, soft, and moist in the circumference. nated with, or abounding in salt. See Chemis

Newton's Opticks. TRY, and below. Taste; smack ; relish ; wit: to The stratum lay at about twenty-five fathoms, by season with salt: a salt-cat is a name for a

the duke of Somerset's salt-pans near Whitehaven. lump of salt, see below : salt-cellar, the vessel

Woodward on Fossila, that usually holds the salt: saltern, a salt-pan or

Salts are bodies friable and brittle, in some degree work : saltish, saltly, and saltness, correspond:

pellucid, sharp or pungent to the taste, and dissolu

ble in water : but, after that is evaporated, incorposaltpetre (Lat. sal petræ) nitre.

rating, crystallising, and forming themselves into He shall inhabit the parched places in the wil- ' angular figures.

Woodward. derness in a salt land, and not inhabited.

When any salt is spilt on the table-cloth, shake it

Jer. xvü. 6. out into the saltcellar. Moab and Ammon shall be as the breeding of

Swift's Directions to the Butler. nettles, salt-pits, and a perpetual desolation.

Zech. ii. 9. Salt is distinguished by some into three Is not discourse,' manhood, learning, gentleness, kinds : native or rock salt; common, or sea virtue, and liberality, the spice and salt that seasons salt, or white salt; and bay salt. a man?

Shakspeare. SALT, Bay. Under the title of bay salt are Though we are justices and doctors, and church- ranked all kinds of common salt extracted from men, Mr. Page, we have some salt of our youth in the water wherein it is dissolved, by means of us; we are the sons of women.

the sun's heat, and the operation of the air; Id. Merry Wives of Windsor.

whether the water from which it is extracted be We were better parch in Africk sun, Than in the pride and salt scorn of his eyes.

sea water, or natural brine drawn from wells and Shakspeare.

springs, or salt water stagnating in ponds and Thou old and true Menenius,

lakes. It does not appear that there is any other Thy tears are salter than a younger man's,

thing requisite in the formation of bay salt, than And venomous to thine eyes. Id. Coriolanus. to evaporate the sea water with an exceeding Be a whore still :

gentle heat; and it is even very probable that Make use of thy salt hours, season the slaves our common sea salt by a second solution and For tubs and baths ; bring down the rose-cheeked crystallisation might attain the requisite degree youth

of purity. To the tub-fast and the diet.

Id. Timon.

Salt, COMMON, or sea salt, or white salt, the This new-married man, approaching here,

name of that salt extracted from the waters of Whose salt imagination yet hath wronged Your well-defended honour, you must pardon.

the ocean, which is used in great quantities for Shakspeare.

preserving provisions, &c. It is composed of After these local names, the most have been de

muriatic acid, saturated with soda ; and hence, in rived from occupations; as smith, salter, armourer. the new chemical nomenclature, it is called

Camden's Remains. muriate of soda. See CHEMISTRY, Index. It is Some think their wits have been asleep, except commonly found in salt water and salt springs, they dart out somewhat that is piquant and to the in the proportion of thirty-six per cent. It is quick ; men ought to find the difference between salt. found also in coals and in beds of gypsum. Of ness and bitterness.

Bacon. this most useful commodity there are ample Cicero prettily calls them salinas salt-pans, that stores on land as well as in the ocean. There you may extract salt out of, and sprinkle where you

are few countries which do not afford vast quanplease.

id.

tities of rock or fossil salt. Mines of it have It hath been observed by the ancients, that salt water will dissolve salt put into it in less time than fresh water.

Spain, Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Nitre, or saltpetre, having a crude and windy other countries of Europe. In several parts of spirit, by the heat of the fire suddenly dilateth. Id. the world there are huge mountains which wholly *If the offering was of Aesh, it was salted thrice. consist of fossil salt. Of this kind are two

Browne. mountains in Russia, near Astracan ; several in Since salts differ much, some being fixt, some vo- the kingdoms of Tunis and Algiers, in Africa; latile, some acid, and some urinous, the two qualities and several also in Asia ; and the whole island wherein they agree are, that it is easily dissoluble in of Ormus in the Persian Gulf almost entirely water, and affects the palate with a sapour good or consists of fossil salt. The new world is likeevil.

Boyle. wise stored with treasures of this useful mineral, Nitre or saltpetre, in heaps of earth, has been extracted, if they be exposed to the air, so as to be

as well as with all other kinds of subterranean kept from rain.

Locke.

productions. The sea affords such vast plenty Soils of a saltish nature in prove sandy ground of common salt, that all mankind might thence

"Mortimer. be supplied with quantities sufficient for their In Cheshire they improve their lands by letting occasions. There are also innumerable springs,

I

[graphic]

ponds, lakes, and rivers, impregnated with quantities of soda have been extracted, and incommon salt, from which the inhabitants of troduced with advantage as a substitute for the many countries are plentifully supplied there soda formerly obtained from the combustion of with. In some countries which are remote from vegetables. The acid is easily extracted from the sea, and have little commerce, and which are this salt by means of sulphuric acid ; but to not blessed with mines of salt or salt waters, the obtain the alkali at a cheap rate is not so easy. necessities of the inhabitants have forced them The methods which have hitherto succeeded 'may to invent a method of extracting their common be reduced to two:-1. Muriate of soda may be salt from the ashes of vegetables. And the in- decomposed by some substance which has a genious Dr. Fothergill extracted plenty of it from stronger affinity for muriatic acid than soda has. the ashes of fern. See Medical Essays, vol. v. The soda by this process is set at liberty, and article 13. Mr. Boyle discovered common salt may be obtained by evaporation and crystallisain human blood and urine. I have observed tion. There are three substances capable of it,' says Mr. Brownrigg, not only in human setting the base of common salt at liberty, and urine, but also in that of dogs, horses, and black of furnishing soda, either pure or in the state of cattle. It may easily be discovered in these, carbonate. These are litharge, lime, and iron. and many other liquids impregnated with it, by When about four parts of litharge and one of certain very regular and beautiful starry figures common salt, properly pounded and mixed, are which appear in their surfaces after congelation. macerated in a little water for several hours and These figures I first observed in the great frost stirred repeatedly, the muriatic acid gradnally in 1739. The dung of such animals as feed combines with the oxide of lead, and forms a upon grass or grain doth also contain plenty of muriate, while the soda is left in solution, and common salt.' Naturalists, observing the great may be obtained separately by filtration and variety of forms under which this salt appears, evaporation. The decomposition goes on still have thought fit to rank the several kinds of it more rapidly, if the mixture be heated during under certain general classes; distinguishing it, the process. That the alkali may be extracted more usually, into rock, or fossil salt, sea salt, from common salt by lime is a fact, for which we und brine or fountain salt. To which classes are indebted to Scheele. Cahausen indeed had

thers might be added, of those muriatic salts hinted at it in 1717, but his treatise had been which are found in animal and vegetable sub forgotten. Scheele ascertained that a mixture stances. These several kinds of common salt of lime and common salt, formed into a paste, often differ from each other in their outward and placed in a moist cellar, was covered with form and appearance, or in such accidental pro- an efflorescence of soda in fifteen days. Berperties as they derive from the heterogeneous thollet has rendered it probable that the soda substances with which they are mixed. But, which is found abundantly in the west of Egypt when perfectly pure, they have all the same is formed naturally by a similar process. To qualities; so that chemists, by the exactest en- Scheele likewise we owe the discovery that comquiries, have not been able to discover any mon salt may be decomposed by iron. He essential difference between them. Immense observed that a wooden vessel, placed in a celmasses of it are found in different countries, lar, and containing brine, had its iron hoops cowhich require only to be dug out and reduced vered with an efflorescence of soda. This into powder. In this state it is called rock salt. duced him to dip a plate of iron into a solution The water of the ocean also contains a great of common salt, and to suspend it in a cellar. proportion of this salt, to which indeed it owes After an interval of fourteen days, he found his its taste, and the power it possesses of resisting iron incrusted with soda. The same decompofreezing till cooled down to zero. When this sition takes place also if zinc or copper be subwater is evaporated sufficiently, the salt precipi- stituted for iron. 2. The second method of tates in crystals. It is by this process that it is extracting soda from common salt is less direct. obtained in this country. But the salt of com- It consists in displacing the muriatic by some merce is not sufficiently pure for the purposes of other acid, which may be afterwards easily dechemistry, as it contains usually muriate of lime, composed or displaced ; thus the soda is left &c.; but it may be obtained pure by the follow- behind at last, in a state of purity. The acids ing process :-Dissolve it in four times its weight which have been made use of are the sulphuric of pure water, and filter the solution. Drop and acetous; the boracic, phosphoric, and arsenic into it a solution of carbonate of soda, as long acids might indeed be employed, as they decomas any precipitate continues to fall. Separate pose common salt in a high temperature. The the precipitate by filtration, and evaporate slowly products in that case would be borat, or the till the salt crystallises. Muriate of soda usually phosphate or arseniate of the same base, accordcrystallises in cubes, which, according to Hauy, ing to the acid. These salts might be afterwards are the primitive form of its crystals and its in- decomposed by lime, and the soda obtained tegrant particles. It is the most common and separate. But these acids are a great deal too most useful seasoner of food; it preserves meat high priced to admit of their employment. Sulfrom putrefaction, and butter from rancidity; it phuric acid may be either employed in a separate serves for an enamel to the surfaces of coarse state, or in combination with bases, when the stone ware; it is an ingredient in many processes salts which it then forms can be procured at a of dyeing; metallurgists use it in many of their sufficiently cheap rate. Alum, sulphate of essays. Its utility in chemistry is equally ex- lime, and sulphate of iron, have been respecttensive. From it muriatic and oxy-muriatic ively employed with advantage to decompose acids are obtained ; and from it also of late great common salt, and obtain sulphate of soda. Alum was first employed for that purpose by which otherwise would be too large, and would Constantini, a physician of Melle near Osna- consume more coals than by the help of this burgh, about 1650. The process does not suc- contrivance are required. To each chamber of ceed but at a low temperature. Sulphate of the furnace is fitted a grate, through which the lime decomposes common salt when formed with ashes fall into the ash-pits. The grates are made it into balls, and exposed to a strong heat. of long bars of iron, supported underneath by Much discussion has taken place among the strong cross bars of the same metal. They are German chemists about the possibility of de- not continued to the farthest part of the furnace, composing common salt by sulphate of iron. it being unnecessary to throw in the fuel so far; That sulphate of soda may be obtained by ex- for the flame is driven from the fire on the grate posing a mixture of these two salts to a strong to the farthest part of the furnace, and thence heat was first announced by Vander Ballen. passes, together with the smoke, through two This was contradicted by Hahneman, but con- Hues into the chimney; and thus the bottom of firmed by the experiments of Tuhten, Lieblein, the salt pan is every where equally heated. The and Wiegleb. It succeeded completely with the salt pans are made of an oblong form, flat at the French commissioners, De Lievre, Pelletier, bottom, with the sides erected at right angles : Darcet, and Girond, who were appointed, in the length of some of these pans is fifteen feet, 1794, to examine the different processes for the breadth twelve feet, and the depth sixteen obtaining soda from common salt. They ascer- inches; but at different works they are of diftained also that pyrites or sulphureted oxide of ferent dimensions. They are commonly made of iron may be employed for the same purpose. plates of iron, joined together with nails, and After obtaining the sulphate of soda it is neces- the joints are filled with a strong cement. Within sary to expel the acid, to obtain the soda separ- the pan five or six strong beams of iron are fixed ately. This is done by calcining the salt mixed to its opposite sides at equal distances, parallel with a certain proportion of charcoal or pit-coal. to each other and to the bottom of the pan, from By this process it is converted into sulphuret of which they are distant about eight inches. From soda, and the sulphur may be abstracted by the these beams hang down strong iron hooks, which intervention of iron or chalk. When the sul- are linked to other hooks or clasps of iron firmly phuret of soda is nearly in fusion, small bits nailed to the bottom of the pan; and thus the of iron (the parings of tin-plate answer best) bottom of the pan is supported, and prevented are thrown in gradually in sufficient quantity tó from bending down or changing its figure. The decompose the sulphate. The fire is raised" till plates most commonly used are of malleable the mixture melts. The iron, having a stronger iron, about four feet and a half long, a foot affinity for the sulphur, combines with it, and broad, and the third of an inch in thickness. leaves the soda, which may be separated by so- The Scots prefer smaller plates, fourteen or fiflution in water, filtration, and evaporation. teen inches square. Several make the sides of

Salt, COMMON, METHOD OF PREPARING. the pan, where they are not exposed to the fire, of Without entering into any particular detail of lead; those parts, when made of iron, being the processes used for the preparation of bay salt, found to consume fast in rust from the steam of in different parts of the world, we shall only give the pan. Some have used plates of cast iron, a brief account of the best methods of preparing five or six feet square, and an inch in thickness; common salt. At some convenient place near but they are very subject to break when unthe sea-shore is erected the saltern. This is a equally heated, and shaken (as they frequently long low building, consisting of two parts; one are) by the violent boiling of the liquor. The of which is called the fore-house, and the other cement most commonly used to fill the joints is the pan-house or boiling-house. The fore-house plaster made of lime. The pan thus formed is serves to receive the fuel, and cover the work placed over the furnace, being supported at the men; and in the boiling-house are placed the four courners by brick work, but along the midfurnace and pan, in which the salt" is made. dle, and at the sides and ends, by round pillars Sometimes they have two pans, one at each end of cast iron, called taplins, which are placed at of the saltern; and the part appropriated for the three feet distance from each other, being about fuel and workmen is in the middle. The fur- eight inches high, and at the top, where smallest, nace opens into the fore-house by two mouths, four inches in diameter. By means of these beneath each of which is a mouth to the ash-pits. pillars the heat of the fire penetrates equally te To the mouths of the furnace doors are fitted; all parts of the bottom of the pan, its four corand over them a wall is carried up to the roof, ners only excepted. Care is also taken to prewhich divides the fore-house from the boiling- vent the smoke of the furnace from passing into house, and prevents the dust of the coal and the the boiling-house, by bricks and strong cement, ashes, and smoke of the furnace from falling into which are closely applied to every side of the the salt pan. The fore-house communicates salt pan. In some places, as at Blyth in Norwith the boiling-house by a door placed in the thumberland, besides the common salt-pans here wall which divides them. The body of the fur- described, they have a preparing pan placed benace consists of two chambers, divided from tween two salt-pans, in the middle part of the each other by a brick partition called the mid- building, which in other works is the fore-house. feather; which from a broad base terminates in The sea-water, being received into this preparing a narrow edge nigh the top of the furnace, and, pan, is there heated and in part evaporated by by means of short pillars of cast iron erected the flame and beat conveyed under it through upon it, supports the bottom of the salt pan : it flues from the two furnaces of the salt-pans ; also fills up a considerable part of the furnace, and the hot water, as occasion requires, is con

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