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From CONSTANTINE DUCAS TO THE CAPTURE being spent, he returned to Constantinople. The OF CONSTANTINOPLE BY THE LATINS.—In 1067 following year he passed over into Asia in the died the emperor Constantine Ducas, having left spring; and, being informed that the Turks had the empire to his three sons, Michael, Androni- sacked Iconium, marched at once against them; cus, and Constantine; but, as they were all very when they retired in great haste. The Armenians, young, he appointed the empress Eudocia regent, however, encouraged by the approach of the emafter having required of her an oath never to peror's army, fell upon them in the plains of marry. He likewise obliged the senators solemnly Tarsus, put them to fight, and stripred them to swear that they would acknowledge none for both of their baggage and booty. The spring their sovereign but his three sons. No sooner, following the emperor once more entered Asia however, was he dead than the Turks, hearing at the head of a considerable ariny. When the that the empire was governed by a woman, broke two armies drew near each other, Axan, the into Mesopotamia, Cilicia, and Cappadocia. Turkish sultan, son of the famous Tangrolipix, The empress was no way in a condition to oppose sent proposals to Romanus for a peace. These them, the greater part of the army having been were imprudently rejected, and a desperate endisbanded in her husband's life-time: and a dis- gagement ensued; when, in spite of the utmost contented party existed at home, who observed efforts of the emperor, his army was routed, and that the state of affairs required a man of courage he himself wounded and taken prisoner. When and address at the helm, instead of a weak wo- this news was brought to Axan, he could scarcely man. Eudocia therefore determined to marry believe it; but, being convinced by the appearsome person of merit, capable of defeating her ance of the royal captive in his presence, he enemies : and when one Romanus Diogenes, a tenderly embraced and consoled him. "You man of illustrious -birth and beautiful person, shall have no occasion,' said he, to complain was brought forth to receive sentence of death, of your captivity: I will not use you as my she only gently upbraided him with his ambition prisoner, but as an emperor.' The Turk was as and set him at liberty. Soon after she appointed good as his word. He lodged Romanus in a hin commander-in-chief of her forces. In this royal pavilion; assigned him attendants, with station he acquitted himself so well that the an equipage suitable to his quality; and disempress resolved to marry him if she could charged such prisoners as he desired. After he recover the writing in which her oath was had for some days entertained his captive with contained out of the hands of the patriarch. extraordinary magnificence, a perpetual peace In order to this she applied to a favorite was concluded, and the emperor dismissed with eunuch; who told the patriarch that the empress the greatest marks of honor. He then set out was so taken with his nephew Bardas, that she with the Turkish ambassador for Constantinople, was determined to marry and raise him to the where the peace was to be ratified; but by the empire, provided the patriarch absolved her from way he was informed that Eudocia had been her oath, and convinced the senate of the law- driven from the throne by John the brother or fulness of her marriage. The patriarch, dazzled Constantine Ducas, and Psellus a leading man with the prospect of his nephew's promotion, in the senate, who had confined her to a monasreadily undertook to perform both. He first ob- tery, and proclaimed Michael Ducas, his eldest tained the consent of the senate, by representing son, emperor. On this intelligence Romanus reto them the dangerous state of the empire, and tired to a strong castle near Theodosiopolis, exclaiming against the rash oath which the jea- where he hoped soon to be joined by his friends lousy of the late emperor had extorted from the and adherents. But John, who had taken upon empress. He then publicly discharged her from him to act as guardian to the young prince, sent it, and restored the writing to her, exhorting her Andronicus with a considerable army against to marry some deserving object, who, being en- him; on which he was obliged to fly to Adana, trusted with an absolute authority, might be ca- in Cilicia, where he was closely besieged, and at pable of defending the empire. Thus discharged last compelled to surrender. Andronicus carried from her oath, the empress, a few days after, his prisoner into Phrygia, where he fell dangermarried Romanus Diogenes. Being a man of ously ill, being, as was suspected, secretly great activity and military talent, he took the poisoned. Here, at any rate, John ordered his command of the army, and passed over into eyes to be put out; which was done with such Asia, recruiting and inuring his forces on his cruelty that he died soon after, in 1071, having march to military discipline. On his arrival, reigned three years and eight months. being informed that the Turks had surprised and Axan was no sooner informed of the tragical plundered Neocæsarea, and were retiring with end of his friend and ally than he resolved to their booty, he hastened after, and came up with invade the empire; and that not only with a dem them on the third day, when he cut off great sign to plunder as formerly, but to conquer, and numbers of them, and easily recovered the booty. keep what he conquered. The emperor deAfter this he pursued his march to Aleppo, spatched against him Isaac Comnenus, with a which he retook, together with Hierapolis, where considerable army; but he was defeated and he built a strong castle. In his return, he was taken prisoner by Axan. Another army was met by a numerous body of Turks, who at- sent off under John Ducas, the emperor's uncle, tempted to cut off his retreat; and he pretended who gained some advantages; but one Urselius to decline an engagement through fear; but at- revolted with the troops under his command, tacked them afterwards with such vigor that he caused himself to be proclaimed emperor, and put them to fight at the first onset. After this reduced several cities in Phrygia and Cappaseveral towns submitted to him ; but, the season docia. Against him John marched with all his forces, suffering the Turks in the mean time to plenty of provisions, while a famine began to pursue their conquests; but, coming to an'en- rage in the camp of the enemy: a calamity soon gagement with the rebels, his army was entirely followed by a plague, which in three months is defeated, and himself taken prisoner. Notwith said to have destroyed 10,000 men. Robert, standing this victory, Urselius was so much, however, did not abandon the siege, but pushed alarmed at the progress of the Turks that he it with such vigor that the courage of the besieged not only released his prisoner, but joined with began to fail ; and Palæologus sent repeated him against the common enemy, by whom they messages to the emperor, stating that he should were both defeated and taken prisoners. Axan, be obliged to surrender. On this Alexius marched however, was now prevented from pursuing his in person to the relief of the city, but was de. conquests by Cutlu-Moses, nephew to the late feated with great loss by Robert. The emperor Tangrolipix. He had revolted against his uncle; himself with great difficulty made his escape, but, being defeated by him in a pitched battle, leaving the enemy master of his camp. Soon had taken refuge in Arabia, whence he returned after this defeat the city surrendered ; and at the head of a considerable army to dispute the Alexius, being destitute of resources, seized on the sovereignty. But, while the two armies were wealth of the churches and monasteries, which preparing to engage, the khalif of Babylon in- gave much offence to the clergy, and had nearly ierposed his authority, and, by his mediation, an occasioned great disturbances in Constantinople. agreement was concluded that Axan should en- At the same time, entering into an alliance with joy undisturbed the inonarchy lately left him by Henry emperor of Germany, he persuaded him his father, and that Cutlu-Moses should possess to invade the dominions of Robert in Italy. At such provinces of the Roman empire as he or first Henry met with great success; but was soon his sons should conquer. Both the Turkish overcome and driven out by Robert. Bohemond, princes thus turned their forces against the em- in the mean time, reduced several places in Illypire; and, before 1077, made themselves inasters ricum; and, having defeated Alexius in two of Media, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, pitched battles, entered Thessaly, and set down fixing their capital at Nice. During all this time before Larissa, till the emperor came to its rethe emperors of Constantinople, as well as their lief. Soon after his arrival he drew a strong subjects, seemed to be in a manner infatuated. party of Bohemond's men into an ambuscade, They took no notice of the great progress of and cut them almost all off. However, in a these barbarians : the generals were ambitious battle which was fought a few days after, Boheonly of seizing the tottering empire; and, after mond had the advantage; but his troops mutiit was obtained, spent their time in oppressing nying he was obliged to return to Italy. Alexius their subjects, rather than in attempting to re- in his absence recovered several cities; and appulse the enemy. At last Alexius Comnenus, plied once more to the Venetians. By them he having wrested the empire from Nicephorus Bo- was assisted with a powerful fleet, which defeattoniates, in 1080, began to prepare for opposing ed that of Robert in two engagements; but being so formidable an enemy with vigor; so that soon after surprised they were defeated with the Solyman, the Turkish sultan, son and successor 'oss of almost all their navy. Robert is said to to Cutlu-Moses, despatched ambassadors with have used his victory with great barbarity. The proposals of peace. These were at first re- Venetians now equipped a second feet; and, jected; hut Alexius was at last glad to ac- joining that of the emperor, fell unexpectedly cept them, on hearing that Robert Guischard, upon Robert's navy in Buthrotum, sunk most of duke of Puglia and Calabria, was making great his ships, and took a great number of prisoners. preparations against him in the west. To this ex- Robert, while making preparations to revenge pedition Robert was incited by Michael Ducas. this defeat, was prevented by death; and his son That prince had been deposed by Nicephorus Roger did not think proper to pursue só expenBotoniates, and towards the end of the usurper's sive a war. reigu fled into the West, where he was received This conflict was scarcely ended when the by Robert, who sailed with all his forces from Scythians, passing the Danube, laid waste great Brundusium; and, landing at Buthrotum in part of Thrace, committing every where the Epirus, made himself master of that place, while greatest barbarities. Against them the emperor his son Bohemond with part of the army reduced despatched an army under the command of PacuAulon, a celebrated city of Albania. Thence rianus and Branas. The latter engaged the enemy they advanced to Dyrrhachium, which they in- contrary to the opinion of his colleague; and his vested both by sea and land; but met with a rashness caused the loss of the greater part of the most vigorous opposition from GeorgePalæologus, army, who were cut off by the Scythians, togewhom the emperor had entrusted with the de- ther with two generals.. On this Talicius, an fence of it. In spite of the utmost efforts of the officer who had signalised himself on many occaenemy, this commander held out till the arrival sions, was appointed to the command. He fell of the Venetian fleet, by whom Robert's navy upon the enemy as they lay securely near Philipcommanded by Bohemond was totally defeated, popolis, cut off great numbers of them, and the admiral himself having narrowly escaped. obliged the rest to retire in confusion. Next After this victory the Venetians landed; and, spring, however, they returned in such numbers being joined by Palæologus's men, fell upon that the emperor resolved to march against them Robert's troops with such fury that they destroyed in person. Accordingly he set out for Adrianople, their works, hurnt their engines, and forced them and thence to Lardea. Here, contrary to the adback to their camp. As the Venetians were now vice of his best officers, he ventured a battle; in masters at sea, the besieged were supplied with which he was totally defeated with the loss of vast numbers of men, he himself escaping with diffi- to the Holy Land by the emperors of Constanticulty. The next year he was attended with no nople, to make themselves masters of that city, better success, his army being entirely defeated and seize the empire. Accordingly they muswith the loss of his camp and baggage. But in tered all their forces in Asia, and, having crossed 1084 he retrieved his credit; and gave the Scy- the straits, laid siege to Constantinople by sea thians such an overthrow that very few escaped. and land. The tyrant, who was a man of great Notwithstanding they again invaded the empire courage and experience, made a vigorous defence. in 1093. To this they were encouraged by an The Latins, however, after having battered the impostor called Leo, who pretended to be the walls for several days together with an incredible eldest son of Romanus Diogenes. The young number of engines, made a general assault on prince had been slain in a battle with the Turks; the 8th of April 1204. The attack lasted from but the Scythians only wanted a pretence to renew break of day till 3 P.M., when they were forced the war. By a stratagem, however, Leo was to retire, after having lost some of their enmurdered ; and the Scythians, being afterwards gines, and a great number of men. The assault overthrown in two great battles, were obliged to was nevertheless renewed four days after ; when, submit on the emperor's own terms. From 1083 after a warm dispute, the French planted their the war had been carried on with the Turks with standard on one of the towers; which the Venevarious success ; but now an association was tians observing, they quickly made themselves formed in the west against these infidels. This masters of four other towers, where they likewise was occasioned by the superstition of the Chris- displayed their easigns. In the mean time three tians, who uow meditated a crusade for the re- of the gates' being broke down by the battering covery of the Holy Land. Had the western rams, and those who had scaled the walls having princes been assisted by the emperor of the east killed the guards and opened the gates, the in this undertaking, the Turks had undoubtedly, whole army entered. The Greeks filed in the been unable to resist them ; but the Latins were greatest confusion; and several parties of the looked upon by them as no less enemies than the Latins scouring the streets put all they met to Turks; and indeed whatever places they took the sword. Night put a stop to the dreadful from the infidels they never thought of restoring slaughter, and next morning the Greeks entirely to the emperors of Constantinople, but erected submitted ; at the same time they were ordered a number of small independent principalities; 10 retire to their houses, the city being given up which neither having sufficient strength to de- to be plundered by the soldiers. The Latins fend theinselves, nor being properly supported strictly enjoined their men to abstain from by one another, soon became a prey to the slaughter, to preserve the honor of the women, Turks. In 1203 happened a dreadful fire at and to bring the whole booty into one place, that Constantinople, occasioned by some Latin sol- a just distribution might be made : but the diers having plundered a mosque which the Greeks had concealed their most valuable effects Turks had been suffered to build. For this rea- during the night ; and many persons of the first son they were attacked by the infidels; who rank had escaped, and carried along with their. being much superior to them in number, the immense treasures. Yet the booty, without the Latins were obliged to set fire to some houses statues, pictures, and jewels, amounted to a sum to make their escape. The flame, spreading in almost incredible. As for Murtzuphlus he made an instant from street to street, reduced great his escape in the night; embarking in a small part of the city to ashes. The emperor Isaac vessel with Euphrosyne, the wife of Alexius AnAngelus, who had been restored to his throne by gelus a late usurper, and her daughter Eudoxia, the Latins, died soon after their departure from for whose sake he had abandoned his wife. Constantinople, leaving his son Alexius sole FINAL DOWNFALL OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE. master of the empire. The young prince, to dis. - Constantinople continued subject to the Latins charge the large sums he had promised to the for fifty-six years, from A. D. 1205 till 1261 : French and Venetians for their assistance, was during which period Baldwin, earl of Flanders, obliged to lay heavy taxes on his subjects; and Henry his brother, Peter de Courtenay, Robert, this, with the great esteem and friendship he and Baldwin II. reigned successively as empeshowed to his deliverers, raised a general dis- rors. This last had reigned thirty-two years, content among the inhabitants of Constantinople, when the Latins were expelled by Alexius Strawho were sworn enemies to the Latins. This tegopulus, a person of illustrious family, and for encouraged John Ducas (surnamed Murtzuphlus bis eininent services distinguished with the title from his joined and thick eyebrows) to attempt of Cæsar. He had been sent against Alexius the sovereignty. Unhappily he found means to Angelus despot of Epirus, who now attempted put his treacherous designs in execution, and to recover some places in Thessaly and Greece, strangled the young prince with his own hands. from Michael Palæologus, one of the Greek emAfter this he presented himself to the people; perors, who, since the capture of. Constantinople, told them what he had done, which he pretended had kept their court at Nice: and to try whether was to secure their liberties; and earnestly en- he could on his march surprise the imperial city. treated them to choose an emperor who had Alexius, having passed the straits, encamped at courage to defend them against the Latins. On a place called Rhegium, where he was informed this he was instantly saluted emperor, but his by the natives that a strong body of the Latins usurpation proved the ruin of the city. The had been sent to the siege of Daphuksa, that the Latins resolved immediately to revenge the death garrison was in great want of provisions, and of the young prince; and, as they had been so that it would be easy to surprise Constantinople. often betrayed and retarded in their expeditions Hereupon the Greek general resolved at all
events to attempt it; in which he was encouraged informed that the ci-devant emperor Baldwin II. by some of the inhabitants, who, coming privately had married his daughter to Charles king of to his camp, offered to be his guides. He ap- Sicily, and given him Constantinople by way of proached in the night, and some of his men dowry, he ordered the Genoese, who were bescaled the walls without being observed; when, come very numerous, to remove first to Herakilling the sentries, they opened the gates to the clea, and afterwards to Galata. The Pisans and rest of the army. The Greeks, rushing in, pit Venetians, who were not so numerous and all they met to the sword; and, to create more wealthy, were allowed to continue in the city. terror, set fire to the city in four different places. Michael, though he had caused himself to be The Latins, concluding from this that the enemy's proclaimed emperor, and was possessed of abforces were far more numerous than they really solute sovereignty, was as yet only guardian to were, did not so much as attempt either to drive the young emperor John Lascaris, then about them out, or to extinguish the flames. In this ge- twelve years of age. But having now settled neral confusion Baldwin, quitting the ensigns of the state, and gained the affections both of namajesty, filed with Justinian the Latin patriarch, tives and foreigners, he began to think of securand some of his friends, to the sea-side; where, ing himself and his posterity in the empire; and embarking in a small vessel, he sailed to Eubea, cruelly ordered the eyes of the young prince to and afterwards to Venice, leaving the Greeks in be put out. This piece of barbarity involved full possession of Constantinople. When the him in great troubles. The patriarch immenews of this surprising and unexpected success diately excommunicated him; and he would was first brought to Michael he could scarcely probably have been driven from the throne, had credit it; but, receiving letters from Alexius he not engaged pope Urban IV. to espouse his himself with a particular account of the event, cause, hy promising to submit himself and his he ordered thanks to be returned in all the dominions to the Latin church. Thus, indeed, churches, and couriers to be despatched with the he diverted the foreign storm; but caused fresh agreeable news to all parts of the empire. Soon domestic disturbances, not only in Constantiafter he set out for Constantinople with the em- nople, but throughout the empire. In 1283 press, his family, the senate, and nobility, to Michael VII. died, and was succeeded by his take possession of the imperial city. Having son Andronicus II. His first step was to repassed the straits he advanced to the golden gate, store the ancient Greek ceremonies. But he and continued some days without the walls, thus involved himself in greater difficulties : while the citizens were making the necessary though Michael had not been able fully to repreparations to receive him with suitable magni- concile his Greek subjects to the Latin ceremoficence. On the day appointed the golden gate, nies, yet he had in some degree accomplished his which had been long shut, was opened, and the purpose. The Latins had obtained a consideraemperor entered amidst the acclamations of the ble footing in the city, and defended their ceremultitude to the great palace. He was preceded monies with great obstinacy; so that the einpire by the bishop of Cyzicus, who carried an image was again thrown into a ferment. All this time of the Virgin, and followed by all the great offi- the Turks had been continuing their encroachcers, nobility, and chief citizens, pompously ments on the empire. They were now, howdressed. Public thanks were again returned ever, very successfully opposed by Constantine in the church of St. Sophia, at which the empe- the emperor's brother : but his valor rendered ror assisted in person. After this the emperor hini suspected, in consequence of which he was, carefully surveyed the city, a duty which greatly thrown into prison, along with several persons of allayed his joy. He saw the stately palaces and distinction. On the removal of this great comother magnificent buildings of the emperors lying mauder, the Turks, under the famous Othoman, in ruins; many capacious buildings that had made themselves masters of several places in been erected by his predecessors, at an immense Phrygia, Caria, and Bithynia; and among the charge, destroyed by fire, and other accidents of rest of the city of Nice. To put a stop to their war; several streets abandoned by the inhabit- conquests, the emperor despatched against them ants, and choked up with rubbish, &c. These Philanthropenus and Libadarius, officers of great objects only, however, excited in him a desire experience. The former gained some advantages of restoring the city. In the mean time, looking over the enemy; but, being elated with his sucupon Alexius as the restorer of his country, he cess, caused himself to be proclaimed emperor. caused him to be clad in magnificent robes; This rebellion, however, was soon suppressed, placed with his own hand a crown on his head; Philanthropenus being betrayed by his own men: ordered him to be conducted through the city but the Turks, taking advantage of the subsequent iu triumph; decreed that, for a whole year, his commotions, not only extended their dominions pame should be joined in the public prayers in Asia, but conquered most of the islands in with his own; and commanded his statue to be the Mediterranean; and infested the coasts of erected on a stately pillar of marble. His next the empire, to the utter ruin of commerce. care was to repeople the city, many Greek fami- From this time the eastern empire tended fast to lies having withdrawn while it was held by the dissolution. After the revolt of Philanthropenus, Latins. The former were recalled, and the latter the emperor could no longer trust his subjects, were allowed many privileges to induce them and therefore hired the Massagetes: but they not to remove. Great privileges were likewise were first defeated by his enemies, and aftergranted to the natives of Venice and Pisa, which wards turned their arms against him. He next encouraged them to lay aside all thoughts of applied to the Catalans, who behaved in the same removing. Michael, however, being soon after manner; and, having ravaged the few places he had left in Asia, returned into Europe, and called was obliged to comply with, but died soon after the Turks to their assistance. This happened in in 1387. 1292, and was the first appearance of the Turks Manuel no sooner heard of his brother's death ir Europe.
than he hastened to Constantinople, without This enterprise, however, was unsuccessful. taking leave of the sultan, or acquainting him Having loaded themselves with booty, they with the reasons of his sudden departure. At offered to depart quietly if they were allowed à this Bajazet was so offended that he passed with safe passage, and ships to transport them to Asia. great expedition from Bithynia into Thrace, raTo this the emperor readily consented, and or- vaged the country adjoining to Constantinople, dered the vessels to be got ready with all possi- and at last invested the city both by sea and land. ble expedition. But the Greek officers, observing In this extremity Manuel had recourse to the the immense booty with which they were loaded, western princes; who sent him an army of resolved to fall upon them in the night, and cut 130,000 men, under Sigismund king of Hunthem all off. Of this wretched scheme, however, gary, and John count of Nevers. But, though the Turks got notice, and prepared for their de- the western troops proved at first successful, they fence. They first surprised a strong castle in the were in the end defeated with great slaughter by neighbourhood, and then found means to ac- Bajazet. As he found, however, that the citizens quaint their countrymen in Asia with their dan- were determined to hold out to the last, he apgerous situation. Their brethren, having crossed plied to John, the son of Andronicus IV. who the Hellespont in great numbers, ravaged the had a better title to the crown than Manuel. adjacent country, making excursions to the very With him he entered into a private agreement, gates of Constantinople: at last the emperor de- by which Bajazet was to place John upon the termined to march against them with all his Constantinopolitan throne, while John was to forces, the people flocking to him from all quar- deliver up the city to the Turks, and remove the ters. The Turks at first gave themselves over imperial seat to the Peloponnesus. At the saine for lost; but finding the Greeks negligent of dis- time he sent deputies to the inhabitants of Concipline, they attacked their army unexpectedly, stantinople, offering to withdraw his army, and utterly defeated it, and made themselves masters cease from further hostilities, provided they exof the camp. After this they continued for two pelled Manuel and placed John upon the throne. years to ravage Thrace terribly; but at last were This proposal rent the city into factions; but defeater!, and being afterwards shut up in the Manuel prevented the mischiefs which were ready Chersonesus, were all cut in pieces or taken. to ensue by a voluntary resignation; and, having Soon after new commotions took place in this conducted John to the palace, set sail for ve unhappy empire, of which the 'Turks did not fail nice. Thence he went to the courts of all the to take the advantage. 1327 they made them- western princes to solicit their assistance against selves masters of most of the cities on the the Turks. He was every where received with Mwander; and among the rest of Prusa in Bi the greatest demonstrations of esteem, and thynia. The next year, however, Othoman the promised large supplies, all Christendom being founder of the Turkish monarchy being dead, now alarmed at the progress of the infidels. In the emperor recovered Nice, and some other im- the mean time Bajazet did not fail to put John portant places. But these, with Abydus and Ni- in mind of his promise; but, the citizens refusing comedia, were lost in 1328; and in 1330 a peace to comply with such a scandalous treaty, the siege was concluded upon condition that they should was renewed, and the city assaulted with more keep all their conquests. This peace they ob- fury than ever. When it was already reduced to served no longer than served their own pur- the last extremity, tidings were brought to the poses; for new commotions breaking out in the sultan that Tamerlane, the victorious Tartar, empire, they pursued their conquests, and in having over-run all the east with incredible 1357 had reduced all Asia. They next passed celerity, had now turned his arms against the the Hellespont under Solyman the son of Or- Turks, and was preparing to break into Syria. chan, the successor of Othoman, and seized a Alarmed at the danger that threatened him, strong castle on the European side. Soon after Bajazet raised the siege in great haste, and adOrchan died, and was succeeded by Amurath I. vanced against Tamerlane with a numerous and He extended the conquests of his predecessors, well disciplined army; but the Tartars totally and in a short time reduced all Thrace, making defeated and took him prisoner, after having cut Adrianople the seat of his empire. Amurath was most of his men in pieces. Thus Constantinople murdered soon after, and was succeeded by his was preserved for the present. But this relief son Bajazet I., who greatly enlarged his domi- was of short duration. In 1424, in the reign of nions by new conquests. In a short time he re- Joho V., the son of Manuel, the city was beduced Thessaly, Macedon, Phocis, Peloponnesus, sieged by Amurath II. The inhabitants defended Mysia, and Bulgaria, driving out the petty themselves with great bravery; but must in the princes who governed them. Elated with his end have submitted, had not the emperor prefrequent victories, he began to look upon the vailed upon the prince of Caramania to counteGreek emperor, Andronicus IV., to whom nance an impostor and pretender to the Turkish nothing was now left but the city of Constanti- throne. This obliged Amurath to raise the siege, nople and the neighbouring country, as his and march with all his forces against the usurper. vassal. Accordingly he sent him a haughty mes. Having then no other enemies, he entered Masage, commanding him to pay a yearly tribute, cedon at the head of a powerful army; and, and send his brother Manuel to attend him in his having ravaged the country far and near, took and military expeditions. This demand the emperor plundered Thessalonica, and most of the cities