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western road through it, which was effected soon SALI'VA, n. s.) Lat. saliva. Every thing after the commencement of the cathedral. To SaL'IVAL, adj. (that is spit up; more strictly this advantage, and to its central situation in re- Sal'ivous, that juice which is separated gard to the great towns, in the west and south SALIVATE, v. a.) by the glands called salival : of England, Salisbury owes much of its present relating to the saliva : to salivate is to cleanse importance ; for its manufactures of cloth, flan- or purge by means of the salival glands. nel, and lace, are now in a manner extinct, and The woodpecker, and other birds that prey upon its cutlery much reduced, in consequence of the flies, which they catch with their tongue, in the room competition of Birmingham, Sheffield, &c. Be- of the said glands have a couple of bags filled with a sides the parish churches, the principal buildings viscous humour, which, by small canals, like the saare the council-house, erected at the expense of lival, being brought into their mouths, they dip their the late earl of Radnor; the general infirmary, tongues herein, and so with the help of this natural supported by voluntary contribution ; and the bird-lime attack the prey.
Grew. county prison. These two last are situated in Holding of ill tasted things in the mouth will Fisherton. There are many alms-houses and
make a small salivation.
The necessity of spittle to dissolve the aliment apcharitable establishments, the chief of which is
pears from the contrivance of nature in making the the hospital of St. Nicholas, founded, or at least endowed, by bishop Bingham, Salisbury is open: such animals as swallow their aliment without twenty-one miles north-east from Southampton, chewing, want salivary glands.
Arbuthnot. eighty-two W. S. W. from London, ninety-one Not meeting with disturbance from the saliva, I E.N. E. from Exeter, and thirty-seven south- the sooner extirpated them. Wiseman's Surgery. west from Bath. Lat. 51° 3' N., long. 1° 42' E. She was prepossessed with the scandal of salivating, It sends two representatives to parliament, the and went out of town.
ld. right of election being vested in the corporation. There happeneth an elongation of the uvula, through Old Sarum, the parent of the present city,
of the present city the abundance of salivous humour flowing upon it. which is sometimes called New Sarum, is situated
Wiseman. about a mile and a half to the north. It consists Saliva is that fluid by which the mouth and of a circular rampart and ditch, formed by scarp- tongue are continually moistened in their natural ing down a hill, and a mound in the centre, state; and which is supplied by glands which which was probably crowned by the keep or form it, called salivary glands. This humor is citadel. It was originally a fortress of the Bri- thin and pellucid, incapable of being concreted tons; was afterwards occupied by the Romans, by the fire, almost without taste and smell. Saof whose military ways, four diverged from this liva, beside water, which constitutes at least spot; next by the Saxons; and finally rendered four-fifths of its bulk, contains the following by the Norman sovereigns a post of considerable ingredients :41. Mucilage. 2. Albumen. 3. importance. Of its buildings nothing remains Muriate of soda. 4. Phosphate of soda. 5. but a few trifling fragments, though it still enjoys Phosphate of lime. 6. Phosphate of ammonia. the privilege of sending two members to parlia- Like all the other animal fluids, it is however ment, who are chosen by the occupiers of certain liable to many changes from disease, &c. lands in the vicinity.
Brugnatelli found the saliva of a patient laboring SALISBURY, a post town of Hillsborough coun- under an obstinate venereal disease impregnated ty, New Hampshire, on the west side of the with oxalic acid. The concretions which someMerrimack; fourteen miles N. N. W. of Con- times form in the salivary ducts, &c., and the cord, thirty-eight south-east of Dartmouth Col- tartar or bony crust which so often attaches itself lege, fifty-nine W.N. W. of Portsmouth. The to the teeth, are composed of phosphate of lime. fourth New Hampshire turnpike passes through It has a great affinity for oxygen, absorbs it reathis town, and upon this road, in the south part dily from the air, and gives it out again to other of the town, there is a pleasant village, contain- bodies. Hence the reason why gold or silver, ing a Congregational meeting house, and an triturated with saliva in a mortar, is oxidated, as academy; and about two miles above, on the Du Tennetar has observed. Hence also the reaturnpike, there is a Baptist meeting-house. On son that saliva is a useful application to sores of the Merrimack near the mouth of the Winnipi- the skin. Dogs and other animals have conseogee, there is another flourishing village. Salis- stantly recourse to this remedy, and with much bury is a very good agricultural town.-Also a advantage. post town of Essex county, Massachusetts, on SALIVATION, in medicine, is effected chiefly the north bank of the Merrimack; four miles by mercury. The use of salivation is in diseases north-west of Newburyport, thirty-six N. N. E. belonging to the glands and membrana adiposa, of Boston. It contains two parishes, and has a and principally in the cure of the venereal' displeasant and considerable village, on the north ease; though it is sometimes also used in epibank of the Merrimack, below the junction of demic and cutaneous diseases, &c. the Powow River. Considerable business is done SALIX, the willow, in botany, a genus of the at this village at ship building, and here is some diandria order, and diæcia class of plants : natrade in the fisheries.-Also a post town of Litch- tural order fiftieth, amentaceæ: amentum of the field county, Connecticut, in the north-west cor- male scaly: COR. none, but a nectariferous glanner of the state ; twenty-four miles north-west of dule at the base of the flower: female amentum Litchfield. It is a considerable town, and the scaly : COR. Done; style bifid : Caps. unilocular neighbourhood contains large quantities of iron and bivalved : SEEDS pappous. The willow has ore.
been frequently the theme of poetical description, both in ancient and modern times. There are se- to standards. They are generally the most venty species; of which the most remarkable are, abundant and of most prosperous growth in
1. S. alba, white or silver-leaved willow, watery situations : they however will grow freely growing to a great height and considerable bulk, almost any where, in any common soil and expohaving smooth pale green shoots; long, spear. sure: but grow considerably faster and stronger shaped, acuminated, sawed, silvery-white leaves, in low moist land, particularly in marshy situadowny on both sides, with glands below the ser- tions, by the verge of rivers, brooks, and other ratures. This is the common white willow, waters; which places, often lying waste, may be which grows abundantly about towns and vil- employed to good advantage in plantations of lages, and by the sides of rivers and brooks, &c. willows for different purposes.
2. S. Babylonica, Babylonian pendulous salix, SALLEE, a large walled sea-port on the commonly called weeping willow, grows to a coast of Morocco, situated in the province of largish size, having numerous long, slender, pen- Benihassen, at the mouth of a river of the same dulous branches, hanging down loosely all round, name. It was formerly the great hold of Moorand long, narrow, spear-shaped, serrated, smooth ish piracy, and immense depredations were comleaves. This curious willow is a native of the mitted from it upon European commerce. east, and is retained in our hardy plantations for SALLENGRE (Albert Henry de), F. R. S., ornament, and exhibits a most agreeable variety; an ingenious writer, born at the Hague in 1694. particularly when disposed singly by the verge His father was receiver general of Walloon of any piece of water, or in spacious openings of Flanders, and of an ancient family. He sent grass ground.
young Albert to Leyden, who, having finished 3. Š. caprea, the common sallow tree, grows his studies, commenced advocate in Holland. to but a moderate height, having smooth, dark- After the peace of Utrecht, in 1713, he travelled green, brittle branches; oval, waved, rough into France. In 1716 he was made counsellor leaves, indented at top, and woolly underneath. to the princess of Nassau; in 1717 commissary It grows abundantly in this country, but more of finances to the States. In 1719 he visited frequently in dry than moist situations; it is of England, and was elected F. R. S. He wrote a brittle nature, and therefore unfit for the bas- commentaries on Ovid's epistles and other clasket-makers; but will serve for poles, stakes, sics ; and was writing a History of the United and to lop for fire-wood; and its timber is good Provinces, when he was cut off by the small pox for many purposes.
in 1723. 4. S. fissa, basket osier. Leaves alternate, SALLO (Denis de), a French writer, born in pedicelled, minutely toothed. A shrub four or Paris in 1626. He studied the law, and was five feet high, with erect, flexible, and very tough admitted a counsellor in the parliament of Paris branches, of a yellowish ash color, sometimes in 1652. It was in 1664 he laid the plan of the purplish. A native of various parts of Europe, Journal des Sçavans; and the year following on the sandy banks of rivers, and in England began to publish it, under the name of Sieur de cultivated in fens as preferable to all other wil. Heronville, which was that of his valet de lows or osiers for basket-work.
Chambre. But he criticised so severely, and 5. S. fragilis, fragile or crack willow, rises to authors retorted so powerfully, that M.de Sallo, a middling stature, with brownish, very brittle after he had published his third Journal, gave branches; long, oval, lanceolate, smooth leaves, up the undertaking, delivering it over to the of a shining green on both sides, having dentat- abbe Gallois; who, without presuming to critied glandular foot-stalks. This kind in particu- cise, contented himself merely with giving the lar being exceedingly fragile, so that it easily titles of new books, and making extracts. M. cracks and breaks, is unfit for culture in osier- de Sallo died in 1669. grounds.
SAL'LOW, n. s. Lat. salir. A tree of the 6. S. pentandria, broad-leaved, sweet-scepted genus of willow. willow, grows to some considerable stature, hav- Sallows and reeds on banks of rivers born, ing brownish-green branches ; oblong, broad, Remain to cut to stay thy vines. Dryden. scattered, smooth, sweet-scented leaves, shining
SAL'LOW, adj. 1 Belg. zalow; Teut. above; and pentandrous flowers. 7. S. purpurea, purple or red willow, grows
SAL'LOWNESS, n. s. ) salo, black. Sickly; yel. to a large height, having long, reddish, very
low: the noun substantive corresponding. pliable shoots, and long, spear-shaped, serrated,
What a deal of brine smooth leaves, the lower one being opposite.
? Hath washt thy sallow cheeks for Rosaline ! 8. S. viminalis, or osier willow, grows but to
Shakspeare. a moderate height, having slender rod-like
The scene of beauty and delight is changed:
No roses bloom upon my fading cheek, branches; very long, pliant, greenish shoots : Nor laughing graces wanton in my eyes ; and very long, narrow, spear-shaped, acute, al. But haggard Grief, lean-looking sallow Care, most entire leaves, hoary, and silky underneath. And pining Discontent, a rueful train,
9. S. vitellina, yellow or golden willow, grows Dwell on my brow, all hideous and forlorn, Rowe. but to a moderate height; having yellow, very fish diet would give such a sallowness to the cepliant shoots; oval, acute, serrated, very smooth lebrated beauties of this island, as would scarce leaves, with the serratures cartilaginous, and with make them distinguishable from those of France. callous punctures on the foot-stalks. All the
Addison. species are of the tree kind, very hardy, remark- SALLUSTIUS (Caius Crispus), a celebrated ably fast growers, and several of them attaining Roman bistorian, born at Amiternum, in lialy, a considerable stature when permitted to run up A. U. C. 669. His Roman History, in six
books, from the death of Sylla to the conspiracy The noise of some tumultuous fight;
Dryden. unfortunately lost, excepting a few fragments; Every one shall know a country better that makes but the two detatched pieces of his history
often sallies into it, and traverses it up and down, which happily remain entire are sufficient to
than he that, like a mill-horse, goes still round in the justify the great encomiums he has received as a
Locke, writer. No man has inveighed more sharply
We have written some things which we may wish against the vices of his age than this historian; ne
never to have thought on : some sallies of levity yet no man had less pretensions to virtue. His ought to be imputed to youth.
Swift. youth was spent in a most lewd and profligate SALLY-PORTS, in fortification, or posterns as manner, and his patrimony rapidly squandered. they are sometimes called, are those underMarcus Varro, a writer of undoubted credit, ground passages which lead from the inner relates, in a fragment preserved by Aulus Gel- works to the outward ones; such as from the lius, that Sallustius was actually caught in bed higher flank to the lower, or to the tenailles, or with Fausta the daughter of Sylla, by Milo her the communication from the middle of the curhusband; who scourged him very severely, and tain to the ravelin. When they are made for did not suffer him to depart till he had redeemed men to go through only, they are made with his liberty with a considerable sum. In A. U.C. steps at the entrance and going out. They are 694 he was made questor, and in 702 tribune about six feet wide, and eight feet and a half of the people; in neither of which places did high. There is also a gutter or shore made he acquit himself with honor. By his questor- under the sally ports, which are in the middle of ship he obtained an admission into the senate; the curtains, for the water which runs down the but was expelled by the censors in 704 on ac- streets to pass into the ditch; but this can only count of his debauched way of life. In 705 be done when they are wet ditches. When Cæsar restored him to the dignity of a senator, sally-ports serve to carry guns through for the and made him questor a second time. In the out works, instead of making them with steps, administration of this office he behaved very they must have a gradual slope, and be eight scandalously. In 707, when the African war feet wide. See FORTIFICATION. was at an end, he was made prætor for his ser- SALMANASAR, or SALMANESER, the son vices to Cæsar, and sent to Numidia. Here he of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, succeeded outrageously plundered the province; and re- his father, about A. M. 3276. He took Samaturned with such immense riches to Rome, that ria, put an end to the kingdom of Israel, and he purchased a magnificent building upon mount carried the Israelites into captivity, A. M. 3283. Quirinal, with those gardens which still retain He was afterwards defeated by the Tyrians; and the name of Sallustian gardens, besides his died about A.A.C. 714. He was succeeded by country house at Tivoli. Eusebius tells us that his son Sennacherib. he married Terentia, the divorced wife of Cicero; SALMASIUS (Claudius), a French writer of and that he died at the age of fifty, A. U. C. great abilities and immense erudition, descended 710, four years before the battle of Actium. from an ancient and noble family, and 'born at Besides his histories of the Catilinarian and or near Semur in 1596. His mother, who was Jugurthine wars, we have some orations, printed a Protestant, educated him in her own religious with his fragments.
opinions, and he at length converted his father. SAL'LY, n. s. & v. a. 7 Fr. sallie. Erup- He settled at Leyden; and in 1659 paid a visit
SAL'LYPORT. S tion; issue from a to Christina, queen of Sweden, who showed place besieged ; quick egress; escape: to make him extraordinary marks of regard. Upon the such egress : a sally-port is a gate at which sal- death of king Charles I. he was prevailed on by lies are made.
the royal family, then in exile, to write a defence Now mote I weet,
of that king, which was answered by the celeSir Guyon, why with so fierce sallience
brated Milton in 1651, in a work entitled DeAnd fell intent, yo did at erst me meet.
fensio pro Populi Anglicano contra Claudii
Faerie Queene. Salmasii Defensionem Regiam. This book was The Turks, sallying forth, received thereby great read over all Europe; and conveyed such a hurt.
* proof of the writer's abilities that he was resallies of the prince of Wales and Falstaff's humour, spected even by those who hated his political is of his own invention. Shakspeare. Illustrated.' principles. Salmasius died in 1653. His
At his return all was clear, and this excursion was works are pumerous, and of various kinds; but esteemed but a sally of youth.
Wollon. the greatest monuments of his learning are his The deputy sat down before the town for the space Notæ in Historiæ Augustæ Scriptores, and his of three winter months ; during which time sallies Exercitationes Plinianæ in Solinum. were made by the Spaniards, but they were beaten SALMASIUS (Claudius), son of the preceding, in with loss.
Bacon. published the answer to Milton, which his father My slippery soul had quit the fort, But that she stopped the sallyport.
had begun, but did not live to finish; and dedi
Cleaveland. Love to our citadel resorts
cated it to king Charles II. in 1660. Through those deceitful sallyports ;
SALMO, the salmon, in ichthyology, a genus Our sentinels betray our forts.
Denham. of the order of abdominales. The head is 'Tis but a sally of youth.
Id. Sophy. smooth, and furnished with teeth and a tongue; These passages were intended for sallies of' wit; the rays of the gills are from four to ten ; the but whence comes all this rage of wit ? Stillingfieet. back-fin is fat behind, and the ventral fins have
many rays. There are many species, of which teen inches long, and weighed half a pound. the most remarkable are the following :
They have a very particular scent, whence is 1. S. albus, the white, migrates out of the derived one of their English names, smelt, i. e. sea into the river Esk in Cumberland, from smell it. That of sparling, which is used in July to September. When dressed the flesh of Wales and the north of England, is taken from these fish is red and most delicious eating. the French sperlan. The fishing for smelts in They have, on their first appearance from the the Thames is prohibited under heavy penalties, salt water, the lernæa salmonea, or salmon louse, and the exertions of the magistrates have nearly adhering to them. They never exceed a foot in put an end to it. The fish can hardly be purlength. The upper jaw is a little longer than the chased in London at any price however extralower; in the first are two rows of teeth, in the vagant. It is a fish of a very beautiful form and last one ; on the tongue are six teeth. The color; the head is transparent, and the skin in back is straight, the whole body of an elegant general so thin that with a good microscope the form, the lateral line is straight; color, between blood may be observed to circulate. The irides that and the top of the back, dusky and silvery are silvery; the pupil of a full black; the under intermixed; beneath the line white; first dorsal jaw is the longest'; in the front of the upper fin spotted with black;; tail black, and much jaw are four large teeth ; those in the sides of
both are small; in the roof of the mouth are two 2. S. alpinus, the red charr, is an inhabitant rows of teeth ; on the tongue two others of large of the lakes of the north, and of those of the teeth. The scales are small, and readily drop mountainous parts of Europe. It chooses clear off; the tail consists of nineteen rays, and is and pure waters, and is very 'rarely known to forked. The color of the back is whitish, with a wander into running streams. It is found in cast of green, beneath which it is varied with vast abundance in the cold lakes on the summits blue, and then succeeds a beautiful gloss of a of the Lapland mountains, and is almost the silvery hue. only fish that is met with in any plenty in those 4. S. fario, the trout: the colors of which regions. The larvæ of a species of gnat afford vary greatly in different waters, and in different food to the fish, who in their turn are a support seasons. Trouts differ also in size. The stomachs to the migratory Laplanders, in their summer of the common trouts are uncommonly thick voyages to the distant lakes. There are but few and muscular. They feed on the shell-fish of lakes in our island that produce this fish; and lakes and rivers, as well as on small fish. They even those not in any abundance. It is found likewise take into their stomachs gravel or small in Ullswater and Windermere in Westmoreland; stones, to assist in comminuting the testaceous in Llyn Quellyn, near the foot of Snowdon ; parts of their food. The trouts of certain lakes and, before the discovery of the copper mines, in Ireland, such as those of the province of in those of Llynberris; but the mineral streams Galway and some others, are remarkable for the have entirely destroyed the fish in the last lakes. great thickness of their stomachs, which, from In Scotland it is found in Loch Inch and other some slight resemblance to the organs of digesneighbouring lakes, and is said to go into the tion in birds, have been called gizzards; the Irish Spey to spawn. They are supposed to be in the name the species that has them gillaroo trouts. highest perfection about May, and continue so These stomachs are sometimes served up to all the summer; yet are rarely caught after table alone, under the appellation of gillaroo. April. When they are spawning in the river Trouts are most voracious fish, and afford excelthey will take a bait, but at no other time; being lent diversion to the angler. Trouts shift their commonly taken, as well as the other species, in quarters to spawn; and like salmon make up what they call breast-nets, which are in length towards the heads of rivers to deposit their roes. about twenty-four fathoms, and about five where The under jaw of the trout is subject, at certain broadest. They are taken in greatest plenty times, to the same curvature as that of the from the end of September to the end of Novem- salmon. Trouts are caught in very great plenty ber. This species is much esteemed for the at all seasons of the year; one weighing a pound table, and is very delicate when potted.
and a half is a usual size, though some are caught 3. S. eperlanus, the smelt, inhabits the seas of of four pound weight. Five or six ounces is a the northern parts of Europe, and is found as common weight; the largest are commonly the far south as the Seine. They are also taken in best for the table, when a deep salmon color. the Straits of Magellan, and of a most surprising In winter great quantities are potted along with size, some measuring twenty inches in length the charre, and sent to London, &c. Geld fish and eight in circumference. They inhabit the (those without spawn) are the firmest and best. seas that wash these islands the whole year, 5. S. lavaretus, the gwiniad, is an inhabitant except when they ascend the rivers. In certain of several of the lakes of the Alpine parts of rivers they appear a long time before they spawn, Europe. It is found in those of Switzerland, being taken in great abundance in November, Savoy, and Italy; of Norway, Sweden, Lapland, December, and January, in the Thames and and Scotland; in those of Ireland and of CumDee, but in others not till February; and in berland ; and in Wales, in that of Llyntegid, March and April they spawn; after which they near Bala, in Merionethshire. It is the same all return to the salt water, and are not seen in with the ferra of the lake of Geneva; the schelly the rivers till the next season. They never come of Hulsewater; the pollen of Loch Nesh; and into the Mersey as long as there is any snow the vangis and juvengis of Loch Mbaon. It is water in the river. These fish vary greatly in said to have been first introduced into Scotland size; but the largest we ever heard of was thir. by queen Mary; and as in her time the Scottish court was much Frenchified, the name was per- tion will serve. It has been known to weigh haps derived from the French vendois, a dace; seventy-four pounds. The color of the back and to which a slight observer might be tempted to sides is gray, sometimes spotted with black, compare it by the whiteness of its scales. The sometimes plain; the covers of the gills are subBritish name gwiniad or whiting was bestowed ject to the same variety; the belly silvery ; the upon it for the same reason. It is a gregarious nose sharp-pointed; the end of the under jaw fish, and approaches the shores in vast shoals in in the males often turns up in the form of a spring and in summer; which proves in many hook ; sometimes this curvature is very considerplaces a relief to the poor of inland countries, able; it is said that they lose this hook when as the annual return of the herring is to those they return to the sea. The teeth are lodged in who inhabit the coasts. Between 7000 and 8000 the jaws and on the tongue, and are slender but have been taken at one draught. The whiting is very sharp; the tail is a little forked. When the a fish of an insipid taste, and must be eaten fish enter the Friths, or mouths of the rivers, at the soon, for it will not keep long; those that choose commencement of their upward migration, and to preserve them do it with salt. They die very are thus in good condition, they are termed, in soon after they are taken. Their spawning sea- the language of fishermen, clean fish. At this son in Llyntegid is in December. The largest period they are infested with the salmon louse, whiting we ever heard of weighed between three caligus productus of naturalists, and which and four pounds; the head is small, smooth, chiefly adhere to the more insensible parts. But and of a dusky hue; the eyes very large; the when arrived at the place of spawning, the fish pupil of a deep blue; the nose blunt at the end; is lean, as the whole fat of the body has passed the jaws of equal length; the mouth small and into the melt and the roe. In this state, in toothless; the branchiostegous rays nine; the which they are termed red fish, they are worthcovers of the gills silvery, powdered with black. less as an article of food. After the fish have The back is a little arched, and slightly cari- spawned they are termed kelts or foul fish, and nated; the color, as far as the lateral line, is are equally despised with the red fish. The gills glossed with deep blue and purple; but towards are now more or less covered with the entomoda the lines assumes a silvery cast, tinged with salmonea. The motion of the fish upwards from gold; beneath which those colors entirely pre- the sea to the river and place of spawning is invail. The tail is very much forked ; the scales fuenced by several causes. When there is abunare large, and adhere close to the body.
dance of fresh water in the Friths the fish seem 6. S. salar, the common salmon, is a northern to proceed regularly and rapidly up the middle fish, being unknown in the Mediterranean Sea of the stream, enter the rivers, and hasten on to and other warm climates; it is found in France their destination. In returning to the sea, after in some of the rivers that fall into the ocean, and spawning, the fish seem to keep the middle of north as far as Greenland ; they are also very the stream in the river, and the deepest and common in the northern parts of North America. saltest water in the Friths. Salmon enter the They are in several countries a considerable river at all seasons of the year, but they approach article of commerce; they are stationary fisheries in greatest numbers during the summer months. in Iceland, Norway, and the Baltic; and in Fish taken in May, June, and July, are much Great Britain, on the Tweed, at Berwick, and in fatter than fish in the same condition as to various rivers of Scotland. See our article spawning, taken in February, March, or April. FISHERIES. In Cumberland they go up the They fall off in fatness very rapidly from August river Derwent in September, through the lake of to January, when they are leanest. The princiBassenthwaite, up the river which runs through pal spawning season is in November, December, Keswick into the Vale of St. John, where they and January. See FISHERIES. Salmon fisheries, deposit their spawn in the small streams and Marshal observes, are copious and constant feeders of the lake. The young salmon are called sources of human food ; they rank next to agrisalmon smelts, and go down to the sea with the culture. They have indeed one advantage over first floods in May. The salmon was known to every other internal produce: their increase does the Romans, but not to the Greeks. Pliny speaks not lessen other articles of human sustenance. of it as a fish found in the rivers of Aquitaine: The salmon does not prey on the produce of the Ausonius enumerates it among those of the Mo- soil, nor does it owe its size and nutritive qualiselle. The salmon is a fish that lives both in the ties to the destruction of its compatriot tribes. It salt and fresh waters; quitting the sea at certain leaves its native river at an early state of growth; seasons for the sake of depositing its spawn, in and, going even naturalists know not where, resecurity, in the gravelly beds of rivers remote turns of ample size, and rich in human nourishfrom their mouths. There is scarcely any diffi- ment; exposing itself in the narrowest streams, culties but what they will overcome to arrive at as if nature intended it as a special boon to man. places fit for their purpose; they will ascend In every stage of savageness and civilisation the rivers hundreds of miles, force themselves against salmon must have been considered as a valuable the most rapid streams, and spring with amazing benefaction to this country. From the extremity agility over cataracts of several feet in height of the Highlands, and from the Orkney and Salmon are frequently taken in the Rhine as high Shetland Islands, these fish are sent up to the up as Basil; they gain the sources of the Lap- London market in ice; and when the season is land rivers in spite of their torrent like currenis, at its height, and the catch more than can be and surpass the perpendicular falls of Leixslip, taken off hand fresh, they are then salted, pickled, Kennerth, and Pont Aberglastyn. The salmon or dried, for winter consumption at home, and is so generally kuown that a very brief descrip for the foreign markets. Perhaps the fishery of