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kingdom of New Granada, and province of Santa and exhorting them to send part of their fleet Martha, of which little remains but a small vil- round the island, to prevent their escape. The lage.

same messenger assured Xerxes that ThemisSALAMANDER, n. s. Fr. salumandre; tocles designed to join the Persians, as soon as

SALAMAN'DRINE, adj. Lat. salamandra. An the battle began, with all the Athenian ships. animal supposed to live in the fire, and imagined The king, giving credit to this, immediately to be very poisonous: salamandrine, capable of caused a strong squadron to sail round the island beåring fire unhurt.

in the night to cut off the enemy's retreat. The salamander liveth in the fire, and hath force Early next morning, as the Peloponnesians were also to extinguish it. Bacon's Natural History, preparing to set sail, they found themselves en

There may be such candles as are made of sala compassed on all sides by the Persian fleet, and mander's wool, being a kind of mineral, which were against their inclination compelled to rewhiteneth in the burning, and consumeth not. main in the straits of Salamis and expose them

Bacon. selves to the same dangers with their allies. As According to this hypothesis, the whole lunar to the number of the Persian ships the poet Æsworld is a torrid zone, and may be supposed uninhabitable, except they are salamanders which dwell

chylus speaks of it in his tragedy of Persæ as a therein.

Glanville's Scepsis matter he was well assured of: Whereas it is commonly said that a salamander ex A thousand ships (for well I know the number tinguisheth fire, we have found by experience that The Persian flag obeyed), two hundred more on hot coals it dieth immediately.

And seven, o'erspread the seas. Browne's Vulgar Errours. Laying it into a pan of burning coals, we ob- The Athenians had only 180 galleys, each carserved a certain salamandrine quality, that made it ried eighteen men that fought upon deck, four of capable of living in the midst of fire, without being whom were archers and the rest heavy armed. consumed or singed.

Spectator. Themistocles avoided the engagement till a cerThe artist was so encompassed with fire and smoke tain wind, which rose regularly every day at the that one would have thought nothing but a salaman- same time, began to blow. As soon as this wind der could have been safe in such a situation.

blew he gave the signal for battle. Addison's Guardian.

The PerOf English talc, the coarser sort is called plaister

sians advanced with great resolutions, but the or parget : the finer, spaad, earth flax, or salamander's wind blowing directly in their faces, and the hair.

' Woodward. largeness and number of their ships embarrassing SALAMANDER. See LACERTA.

them in a place so narrow, they were thrown SALAMIS, an island of the archipelago, in into disorder; which the Greeks observing, broke the Sinus Saronicus, on the south coast of At- into the Persian fleet; some of whom fled totica, opposite to Eleusis ; celebrated for a battle wards Phalarus, where their army lay encamped; between the Greek and Persian fleets. In the others saving themselves in the harbours of the council of war held before this battle, among the neighbouring islands. Queen Artemisia distinPersians, queen Artemisia was the only person guished herself, her ships being the last that tied: who opposed their design of engaging. She was which Xerxes observing, cried out that the men queen of Halicarnassus, and followed Xerxes in behaved like women, and the women with the this war with five ships, the best equipped of courage and intrepidity of men. The Athenians any in the fleet, excepi those of the Sidonians. offered a reward of 10,000 drachmas to any one She represented in the council of war the dan- that should take her alive, but she got clear of the gerous consequences of engaging a people far ships and arrived safe on the coast of Asia. In more expert in maritime affairs than the Per- this engagement the Grecians lost forty ships ; sians; alleging that the loss of a battle at sea and the Persians 200, besides many more that would be attended with the ruin of their army; were captured. Pausanias says that on one side of whereas, by lengthening out the war, and add this island stood in his time a temple of Diana, vancing into the heart of Greece, they would and on the other a trophy for a victory obtained create jealousies and divisions among their ene- by Themistocles, together with the temple of mies, who would separate to defend each his Cenchreus, or Cychreus, the site of which is now own country; and that the king might thus thought to be occupied by the church of St. make himself master of Greece. This prudent Nicholas. advice was not followed, but an engagement was SA L'AMIS, the capital of the above island. This resolved upon. Xerxes, to encourage his men, city was demolished by the Athenians, because caused a throne to be erected on the top of an in the war with Cassander it surrendered to the eminence, whence he might safely behold what- Macedonians. In the second century, when it ever happened; having several scribes about was visited by Pausanias, some ruins of the him, to write down the names of such as should Agora or market-place remained, with a temple signalise themselves. The approach of the Per- and image of Ajax; and not far from the port sian fleet, with the news that a strong detach- was shown a stone, on which they related Telament from the army was marching against Cle- mon sat to view the Salaininian ships on their ombrotus, who defended the isthmus, struck such departure to join the Grecian fleet at Aulis. terror into the Peloponnesians that they could The walls may still be traced, and were about not be prevailed upon to stay any longer at Sa- four miles in circumference. The level space lamıs, but insisted on returning to their own within them is now covered with green corn, country. Themistocles, hearing of this, privately The port is choked with mud, and was partly despatched a trusty friend to the Persian com- dry. Among the scattered marbles are some with manders, informing them of the intended flight, inscriptions. On one, near the port, the name of Solon occurs. This renowned lawgiver was The more money a man spends, the more must be a native of Salamis, and a statue of him was endeavour to increase his stock ; which at last sets erected in the market-place, with one hand co- the liberty of a commonwealth to sale. Addison, vered by his vest, the modest attitude in which Poets make characters, as salesmen cloaths ; he was accustomed to address the people of We take no measure of your fops and beaus. Swift. Athens. The island of Salamis is now inhabited SALE is the exchange of a commodity for by a few Albanians, who till the ground. money; barter, or permutation, is the exchange

SALAMIS, SALAMINA, or SALAMINIA, an an- of one commodity for another. When the barcient town of Cyprus on the south-east coast. gain is concluded, an obligation is contracted by It was bnilt by Teucer, and so named by him the buyer to pay the value, and by the seller to froin the island from which he had been ba- deliver the commodity at the time and place nished, about A. A. C. 1270. His descendants agreed on, or immediately, if no time be specicontinued masters of it for above 800 years. It fied. In this, as well as other mercantile conwas destroyed by an earthquake, but rebuilt in tracts, the safety of commerce requires the utmost the fourth century, and called Constantia. It is good faith and veracity. Therefore, although, now called Salina.

by the laws of England, a sale above the value Salamis, in the mythology, a daughter of the of £10 be not binding, unless earnest be paid, river god Asopus, by the nymph Methone. Nep- or the bargain be confirmed by writing, a mertune became enamoured of her, and carried her chant would lose all credit who refused to perto the island afterwards named from her, where form his agreement, although these legal requishe bore him a son, named Cenchreus.

sites were omitted. When a specific thing is SALAPIA, or SalapiÆ, in ancient geography, sold, the property, even before delivery, is in a town of Italy, in Apulia; to which Hannibal some respect vested in the buyer; and, if the retired after the battle of Cannæ. It was after thing perishes, the buyer must bear the loss. wards taken from him by Marcellus.

For example, if a horse dies before delivery, he SAL'ARY, n. s. Fr. salaire ; Lat. salarium. must pay the value; but, if the bargain only deStated hire; annual or periodical payment of termines the quantity and quality of the goods, money.

without specifying the identical articles, and the This is hire and salary, not revenge. Shakspeare. seller's warehouse with all his goods be burned,

Several persuns, out of a salary of five hundred he is entitled to no payment. He must also pounds, have always lived at the rate of two thou- bear the loss if the thing perish through his sand.

Swift. fault. If a person purchase goods at a shop SALASSI, an ancient people of Gallia Cisale without agreeing for the price, he is liable for the pina, who were often at war with the Romans. ordinary market-price at the time of purchase. In A. U.C. 610 they cut off an army of 10,000 If the buyer prove insolvent before delivery, Romans under Appius Claudius; but were soon the seller is not bound to deliver the goods withafter defeated, and at last totally subdued, and out payment or security. If the importation, or sold as slaves by Augustus. Their country was use of the commodities sold, be prohibited by settled by a Roman colony, and called Prætoria law, or if the buyer knows that they were smugAugusta

gled, no action lies for delivery. The property SALE, n. s. Goth. sala; Belg. saal. of goods is generally presumed, in favor of comSALE'ABLE, adj. / The act or power of selling; merce, to belong to the possessor, and cannot be SALE'ABLY, adv. Svent; market; public mar challenged in the hands of an onerous purchaser. SALES'MAN, n. s. (ket; auction; price: used But to this there are some exceptions. By the

SALE'work. ') by Spenser for a sale bas- Scotch law stolen goods may in all cases be reket: the derivatives correspond : sale-work is, claimed by the proprietor, and also by the Engwork merely for sale ; careless work.

lish law, unless they were bought bona fide in Nothing doth more enrich any country than many open market; that is, in the accustomed public towns; for the countrymen will be more industrious places, on stated days in the country, or in a shop in tillage, and rearing of all husbandry commodities, in London; and horses may be reclaimed, unknowing that they shall have ready sale for them at less the sale be regularly entered by the bookthoxe towns.


keeper of the market. In all cases, if the goods To make baskets of bulrushes was my wont; Who to entrap the fish in winding sale

be evicted by the lawful proprietor, the seller is Was better?

12. liable to the purchaser for the value. Actions The other is not a thing for sale, and only the gift for payment of shop-accounts, as well as other of the gods.

Shakspeare. Cymbeline. debts not constituted by writing, are limited in I see no more in you than in the ordinary

England to six years. The testimony of one Of Nature's sale-work. Id. As You Like It. witness is admitted ; and the seller's books, al

I can impute this general enlargement of saleable though the person that kept them be dead, are things to no cause sooner than the Cornishman's good evidence for one year. In Scotland merwant of vent and money.

Carew. chants' books may be proved within three years Others more moderate seeming, but their aim

of the date of the last article, by one witness,

of the date Private reward; for which both God and state

and the creditor's books, and oath in suppleThey'd set to sale.

Milton's Agonistes.

ment. After three years they can only be proved Those that won the plate, and those thus sold, ought to be marked so as they may never return to

s by the oath or writ of the debtor. A merchant's the race or to the sale.

Temple. books are in all cases good evidence against him. This vent is made quicker or slower as greater or SALE (George), a learned English author, one less quantities of any saleable commodity are removed of the writers in the Universal History, all the out of the course of trade.

Locke. oriental part of which he compiled. He was also engaged in other important literary labors; for a great part of its wealth. The number of but his chief work is The Koran of Mahomet, vessels employed at present in this trade amounts which he translated into English from the ori- to fifty-three, carrying 14,272 tons. There are ginal Arabic, and enriched with explanatory now living about 100 persons, who, as masters notes from the most approved commentators; or supercargoes of vessels, have sailed from this and to which he prefixed a Preliminary Dis- town round the Cape of Good Hope, or Cape course; London, 4to. 1733. Mr. Sale died in Horn. A society composed of such persons, 1736.

styled the East India Marine Society, was incorSALEM, a post town of Rockingham county, porated in 1801; the object of which is to afford New Hampshire, thirty-five miles north of Bos- relief to indigent members or their families, to ton, and thirty-five south-west of Portsmouth. promote the knowledge of navigation and trade Here is a woollen manufactory.

to the East Indies, and to increase the museum. Salem, a sea-port town of the United States, The museum belongs to this society, and is a capital of Essex county, Massachusetts, four very extensive and interesting cabinet of curimiles and a half north-west of Marblehead, osities collected from all parts of the world, and fourteen N. N. E. of Boston, twenty-four south is visited free of expense. of Newburyport. It is chiefly built on a tongue SALEM, NEw, a post town of Franklin county, of land formed by two inlets from the sea, called Massachusetts ; eighteen miles E.S. E. of GreenNorth and South rivers ; over the former of field, eighty west of Boston, west 452. Popuwhich is a bridge, upwards of 1500 feet long, lation 2167. Here is a respectable academy. connecting Salem with Beverly, and the latter SALEM, a post town of Washington county, forms the harbour. The harbour has good an- New York, eighteen miles south-east of Sandy chorage, but the water is so shallow that vessels Hill. Population 2833. The courts for the drawing more than twelve or fourteen feet must county are held alternately here and at Sandy unload, in part, at a distance from the wharfs. Hill. Here is a handsome town, on an extenThe situation of Salem is low, but pleasant; it sive plain, containing a court house, a jail, an is well built; and with regard to population, academy, and two churches. Two weekly newswealth, and commerce, is the second town in papers are published. New England. It contains a court-house, jail, SALENGORE, a Malay principality, extendalms-house, market-house, three banks, four ing a considerable space along the western coast insurance-offices, a custom-house, a grammar of the Malay peninsula. It is governed by a school, an orphan asylum, a bank for savings, a Mahometan prince, who bears the title of rajah. museum, an athenæum containing upwards of The rajah monopolises the greater part of the 5000 volumes well selected, and eleven houses trade, and is thus induced to afford protection of public worship, six for Congregationalists, to vessels coming up the river of Salengore. two for Baptists, one for Episcopalians, one for There are several other rivers traversing the terFriends, and one for Universalists. It has nu- ritory, and falling into the straits of Malacca ; merous public and private schools, which are particularly one called Burnam, from which a well supported. None of the public buildings great number of long rattans are brought. The are splendid: but the court-house, the market. commodities fitted for exportation here are tin, house, the alms-house, the custom-house, and rattans, gold dust, elephants' teeth, dragon's the grammar school-house, all of brick, and the blood, camphire, with some pepper, and other jail of stone, are spacious, handsome, and com- spices. These are given in exchange for opium, modious. The churches are large, neat, and piece goods, gunpowder, cutlery, steel, copper, convenient. Three of them are furnished with iron, and some woollens. The Chinese and the organs, and six with steeples or cupolas. The Birgis of Celebes carry on a good deal of trade private houses have generally the appearance of at this port. Long. 101° 18' E.; lat. 3° 20' N. neatness, convenience, and comfort; and many SALEP, in the materia medica, the dried root of them indicate taste and opulence. The town of a species of orchis. See Orchis. Several was formerly built almost entirely of wood, but methods of preparing salep have been practised. a large proportion of the houses erected within Geoffroy has given a very judicious process for the last twenty years are of brick.

this purpose in the Histoire de L'academie Royale The appearance of Salem is very irregular, des Sciences, 1740; and Retmus in the Swedish the streets having been laid out with little regard Transactions, 1764, has improved Geoffroy's meto symmetry or beauty. In the northern part of thod. · Mr. Moult of Rochdale also found 2 the town there is a common, containing about method of curing the orchis root; by which ten acres, surrounded by a handsome public salep is prepared, at least equal, if not superior, walk, which is planted with rows of trees. On to any brought from the Levant. The new root a peninsula below the town there are two forts, is to be washed in water; and the fine brown Fort Pickering and Fort Lee, and on Baker's skin which covers it is to be separated by a small Island there is a light house.

brush, or by dipping the root in hot water, and Salem is, next to Plymouth, the oldest town rubbing it with a coarse linen cloth. When a in the state, and was settled in 1626. The inha- sufficient number of roots have been thus cleaned, tants are chiefly employed in trade and naviga- they are spread on a tin plate, and placed in an tion. The shipping belonging to this port in oven heated to the usual degree, where they are 1816 amounted to 34,454 tons. The East India to remain six or ten minutes, in which time they trade has, for several years, been carried on here will have lost their milky whiteness, and ac with great spirit and advantage, and it is to this quired a transparency like horn, withont any branch of commerce that the town is indebted diminution of bulk. They are then to be

moved to dry and harden in the air, which will such fiefs were not to descend to women, as being require several days to effect ; or, by using a very by nature unfit for such a tenure. Shakspeare gentle heat, they may be finished in a few hours. represents it as derived from the name of the Salep, thus prepared, may be afforded in places' river Sala, in Germany, and sayswhere labor bears a high value, at about 8d. or That the land of Salique lies in Germany, 10d. per pound. And it might be sold still Between the floods of Sala and of Elbe, cheaper, if the orchis were to be cured, without Where Charles the Great, having subdued the separating from it the brown skin which covers

Saxons, it; a troublesome part of the process, and which There left behind and settled certain French does not contribute to render the root either more Who, holding in disdain the German women palatable or salutary. The foreign salep is sold For some dishonest manners of their life, at 58. or 6s. per pound. As a wholesome nourish

Established there this law. Henry V., act 1. ment, says Dr. Percival in his Essays, Medical Montesquieu derives the origin of this word and Experimental, rice is mueh inferior to salep. from the Salians, a tribe of Franks who settled in Salep has the singular property of concealing the Gaul in the reign of Julian, who is said to have taste of salt water; a circumstance of the highest given them lands on condition of their personal importance at sea, when there is a scarcity of service in war. Before the election of the Mefresh water. The restorative, mucilaginous, and rovingian kings, this powerful tribe of the demulcent qualities of the orchis root, render it Franks appointed four venerable chieftains to of considerable use in various diseases. In the compose their laws; and their labors were exsea-scurvy it lessens the acrimony of the fluids, amined and approved in three successive assemand at the same time is easily assimilated into a blies of the people. After the baptism of Clovis, mild and nutritious chyle. The ancient chemists he reformed several articles incompatible with entertained a very high opinion of the orchis Christianity. The Salic law was again amended root, as appears from the secreta secretorum of by his sons; and, under the reign Dagobert, the Raymond Lully, 1565.

code was revised and promulgated 100 years SALERNO, a city of Italy, in the kingdom of after the establishment of the French monarchy. Naples, the capital of the province of Principato If it be asked, how it came to pass that the Salic Citra, and having a population of 10,000. Though laws gained general authority in the country of delightfully situated, the town itself is not agree- the Franks, and the Roman law gradually deable: the streets are paved with lava, narrow clined; while in the jurisdiction of the Visigoths and irregular, and have a gloomy appearance, the Roman law spread itself, and obtained at last from the height of the houses. Salerno is an a general sway? Montesquieu replies that the ancient city, and has in front of the cathedral Roman law was disused among the Franks, on twenty-eight ancient granite columns. The har account of the great advantages accruing from bour is good. Twenty-eight miles E.S. E. of being a Frank to a person living under the SaNaples.

lic law. The clergy alone retained the old law, SALES (St. Francis de), a Romish saint, born because a change could be of no advantage to at Sales castle in 1567. In 1602 he was made them. The Roman law inflicted no hardships bishop of Geneva, in which station his conduct upon them, as it was the work of Christian emwas pious and exemplary; he founded a society perors. This law,' says Millot, 'fixed the of religious, called the Order of the l'isitation; punishment of crimes and various points of powhich was sanctioned by Paul V. in 1618. He lice. There is no ground for believing, that it died in 1622, and was canonized by Alexander expressly settled the right of succession to the VI. He wrote, 1. An Introduction to a Devout crown. It only says that, with relation to the Life; 2. A Treatise on the Love of God; and salic land, women have no share of heritage, Letters.

without restricting it to the royal family ; for all SALET, in war, a light covering or armour those were called salic lands which were held by for the head, anciently worn by the light horse, right of conquest; and it is easy to conceive, only different from the casque in that it had no that a nation of soldiers, whose general was crest, and was little more than a bare cap. their king, would not submit to be governed by

SALIANT, in fortification, denotes projecting. a woman. A long custom, supported by the There are two kinds of angles, the one saliant, principles of the nation, became in time the eswhich have their point outwards; the other re-en- tablished law of the kingdom.' tering, which have their points inwards.

SALICORNIA, jointed glass-wort, or saltSALIC, or SalIQUE, law (lex salica), an an- wort, a genus of the monogynia order, and cient and fundamental law of the kingdom of monandria class of plants : natural order twelfth, France, usually supposed to have been inade by holoraceæ : CAL. ventricose, or a little swelling Pharamond, or by Clovis ; in virtue whereof out and entire : there are no petals, and but one males only are to inherit. Some, as Postellus, sup- SEED. There are nine species, of which the most pose it to have been called Salic, q. d. Gallic, remarkable arebecause peculiar to the Gauls. For Montanus 1. S. fruticosa, with obtuse points, grows insists, it was because Pharamond was at first plentifully in the salt-marshes which are overcalled Salicus. Others believe it to have been flowed by the tides in many parts of England. It so named, because used only in the Salic lands. is an annual plant, with thick, succulent, jointed These were noble fiefs which their first kings stalks, which trail upon the ground. The flowers used to bestow on the sallians, that is, the great are produced at the ends of the joints toward lord of their salle or court, without any other te. the extremity of the branches, which are small, nure than military service; and, for this reason, and scarcely discernible by the naked eye.


2. S. perennis, with a shrubby branching stalk, As the substance of coagulation is not merely sa. grows naturally in Sheppey Island. This has a line, nothing dissolves them but what penetrates and shrubby branching stalk about six inches long; relaxes at the same time. Arbuthnot on Aliments. the points of the articulations are acute; the SALISBURY, the capital or county town of stalks branch from the bottom, and form a kind Wiltshire, is situated in a vale, at the confluence of pyramid. They are perennial, and produce of the Wiley and Nadder, with the Avon. It their flowers in the same manner as the former. owed its origin to the cathedral, which was beThe inhabitants near the sea coasts, where these gun in 1220, by bishop Poor, and finished in plants grow, cut them up towards the latter end 1256, when the see was held by William of York, of summer, when they are fully grown; and, af- This building is in the early pointed style of arter having dried them in the sun, they burn them chitecture, and may be justly regarded as one of for their ashes, which are used in making of the most elegant and regular ecclesiastical strucglass and soap. These herbs are by the country tures in the kingdom. It is in the form of a people called kelp, and promiscuously gathered double cross, and consists of a nave and choir, for use. Barilla is likewise made from them. with two side aisles, and two transepts, each with They are also used for dyeing leather red, instead its aisle. Connected with it is a handsome of the shenan.

quadrangular cloister, and an octagon chapterSAʼLIENT, adj. Latin, saliens. Leaping; house. The spire, which is evidently a later bounding; moving by leaps.

erection, and was probably begun at the latter The legs of both sides moving together as frogs, end of Edward II., or the beginning of Edward and salient animals, is properly called leaping. III.'s reign, rises on four pillars, at the intersec

Browne's Vulgar Errours. tion of the nave and principal transept, to the A salient point, so first is called the heart, By turns dilated, and by turns comprest,

stupendous height of 400 feet. Although it deExpels and entertains the purple guest. Blackmore.

clines above two feet from the perpendicular, it Who best can send on high

has yet withstood the storms and tempests of The salient spout, far streaming to the sky. Pope.

ages, and the effects of time and accident; and SALII, in Roman antiquity, priests of Mars, seems likely to remain for centuries a monuof whom Numa instituted twelve. who wore ment of singular architectural boldness, skill. painted particolored garments, and high bonnets; and perseverance. The chapter-house is also with a steel cuirass on the breast. They were a beautiful specimen of architecture, the groined called salii, from saltare to dance; because, after roof of fifty feet in diameter being poised on a assisting at sacrifices, they went dancing about single slender pillar in the centre. the streets, with bucklers in their left hand, and The cathedral establishment consists of a dean, a rod in their right, striking with their rods on forty-one prebendaries, six of whom are residenone another's bucklers, and singing hymns in tiary, and called canons, a sub-dean, sub-chanter, honor of the gods. Their feasts were uncom

four vicars choral, seven lay-vicars, one of whom monly sumptuous, whence dapes saliares is pro- is organist, and eight choristers. The chapter verbially applied to repasts splendid and costly. is composed of the dean and residentiary canons;

heir chief called præsul and magister saliorum. and the close in which the cathedral is situated was one of their members, and led the band, is environed with a wall, and forms a distinct the rest imitating all his steps and motions. The jurisdiction, under the dean, in virtue of letters whole company was called collegium saliorum. patent granted by Edward III. The bishop. Sext. Pompeius makes mention of salian maids, who is a member of the cathedral establishment, virgines saliares, hired for the purpose, and as prebendary of Pottern, has under him the joined with the salii, wearing a kind of military archdeacons of Sarum, Wilts, and Berks, for the garb, called paludamentum, with high round superintendance of his diocese. In the close is bonnets like the salii, and like them performing a college, for the maintenance of a certain numsacrifice with the pontifices.

ber of clergymén's widows, built and endowed SALIMBENI (Venura), an eminent historical by bishop Seth Ward. painter, born at Sienna, in Tuscany, in 1557. The city, which is erected on ground originally There was a fine picture by him of the descent belonging to the see, acknowledges the bishop as of the Spirit on the apostles at Pentecost, in the lord of the manor. It is incorporate, and governpossession of the earl of Pembroke. He died in ed by a mayor, high steward, recorder, twelve

justices, fourteen aldermen, and thirty commonSAʼLINE, adj. ) Lat. salinus. Consisting councilmen. The justices are chosen from the Sali'nous, adj. J of, or forming, salt.

aldermen, and the aldermen from those who We do not easily ascribe their induration to cold; bave borne the office of mayor. but rather unto salinous spirits and concretive juices. It contains the three parish churches of St.

Browne. Thomas, St. Edmund, and St. Martin; and in This saline sap of the vessels, by being refused re- cludes the suburbs of Fisherton and East Hamnception of the parts, declares itself in a more hostile ham.' manner, by drying the radical moisture.

An attempt was made, under bishop Ward, in Harvey on Consumptions. the reign of Charles II:, to render the Avon naIf a very small quantity of any salt or vitriol be dissolved in a great quantity of water, the particles of

vigable to Christchurch; and, about thirty years the salt or vitriol will not sink to the bottom, though

ago, a canal was begun to form a water comhey be heavier in specie than the water : but will munication with the port of Southamptom ; but evenly diffuse themselves into all the water, so as to both these projects proved abortive. With remake it as saline at the top as at the bottom.

spect to land communications, the city was Newton's Optics. essentially benefited by the turning of the great

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