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the court expressed their regret that so much he drew back. The English sailors called from knowledge of government, such love of humanity, ship to ship for some person to head them, deand such ardent wishes for the prosperity of claring that they would take him in and defend him; Russia, should only furnish conversation with but he precipitately withdrew. Munich received Catharine Romanovna, the princess Dashkoff. him again at Oranienbauin, and exhorted him The empress and her favorite did not let these to mount his horse and head his guards, swearing expressions pass unobserved; they continued to live and die with him. He said, “No : I see their studies in concert; and, whilst the former it cannot be done without shedding much of the was employed in her famous code of laws for blood of my brave Holstenians. I am not wora great empire, the latter always reported pro- thy of the sacrifice.' The revolution was settled, gress, till the middling circles of Moscow and and Catharine declared autocratrix. The crown Petersburg began to speak familiarly of the was said to be pressed upon her, and her son blessings which they might enjoy if these specu- was proclaimed her heir, and as such great duke lations could be realized. Meanwhile Peter of all the Russias. The unfortunate emperor III. was giving fresh cause of discontent. He was formally deposed on the 10th of July, 1762, had recalled from Siberia count Munich, who and murdered on the 17th. See CATHARINE II., was indeed a sensible, brave, and worthy man; and PETER III. but as he was smarting under the effects of Rus- Catharine, after accomplishing this revolution, sian despotism, and had grounds of resentment affected to behave with magnanimity and modeagainst most of the great families, he did not ration; retained Munich; even pardoned counmuch discourage the emperor's unpopular con- tess Vorontzoff the emperor's favorite; and afduct, but only tried to moderate it and give it a terwards, on her marriage with Mr. Paulotsky, system. Peter, however, was impatient. He made a handsome settlement on them. She publicly ridiculed the exercise and evolutions allowed the expectations of golden days and a of the Russian troops; and hastily adopting the philosophical government to become the subject Prussian discipline, without digesting and fitting of fashionable conversation; and the princess it for the constitution of his own forces, he com- Dashkoff was completely happy. The convenpletely ruined himself by disgusting the army. tion of deputies was even resolved on; and as What he lost was gained by the emissaries of they were not to be elected by the people, exCatharine. Four regiments of guards, amount- cept here and there for show, prince Galitzin ing to 8000 men, were instantly brought over by and count Panin, whom she had completely the three brothers Orloff, who had ingratiated gained over, and who had the greatest abilities of themselves with their officers. The people were any Russians about court, were at inimense in a state of indifference, out of which they were pains in appointing a proper set. In the mean roused by the following means. A little MS. time a great number of showy patriotic projects was handed abont, containing principles of legis- were begun. An English clergyman was invited lation for Russia, founded on natural rights over to superintend the institution of schools for and on the claims of the different classes of peo- civil and moral education ; and the empress was ple, which had insensibly been formed, and be- most liberal in her appointments. This institucome so familiar as to appear natural. In that tion failed, however, to produce the effects experformance was proposed a convention of de- pected from it. The clergyman appointed, puties from all the classes, and from every part though a most excellent character and real phiof the empire, to converse, but without authority, lanthropist, had views too contracted for the on the subjects of which it treated, and to inform sphere in which he was placed ; and Mr. Betthe senate of the result of their deliberations. Itskoy, the Russian Mecænas, to whom the empassed for the work of her majesty, and was press referred him for instructions, preferred much admired. While Catharine was thus high declamation, and stage-playing, and ballets, to in the public esteem and affection, the emperor all other accomplishments. In the mean time, took the alarm at her popularity, and in a few elegance of all kinds was introduced, before days came to the resolution of confining her for the people were taught the principles of life, and then of marrying his favorite. The ser morals. The nobles were sent to travel; and, as vants of that favorite betrayed her to her sister, the Russians more easily acquire foreign lanwho imparted the intelligence to the empress. guages than the people of most other nations, Catharine saw her danger, and instantly formed have great vivacity without flippancy, and in her resolution. She must either tamely submit general understand play, these travellers were te perpetual imprisonment, and perhaps a cruel every where well received, especially at Paris, and ignominious death, or contrive to hurl her where reasons of state contributed not a little to husband from his throne. No other alternative procure them that attention with which they were was left her; and the consequence was what treated. They were ravished with the manners undoubtedly was expected. The proper steps of foreign courts, and imported fashions and were taken ; folly fell before abilities and address, fineries without bounds. The sovereign turned and in three days the revolution was accomplish- all this to her own account, by encouraging a cd. When the emperor saw that all was lost, dissipation which rendered court favors neceshe attempted to enter Cronstadt from Oranien- sary, and made the people about her forget their baum, a town on the gulf of Finland, thirty-nine Utopian dreams. The convention of deputies versts, or nearly twenty-six miles from Peters- at last assembled in the capital. The empress's burg. The sentinels at the harbour presented book of instructions came forth; and great their muskets at the barge; and though they things were doubtless expected. It was entitled were not loaded, and the men had no cartridges, Instructions for the Deputies to consult about? New Code of Laws, &c., and is a very respecta- any whom the greatest of her predecessors could ble work, which does honor to the empress, by bring into the field; and the empire of Russia, whom it was undoubtedly composed, if she had though the people are but just emerging from a seriously intended to put it in execution. But state of barbarism, is at this day one of the most the most consequential of the deputies were powerful in Europe. But the glory of Cathaprivately instructed to be very cautious, and in- rine's reign is stained by injustice and cruelty. formed that carriages and guards were ready for More horrible massacres than those of Ismail Siberia. There was a grand procession at their and Prague, by her general Suwarrow, were not presentation. Each had the honor of kissing committed by the most savage troops in the most her majesty's hand and receiving a gold medal. barbarous ages. Of her character, both public and They met in form to recognise one another, then private, we have given a general sketch under the parted, and have never met since. The New article CATHARINE II. About fifteen different Code melted away without notice; and the princes and courtiers successively gratified her princess Dashkoff was handsomely given to un- desires. Among these were Alexis and Gregory derstand that her counsels were no longer pe- Orloffs, brothers; prince Potemkin; prince Lauscessary, and that she could not do better than koi; the two Zubows, brothers; Vassiltchikoff, a take the amusement of the tour of Europe. She lieutenant of the guards ; count Panin; and sevewas liberally supplied, visited London, Edin- ral others. The first of her lovers was Stanislaus burgh, and most other capitals in Europe; ac- Augustus, count Poniatowski, with whom she had companied by one of the young princes, said to formed a connexion even in her husband's life have been Paul, afterwards emperor; and was time; and whom she afterwards rewarded with treated with great kindness, but kept amused with the kingdom of Poland, for it was by her insomething very different from legislation. In fluence, and the presence of her troops, that the the mean time, many patriotic things were really election was over-awed in his favor, on the 7th done. Taxes were frequently remitted where of September 1764; though she afterwards dethey were burdensome. Every person was de- prived him of his crown and dominions, when clared free who had served government without she found him no longer pliable, but willing to pay for two years. No man was allowed to send give the Poles a free constitutution. While she boors from his cultivated estates to his mines in was thus disposing of foreign kingdoms, she was Siberia, nor to any distant estates, but for the under continual dread of being thrown, by some purposes of agriculture. Many colonies of sudden plot or revolution, from the throne she German peasants were in various places settled had usurped. To prevent this, she hesitated at no on the crown-lands, to teach the natives the new crimes. She procured the private assassimanagement of the dairy: a branch of rural nation of prince John, whom her husband economy of which the Russians were till that Peter (II. had generously liberated from prison. period so completely ignorant that there is not She also, by the most treacherous means, wherein in their language an appropriated word for butter, prince Alexis Orloff was her villanous agent, or cheese, or even for cream. The Russians hoped shut up the princess Tarrakanoff, a daughter of to be likewise instructed in agriculture; but the the empress Elizabeth, by Alexis Razumoffsky colonists were poor and ignorant; and this part (who had been privately married to her), in a of the project came to nothing, like the great fortress, where she was never more heard of. national schools. Other improvements, however, Such were the means she used to get rid of all took place in favor of commerce; for all bar- who had any claim to the throne. Yet, with riers were removed, and goods suffered to pass all her crimes and vices, it must be allowed that through the empire duty-free. The empress she did more to civilize her barbarous subjects with great liberality encouraged the introduction than even Peter the Great In Petersburg of arts and manufactures. An academy was in- alone she founded thirty-one seminaries, where stituted of sculpture, painting, architecture, &c., in 6800 children of both sexes were educated a magnificent and elegant building was erected at the annual expense of 754,335 rubles. She for it, and many éléves supported in it at the superintended the education of her own grandexpense of the crown. Several very promising children, and even wrote books for their instrucyouths have been educated in that académy; tion; while jealousy led her to keep their father, but as the Russians are childishly fond of finery, her own son Paul, at a distance from court and and cannot be persuaded that any thing fine was from all opportunity of improvement. But her ever done by their own countrymen, the students greatest effort for the improvement of science are all, on leaving the academy, suffered to starve. was in 1767, when she employed the celebrated The empress, who had a very just taste in architec- Drs. Pallas, Gmelin, Euler, and several other ture, designed several buildings equally useful and men very eminent in the republic of letters, to ornamental to her capital (see Neva and PE- travel through her vast dominions, to determine TERSBURG): and, while she thus diligently cul- the geography of her extensive territories, the tivated the arts of peace, she did not neglect position of the chief towns, their temperature, those of war. She put her fleets on the most soil, and productions; and the manners of the respectable footing, and procured a number of inhabitants, &c. This survey of her empire must British officers to instruct her seamen in the immortalise her name in science, when her science of naval tactics. By land, her suc- crimes are forgotten. In the coalition against the cesses against the Turks, the Swedes, and the French republic Catharine promised much, but Poles (see POLAND, SWEDEN, and TURKEY), did nothing, except granting refuge to French compel us to believe that her troops were better emigrants, and sending a squadron of crazy ships disciplined, and her generals more skilful, than to co-operate with the British navy, which were obliged to be repaired at the expense of the haps an instructive exhibition of the nature of British government. This extraordinary woman all arbitrary governments that, where the lives of was meditating a new war with the Turks, when the subjects are all at the mercy of the sovereign, she was suddenly seized on the morning of No- the life of the sovereign should be at all times vember 9th, 1796, with a fit of apoplexy, which at the mercy of assassins. Of the character of put an end to her life at 10 o'clock in the evening Paul we shall only say that he appears to have of the 10th, in the sixty-eighth year of her age. been a well meaning man, but too fond of that And she certainly died with the character of one arbitrary power to which he thought himself enof the greatest sovereigns that ever swayed the titled by his birth, and of consequence rash and sceptre in Russia.
precipitate in his measures. See Paul Catharine II, was succeeded in the empire of Paul was succeeded by his eldest son, Alexall the Russias by her son Paul, whose reign ander ; who, whether he was previously acquaintwas short, and his end, like that of his father, ed with the plot or not, appears to have made unfortunate. Paul, though his education, from little enquiry after his father's murderers. For his mother's jealousy, had been very much neg- some time after his accession to the throne he lected, seemed not to want spirit for great exer- appears to have profited considerably by his tions. He took an active and zealous part with grandmother's instructions, and those of the prethe combined powers in the operations against ceptors she placed over him. He encouraged the French republicans; and, by the exertions learning, the sciences, commerce, and manufacof his troops under Suwarrow, the French tures, for the benefit of his subjects and empire. power in Italy was for some time totally over After several energetic but unsuccessful struggles thrown. They also made some exertions in Hol- against France, he became the humble friend of land to assist the British troops, but with less Buonaparte, and was afterwards for a while the success. But all Suwarrow's exertions were un- most illustrious of his dupes and victims. See rewarded by Paul; who, adopting a new system his life in detail in our article ALEXANDER OP of politics, and showing an evident inclination Russia. That article also brings down the histo favor the French republicans, disgraced instead tory of this empire to a very recent period. We of recompensing the old general. But, while need only add that, through the intrigues of the Paul was meditating farther exertions in favor of empress mother, Constantine the elder brother his new allies, the French republicans, he was was afterwards set aside, or compelled to abdimurdered on the 23d March, 1801. The parti- cate the throne in favor of the reigning emperor culars of this transaction have been so variously Nicholas : he has principally distinguished himrelated that we forbear to state any of them. The self by a still equivocal attack on Turkey (1828); causes of the murder have been also so variously in which, however, he has succeeded in the capassigned that we shall likewise leave the investi- ture of the important fortress of Varna. gation of them to future historians. But it is per
RUST, n. s., v. n., & v. a. Sax. pust; Dan. Must I rust in Egypt never more
I rust; Sard, rost. Appear in arms, and be the chief of Greece? Id. The red, oxide of iron: to gather rust or make Part scour the rusty shields with seam, and part rusty; the adjective corresponding.
New grind the blunted axe.
Id. Æneis. This iron began at the length to gather rust.
My scymitar got some rust by the sea water. Hooker.
Gulliver. Her fallow leas,
Rust is the oxide of any metal, procured by The darnel, hemlock, and rank fumitory
corroding and dissolving its superficial parts by Doth root upon, while that the culter rusts,
some menstruum. Water is the great agent in That should deracinate such savagery. Shakspeare. producing rust; and hence oils and other fatty Keep up your bright swords, for the dew will rust
bodies secure metals from rust; water being no them.
menstruum for oil, and therefore not able to Hector, in his dull and long continued truce,
make its way through it. All metals except Is rusty grown.
Id. Troilus and Cressida. Let her see thy sacred truths cleared from all rust
gold are liable to rust; and even this also if exand dross of human mixtures. King Charles. posed to the fumes of sea-salt. Iron, for instance,
Rust eaten pikes and swords in time to come. when exposed to the air, soon becomes tarnished. When crooked ploughs dig up earth's fertile womb, and gradually changed into a brownish-red or The husbandman shall oft discover. May's Virgil. yellow powder, well known by the name of rust.
Gold is the best metal; and, for purity, not sub- This change is occasioned by the gradual combiject to rust as all others : and yet the best gold has nation of the iron with the oxygen of the atmossome dross.
Bp. Hall, phere, and is therefore an oxide of iron. The After a long calm of peace, he was left engaged cutlers in Sheffield, when they have given knife in a war with a rusty sword and empty purse. or razor blades the requisite degree of polish,
Howel. But Pallas came in shape of rust,
rub them with powdered quicklime, in order And 'twixt the spring and hammer thrust
to prevent them from tarnishing ; and we have Her Gorgon shield, which made the cock
been informed that articles made of polished Stand stiff, as 'twere transformed to stock.
steel are dipped in lime-water by the manu
Hudibras. facturer, before they are sent into the retail By dint of sword his crown he shall increase, market. Another method is that of varnishAnd scour his armour from the rust of peace. ing over the metal with a composition of two
Dryden. parts oil vamish, mixed with one part rectified
spirits of turpentine. This varnish must be a courtly behaviour, when his rustick airs have grown lightly and evenly applied with a sponge; after up with him till the age of forty. Watts's Logick. which the article is to be left to dry in some Rustic Gods, dii rustici, in antiquity, the situation not exposed to dust. Articles thus gods of the country, or those who presided over varnished retain their metallic lustre, and do not agiculture, &c. Varro invokes the twelve di. contract any spots of rust. This varnish may consentes, as the principal among the rustic be employed with particular advantage to pre- gods, viz. Jupiter, Tellus, the Sun, Moon, serve philosophical instruments from any change, Ceres, Bacchus, Rubigus, Flora, Minerva, Vein experiments where, by being placed in con- nus, Lympha, and Fortune. Besides these twelve tact with water, they are liable to lose that arch-rustic gods, there were a number of lesser polish and precision of form, which consti- ones; as Pales, Vertumnus, Tutelina, Fulgor, tute part of their value. Plumbago, or black Sterculius, Mellona, Jugatinus, Collinus, Vallead, also protects iron from rust for a time, and lonia, Terminus, Sylvanus, and Priapus. Stru. is on that account used on the fronts of grates, vius adds the Satyrs, Fauns, Sileni, Nymphs, &c.
and even Trytons; and gives the empire over RUSTIC, adj. & n. s. Lat. rusticus. all the rustic gods to Pan. RUSTICAL,
| Rural; country; Rustic Work, is where the stones in the face, RUSTICALLY,
į rude; untaught; &c., of a building, instead of being smooth, are RUSTICALNESS,
plain: a rustic is a hatched, or picked with the point of a hammer. RUST'ICATE, v. n. & v. a. clown, a country- RUSTICUS (L. Junius Arulenius), a learned RUSTIC'ITY.
man: the adverb Roman, the preceptor and friend of Pliny the and noun-substantive corresponding: to rusticate younger. His abilities are celebrated by Pliny is to reside in or banish into the country
and Tacitus. He was put to death by Domitian. By Lelius willing missing was the odds of the Ibe. -Sueton. rian side, and continued so in the next by the ex. RUSTLE, v. n. Sax. pristlan. To make cellent running of a knight, though fostered by the a low continued small noise or rattle. muses, as many times the very rustick people left He is coming. I hear the st both their delights and profits to hearken to his songs.
He is coming ; I hear the straw rustle.
This life There presented himself a tall, clownish, young
young Is nobler than attending for a check; man, who, falling before the queen of the fairies, de
desired that he might have the atchievement of any
Richer than doing nothing for a bauble;
8: adventure, which, during the feast, might happen;
Prouder than rustling in unpaid-for silk. Id. that being granted, he rested him on the floor, unfit
Thick swarmed, both on the ground, and in the for a better place by his rusticity.
air My brother Jaques he keeps at school,
Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings. Milton. And report speaks goldenly of his profit;
As when we see the winged winds engage, For my part he keeps me rustically at home. Rustling from every quarter of the sky,
North, East, and West, in airy swiftness vy. An altar stood, rustick, of grassy ford. Milton.
Granville. This is by a rustical severity to banish all urbanity,
All begin the attack; whose harmless and confined condition is consistent Fans clap, silks rustle, and tough whalebones crack. with religion.
Browne's Vulgar Errours. He confounds the singing and dancing of the sa
Not less their number than the milk-white swans tyrs with the rustical entertainment of the first Ro- That o'er the winding of Cyaster's springs,
Stretch their long necks, and clap their restling Quintius here was born,
wings. Whose shining ploughshare was in furrows worn, RUSTSCHUK, or RUSCEK, a large town on Met by his trembling wife, returning home,
European Turkey, in Bulgaria, situated at the And rustically joyed, as chief of Rome. Id.
influx of the Cara Lom into the Danube, which I was deeply in love with a milliner, upon which
is here nearly two miles wide. I was sent away, or, in the university phrase, rusti.
It has a strong Spectator. cated for ever.
castle and several mosques and public baths; is The sweetness and rusticity of a pastoral cannot the see of a Greek archbishop, and contains conbe so well exprest in any other tongue as in the siderable manufactures of silk, cotton, linen, Greek, when rightly mixed with the Dorick dialect. woollen, and tobacco. Giorgley and this town
Addison. are the two great entrepots for the commercial inAs nothing is so rude and insolent as a wealthy tercourse by the Danube between the Euxine rustick, all this his kindness is overlooked, and his and the interior. It was taken by the Russiins person most unworthily railed at.
in 1810, and the following year a Turkish army This so general expense of their time would cur
was totally defeated near this by the Russians, tail the ordinary means of knowledge, as 'twould
with the loss of all its artillery and baggage. shorter the opportunities of vice; and so accord
About five miles from Rustschuk are to be seen ingly an universal rusticity presently took place, and stopped not till it had over-run the whole stock of
the ruins of the old town of Tschernow or Csermankind. Woodward's Natural History.
navoda. Population 24,000. Forty miles east With unguent smooth the polished marble shone, of Nicopoli, and fifty-five west of Semen Where ancient Neleus sat, a rustick throne. Pope RUT, n. s. Fr. rut. Copulation of deer :
My lady Scudamore, from having rusticated in your also, from the Fr. route, the track of a cart-wheel. company too long, pretends to open her eyes for the That is an advertisement to one Diana, to take sake of seeing the sun, and to sleep because it is heed of the allurement of count Rousillon, a foolish night.
Id. idle boy; but for all that very ruttish. An ignorant clown cannot learn fine language or
Shakspeare. All's Well that Ends Well..
The time of going to rut of deer is in September; than the petals, terminated by roundish summits. for that they need the whole summers feed to make The germen becomes a roundish capsule, with them fit for generation; and, if rain come about the four lobes, full of holes containing rough black middle of September, they go to rut somewhat the seeds. Rue has a strong unpleasant smell, and sooner.
a bitterish penetrating taste : the leaves, when From hills raine waters headlong fall,
full of vigor, are extremely acrid, insomuch as That always eat huge ruts, which, met in one bed
to inflame and blister the skin, if much handled. fill a vall With such a confluence of streames, that on the
With regard to their medicinal virtues, they are mountaine grounds
powerfully stimulating, attenuating, and deterFarre off, in frighted shepherds eares the bustling gent. Boerhaave entertained a very high opinion noise rebounds.
Chapman. of the virtues of this plant, particularly of the The ground hereof was the observation of this part essential oil, and the distilled water cohobated in deer after immoderate venery, and about the end or redistilled several times from fresh parcels of of their rut.
Browne. the herb RUTA, in botany, rue; a genus of the mono
RUTCHESTER, an ancient town of Northumgynia order, and decandria class of plants; na- berland, north-west of Chollerton, called Vindotural order twenty-sixth, multisiliquæ : Cal. bala by the Romans. The wall of Severus quinquepartite ; petals concave; receptacle runs on the middle of the east rampart, and that surrounded with ten melliferous pores : Caps. of Adrian passes about a chain to the south of lobed : SEEDS numerous. There are several it. Its fort was formerly considerable, and its species, of which the most remarkable are ruins are still remarkable. these: –
RUTH, n. s.
From rue. Mercy; 1. R. baga, or Swedish turnip. See Rural Ruth'rul, adj. (pity; tenderness : the deEconomy. Besides being later in shooting than RUTH'FULLY, adv. (rivatives all correspondthe common turnip, this plant loses not its nutri RUTH'LESS, adj. ing. Out of use. tive qualities after being shot, but retains all its His archers circle me; my reins they wound, juices and solidity. This root has been supposed And ruthless shed my gall upon the ground. a mere variety of the yellow turnip, but it is
Sandys. found to differ very materially. The stem has The Britons, by Maximilian laid way something of the appearance of the rape, or cab. With wretched miserics and woful ruth, bage kind : and that part of the root which is above Were to those Pagans made an open prey. Spenser. the surface of the ground is covered by a thick,
Help me, ye baneful birds, whose shrieking sound
· Is sign of dreary death, my deadly cries green skin, which in some is smooth, but in
Most ruthfully to tune.
Id. Pastorals. others quite rough, and the internal fleshy part T he flower of horse and foot, lost by the valour of is of a dense firm consistence, having a yellowish the enemy, ruthfully perished.
Knolles. tinge, nearly similar to that of the horn carrot. What is Edward but a ruthless sea ? The great inducernents for the farmer to enter What Clarence but a quicksand of deceit? freely into the culture of this root are, according
Shakspeare. to Mr. Young, 1. If he has the right sort of seed, All ruth, compassion, mercy be forgot. Fairfax. the root yellow in Aesh, and rough in coat, it By this Minerva's friend bereft lasts through all frosts, and may be depended on Oileades of that rich bowl, and left his lips, nose, for sheep quite through the month of April,
eyes though drawn two months before, and spread
Chapman's Iliad. on a grass field. 2. It is an excellent and nou
O wretch of guests, said he, thy tale hath stirred My mind to much ruth.
Chapman. rishing food for sheep, and also for any sort of “The
for any sort of The inhabitants seldom take a ruthful and reaving cattle. 3. It is equal to potatoes in keeping experience of those harms, which infectious disstock swine: a point of very great consequence. eases carry with them. 4. It is, next to carrots, the very best food that the better part with Mary and with Ruth can be given to horses. 5. It is sown at a season Chosen thou hast; and they that overween, which leaves ample time, in case of a failure, to And at thy growing virtues fret their spleen, put in common turnips, or cabbages. Another No anger find in thee, but pily and ruth. Milton. extraordinary quality of the ruta baga is that it Their age the hostile powers restrain, seems impossible to make it rot : though bit, or All but the ruthless monarch of the main. Pope. trod upon by cattle or horses, it never rots; but Ruth, a canonical book of the Old Testawhatever part of the root is left, nay, if scooped ment, being a kind of appendix to the book of out to the shell, it remains perfectly fresh, and Judges, and an introduction to Samuel ; and in spring puts out a new stem. Both roots and having its title from the person whose history is leaves are excellent for culinary purposes. herein principally related. In this history are
2. R. hortensis, or common broad-leaved gar- observable the ancient rights of kindred and reden rue, has been long cultivated for medicinal demption, and the manner of buying the inheriuse. It rises with a shrubby stalk to the height tance of the deceased. The authenticity of this of five or six feet, sending out branches on every book was never disputed; but the learned are side, garnished with leaves, whose small lobes not agreed about the epocha of the history it reare wedge-shaped, of a gray color, and have a lates. Watkins places it about A. A. C. 1254. strong odor. The flowers are produced at the RUTHERFORD (John), M. D., one of the end of the branches in bunches almost in the founders of the medical school in the University form of umbels: they are composed of four of Edinburgh, was born in 1695, and received yellow concave petals, which are cut on their the rudiments of his education at the parish edges, and eight yellow stamina which are longer school of Selkirk. After his father's death he