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they arrive at a size big enough to make any

You say, the sea figure, and therefore it is much better to trans- Does with its waves fall backward to the west, plant the roots. The root is accounted aperient, And, thence repelled, advances to the east; and in this intention is sometimes made an in

? While this revolting motion does indure, gredient in apozems and diet drinks, for opening

The deep must reel, and rush from shoar to shoar. slight obstructions of the viscera and promoting

Blackmure. the fluid secretions. This plant is used by the

With a rushing sound the assembly bend butchers for besoms to sweep their blocks.

Diverse their steps.

Pope's Odyssey. RUSE, n. s. Fr. ruse. Cunning ; artifice; Rusu, in botany. See Juncus. little stratagem; trick. A French word, says Rush, Sweet. See Acorus. Johnson, neither elegant nor necessary.

RUSHWORTH (John), was born in NorI might here add much concerning the wiles and thumberland about 1607. After attending the ruses, which these timid creatures use to save them- university of Oxford, he removed to Lincoln's selves.

Ray Inn; and attended the meetings of parliament, RUSH, n. s. Sax. risc; Teut. rusch; where he wrote down the speeches of the king RUSH-CANDLE, SGoth, raus. A plant: the and members. During eleven years, from 1630

Rushy, adj. compound and adjective to 1640, when no parliament was held, he was follow the noun-substantive in sense. . an attentive observer of the great transactions of

He taught me how to know a man in love ; in state in the star-chamber, the court of honor, and which cage of rushes I am sure you are not prisoner. exchequer chamber. He also visited the camp

at Berwick, was present at the battle of NewMan but a rush against Othello's breast,

born, at the treaty of Rippon, and at the great And he retires.

Jd. Othello. council of York. In 1640 he was appointed Be it moon or sun or what you please;

assistant to Henry Elsynge, clerk to the house And if you please to call it a rush-candle,

of commons; and the commons trusted him to Henceforth it shall be so for me. Shakspeare.

convey their overtures to the king, while he was If your influence be quite dammed up

at York. When the parliament created Fairfax With black usurping mists, some gentle taper, Though a rush-candle from the wicker hole

their general, Rushworth was appointed his Of some clay habitation, visit us. Milton.

secretary; and, when Fairfax resigned his commisYour farm requites your pains ;

sion, Rushworth returned to Lincoln's Inn, and Though rushes overspread the neighbouring plains. was soon after chosen one of the committee to

Dryden. consider the propriety and means of new-modelNot a rush matter, whether apes go on four legs or ling the common law. He was elected a repretwo.

L'Estrange. sentative for Berwick-upon-Tweed to the parliaIn rushy grounds, springs are found at the first 'ment which Richard Cromwell assembled in edit.

Mortimer. 1658, and was reelected to that which restored John Bull's friendship is not worth a rush. Charles II. to the crown. After the restoration

Arbuthnot. he delivered to the king several books of the What knight like him could toss the rushy lance ?


privy council, which he had preserved during

the commotions. Sir Orlando Bridgeman keeper The timid hare to some lone seat Retired; the rushy fen or rugged furze. Thomson. of the great seal chose him his secretary in 1677,

A ruh hath a flower composed of many leaves, which office he held as long as Sir Orlando kept which are placed orbicularly, and expand in form of the seals. In 1678 he was a third time chosen a rose : they are planted with great care on the member for Berwick, and a fourth time in the banks of the sea in Holland, in order to prevent the parliament in 1679. He was imprisoned in the water from washing away the earth; for the roots of King's Bench for the last six years of his life. these rushes fasten themselves very deep in the He died 12th of May, 1690. His Historical ground, and mat themselves near the surface, so as to Collection of Private Passages in State, weighty hold the earth closely together.

Miller. Matter

Matters in Law, and Remarkable Proceedings Rusu, v. n. & n. s. Sax. preosan. To move

in Parliament, was published in folio. The with violence; go on with tumultuous rapidity;

first part appeared in 1659; the second in 1680; violent course or motion.

the third in 1692; the fourth and last was pubTheir dam upstart out of her den afraide,

lished in 1701; and altogether made 7 vols. And rushed forth, hurling her hideous taile. Spenser. Faerie Queene.

These underwent a second edition in 1721 ; and Gorgias removed out of the camp by night, to the

the trial of the earl of Strafford was added,

which made the eighth. This work has of course end he might rush upon the camp of the Jews.

1 Mac. iv. 2. been much applauded by those who condemr A gentleman of his train spurred up his horse, the conduct of Charles I., and accused of partiand with a violent rush severed him from the duke. ality by their opponents.

Wotton. RUSK, n. s. Arm. ruzg. Hard bread for Him while fresh and fragrant time

stores. Cherisht in his golden prime,

The lady sent me divers presents of fruits, sugar, The rush of death's unruly wave

and rusk.

Raleigh. Swept him off into the grave.


RUSMA, in natural history, is the modern Arties rush to battle in his clouds. Milton. Desperate should he rush, and lose his life,

name of the eastern nations for the substance

called by the ancient Greeks sory, and used as a With odds oppressed.

Dryden's Æneis. They will always strive to be good christians, but depilatory. The Turks in particular call this subnever think it to be a part of religion to rush into stance rusma. It is not, as some have imagined, the office of princes or ministers.

Sprat. a mineral substance found ready for use, in the

bowels of the earth; but requires a preparation losing his father; and, through either the fraud and alloy. Bellon, who first described at Cuta, or mismanagement of his guardians, all the forin Galatia, the source of a mineral which they tune which had been left him was dissipated by call rusma,' adds that this mineral alone cannot the time that he reached fourteen. Our officer be used 'till it has been beaten into a very fine entered the service at an early period; and, after powder, putting half as much quicklime as serving fourteen years as midshipman, was prorusma, which is then diluted in a vessel with moted to the rank of lieutenant. During the water. Thus the rusma of Bellon is not of its war with the colonies he served on board the self a depilatory; but it contains some caustic Albany, Diligent, and Raleigh, principally on matter, which being mixed with lime gives it that the coast of America, and distinguished himself property. This presumption is confirmed by on several occasions. The pilot having once Velmont de Bomare, who, having received from run the Albany upon a rock, at some distance Constantinople some small pieces of mineral from the land, to the westward of the bay of rusma, perceived that, on throwing it upon hot Fundy, lieutenant Russell requested and obcoals, there immediately exhaled from it a vapor, tained from his commander the Albany's boats, which gives reason for suspecting that it is a armed with volunteers, to cruize for vessels to . colchitis' mineralised by sulphur and arsenic. lighten and get her off; or, should that be imThis mixture is the true rusma of the Turks, and practicable, to save her stores, and to cover their the nouret of the Arabs. Boyle tells us he own retreat to Halifax. In the course of seven made a fine powder of equal parts of rusma and or eight hours he returned, with no fewer than quicklime, and, letting them soak a little time in four fine sloops and schooners, some laden and water, they became a soft paste, which he spread some in ballast, which he had cut out from under on the part he would free from hair; and, after a very heavy fire from the shore. letting this paste lie on about three minutes, he From the Albany Mr. Russell was removed wiped it off with a wet cloth, and found the to the command of the Diligent brig, of eight hair taken away by the roots without any incon- three-pounders. In this ship, whilst cruising off venience.

the Chesapeak, he engaged and took the Lady RUSSEL (Alexander), M.D., was born and Washington, letter of marque, of sixteen sixeducated at Edinburgh. He became physician pounders, richly laden, from France. Mr. Rusto the English Factory at Aleppo. In 1775 he sell now became first lieutenant of the Raleigh, published a History of Aleppo, which was much commanded by captain (afterwards admiral) esteemed, and has since been reprinted, and Gambier. In this ship he was engaged in retranslated into different languages. 'He returned pelling the French attempt upon Jersey (under to England in 1759, and became physician to St. the command of captain Ford and Sir James Thomas's hospital. He died in 1770.

Wallace) in 1779. RUSSEL (Lord William), an illustrious British After this service lord Shuldham, then port patriot, the third son of William, first duke of admiral at Plymouth, honored lieutenant Russell Bedford, was born in 1641. In 1667 he mar- with the command of Drake's Island, with 200 or ried Rachael, second daughter of Thomas Wri, 300 seamen and marines. His lordship flatterothesly, earl of Southampton, and widow of lord ingly termed this the Post of Honor; it being, Vaughan, a lady of distinguished talents and as he observed, the advanced post of Great piety. Having obtained a seat in the house of Britain, whilst the combined Aeets kept the commons, he took part with the whigs, and channel. Lieutenant Russell next served in the opposed the succession of James duke of York, Raleigh, at the siege of Charlestown; on the rewith great zeal. He afterwards entered into duction of which (May the 11th, 1780) vicevarious schemes for excluding that prince, for admiral Arbuthnot, the naval commander-inwhich he was indicted and tried at the Old chief, promoted him to the rank of master and Bailey, by a venal court, and a packed jury who commander in the Beaumont sloop. found him guilty; and he was beheaded at Lin. From the Beaumont sloop, captain Russell coln's Inn Fields, July 31st, 1683. In 1689 was made post in the Bedford, of seventy-four the house of lords passed an act, reversing his guns, then bearing the broad pendant of commoattainder. His lady survived him several years, dore Affleck. He soon after removed into the and a volume of her correspondence with some Hussar, of twenty guns; in which ship he cruisof the most eminent personages of that age has ed successfully against the enemy, by taking and been published. See GREAT BRITAIN.

destroying a large frigate near Boston, laden with RUSSELIA, in botany, a genus of the digynia masts and naval stores, for the French fleet; a order, and pentandria class of plants : CAL. five- large brig privateer, of eighteen guns; a letter leaved : cor. two-lipped; petals five above: CAPS. of marque, of nearly the same force; and seveone-celled and many seeded. Species one only, ral smaller prizes, beside the Sybille frigate, the a climber of Havannah.

capture of which demands more particular noRUSSELL (Thomas Macnamara,) esq., admi, tice.-The Hussar had only twenty guns, and ral of the white, was descended, on both sides, 116 men, thirteen of whom were on the sick list; from most respectable families. His father (an but La Sybille had thirty-eight guns, and 350 Englishman) went over to Ireland, where he men; circumstances which rendered the odds far married a lady of that country, and settled. Mr. greater in favor of the Frenchman. Russell was born, we believe, about the year Captain Russell's official letter says, 'On my 1743, and his Christian name Macnamara was approach, she displayed an English ensign rederived from his paternal grandmother. At the versed in her main shrouds, and English colors early age of five years, he had the misfortune of over French at the ensign-staff. Having like



wise discovered that she was under very good Hussar, and another filled with plate, &c. The jury-masts, had some shot-holes in her quarter, French officers in a body declared that the moand not supposing that French tactics contained ney was their private property, and that the plate a ruse de guerre of so black a tint, I took her to belonged to their captain. Gentlemen,' said be what her colors intimated-a distressed prize captain Russell, it shall continue yours; whatto some of his majesty's ships; every hostile ever your captain may think, British officers do idea vanished; my mind was employed in de- not fight for money. Attempts were made to vising means to succor and protect her; I de- bribe captain Russell to release the count; the clined the privilege of my supposed rank, and English commander, of course, revolted at the stood under his lee to hail. At that moment, by offer, and severely reproved the bearer. a pre-concerted and rapid movement, he put up On his return to England, captain Russell, for his helm, aimed at laying me athwart hawse, his various services, was offered the honor of carrying away my bowsprit, raking, and then knighthood; an honor which he modestly deboarding me. I felt the error of my credulity; clined, as not possessing a sufficient fortune. ordered our helm hard-a-weather, shivered, and Some of his friends thought that this refusal might shortened the after-sails. The Hussar obeyed it disoblige lord Keppel; but that it did not was evi-saved me from the murdering reflection of a dent from his lordship's continued friendship surprise-baffled in part the enemies' attention, towards him whilst he lived. and received only a half-raking fire; which, During the peace, in the course of the year however, tore me to pieces forward, and killed 1791, captain Russell was appointed to command two of my men. By this time both ships were the Diana, on the Jamaica station; where, for by the lee forward, and almost aboard each other. his conduct during the apprehension of a rising I called aloud, to stand by to board him. It among the negroes, he was twice honored with had the desired effect; he put up his helm the public thanks of the inhabitants. It was wore off-the Hussar closed with him—and a during this time that he was sent by admiral fair engagement commenced before the wind. Affleck, to convoy a cargo of provisions, as an After about two hours' chase, the Hussar got up act of charity, from the government and princiabreast of the enemy, gave him one broadside, pal inhabitants of Jamaica, to the white people which he returned with two guns, and struck his of St. Domingo, who were then severely suffercolors; the Centurion, then about long random ing from the depredations of the people of color. shot astern, and the Terrier sloop about four or He was received with joy and gratitude; and five miles to leeward, under a pressure of sail. was invited to a public dinner given by the coThe French officers, when prisoners, confessed lonial assembly at Aux Cayes. At this repast that it was their intention to put the crew of the our officer represented to the assembly that there Hussar to the sword for daring to chase them in was a lieutenant Perkins, of the British navy, so contemptible a ship.'

cruelly confined in a dungeon at Jeremie, on the From the circumstance of peace taking place other side of the island, under the pretext of having just at that period, the above letter was never supplied.the blacks with arms; but, in fact, through published. Perhaps, also, from motives of con- malice for his activity against the trade of that part ciliation on the part of Great Britain, it was of St. Domingo in the American war. Captain thought politic not to give it to the world, as it Russell stated that, before he had ventured to certainly bore extremely hard upon the French plead his cause, he had satisfied himself of his commander. But, as it was intended that this absolute innocence; that he had undergone letter should appear at the court of France nothing like a legal process, a thing imposagainst count Krergarou, it became necessary to sible from the suspension of their ordinary have it legally authenticated, which was accord- courts of justice, owing to the divided and disingly done.

tracted state of the colony; and yet, horrible to When the captain of la Sybille delivered his relate, he lay under sentence of death! "Grant sword to captain Russell on the Hussar's quar- me,' said captain Russell, his life! Do not ier-deck, he commenced a speech, with much suffer these people to be guilty of the murder of pomposity of style and manner, saying, "Ac- an innocent man, by which they would drag cept, Sir, of a sword, which was never before British vengeance upon the whole island.' So surrendered. Conceive my feeling, on being re- forcible was this appeal that the assembly, in the duced to it by a ship of less than half my force most hearty and unequivocal manner, promised but such a ship! such a constant and continued that an order should be instantly transmitted for tremendous fire!'-Captain Russell answered, him to be delivered up. On the following day, • Sir, I must humbly beg leave to decline any however, on captain Russell sending an officer compliments to this ship, her officers, or com- to receive the order for lieutenant Perkins's libepany, as I cannot return them. She is in- ration, he returned with a refusal from the asdeed no more than a British ship of her class sembly; for, as it was a promise made after should be. She had not fair play: but Almighty dinner, they did not think it binding. God has saved her from a most foul snare of a Almost at the moment of the officer's return, the most perfidious enemy. “I receive your sword Ferret sloop, captain Nowell (afterwards admiral with the most inexpressible contempt; and, sir, Nowell), hove in sight. She had been at Jeremie, you will please to observe, that lest it should ever with despatches containing the requests of lord defile the hand of any honest French or English Effingham and admiral Affleck, that lieutenant officer, I here, in the most formal and public Perkins might be delivered up, which the council of manner, break it.' At this moment a strong box, commons there absolutely refused. No sooner containing about £500, was brought on board the was captain Russell apprised of this state of the business, than he declared that he would sacrifice the 23d of April, 1804, rear-admiral of the red. as many Frenchmen as there were hairs on Per- Soon after the commencement of the late war, kins's head, if they murdered him. His deter- we find our officer serving under lord Keith. mination was soon known amongst the Diana's About the year 1807 he was appointed to the crew; the anchor was up, sail crowded, and the chief command of the North Sea fleet ; but, from wind favoring them in an uncommon manner, the rigid caution which the Dutch squadrons obthe frigate and sloop quickly appeared off Jere- served, no opportunity occurred for him to dismie. Both of the vessels hove to close to the play the determined spirit which he was well harbor, and prepared for battle ; every soul on known to possess. His promotion to the board of them panting for vengeance, should rank of vice-admiral took place Nov. 9th, 1805; Perkios be murdered. Captain Nowell, on land- and on the 12th of August, 1812, he became a ing, was surrounded by a mob of at least 300 full admiral. Mrs. Russell, to whom he was villains, armed with sabres; and, together with united about the year 1793, died March 9th, lieutenant Godby, who accompanied him, had 1818, leaving an only child, a daughter, married occasion to keep his hand on his sword during in 1817 to George Edward Patey, esq., lieut. the whole of the conference which took place. R. N. The president read the letter, and said, “Sir, Admiral Russell's blockade of the Texel, dursuppose I do not?' ' In that case,' replied the ing the period of the threatened invasion of our British officer, you draw down a destruction shores, has been considered admirable, and was which you are little aware of. I know captain planned and executed by himself. His system Russell; beware, if you value your town, and of anchoring during the strongest gales, with the lives of thousands; he has given me sixty sometimes three cables on end, was rewarded by minutes to decide; you see, sir, that thirty of the most complete success. During the neap them are elapsed. The mob now grew outrage- tides, the line-of-battle ships for the most part ous. You shall have him,' exclaimed one of rendezvoused at North Yarmouth, by which a them, but it shall be in quarters !' Captain saving to his country in wear and tear, and proNowell instantly drew his sword, and, looking at bable loss of ships, was cffected to an immense the president, said, “Sir, order that fellow out of amount. Indeed, while this blockade of the my sight, or he dies !' The president did so; Texel was the most efficient ever known, and and, after a few more threats from captain was conducted with all the rigidness of a state Nowell, that he would return without him, poor of bitter warfare, it was marked by instances Perkins was led from the brig of war lying off the refined humanity which procured the respect town in which he had been kept a close prisoner, and esteem of the Dutch admiral Kictchurt, his into the Ferret's boat.

officers, and men. Having remained the usual time on the Ja- RUSSET, adj. & n. s. Fr. rousset ; Lat. maica station, the Diana returned to England, russus. Reddishly brown: such is the color of and was paid off'; after which captain Russell apples called russetings, and of coarse country was appointed to command the St. Albans of dresses. sixty-four guns, and brought home four or five

- The morn, in russet mantle clad, East Indiamen from St. Helena. On the 11th

Walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill. of January, 1796, he was appointed to the Ven

Shakspeare. geance, of seventy-four guns; in which he served Taffata phrases, silken terms precise. in the West Indies, under rear-admiral Harvey, Figures pedantical : these summer flies at the captures of St. Lucia and Trinadad, and at Have blown me full of maggot ostentation : the subsequent unsuccessful siege of Porto Rico; Henceforth my wooing mind shall be exprest and on this station captain Russell had the satis- In russet yeas, and honest kersey noes. Id. faction of making, the second time in his life, an Our summer such a russet livery wears, ample fortune; but, by an unlimited confidence As in a garment often dyed appears. Dryden. in the integrity of others, his golden treasures The Dorick dialect has a sweetness in its clownishsoon vanished.

ness, like a fair shepherdess in her country russet.. In the spring of 1799 he returned to England,

Id. and joined the Channel fleet, then under the This white spot was immediately encompassed orders of earl St. Vincent. Having remained for with a dark gray or russet, and that dark gray with some time in that service, the Vengeance, being the colors of the first iris. Nevton's Opticks. much out of repair, was paid off ; and, on the The rousset dearmain is a very pleasant fruit, con23d of April, 1800, captain Russell was appointed tinuing long on the tree, and in the conservatory parto the Princess Royal, a second rate, in which takes both of the russeting and pearmain in colour ship he remained until advanced to the rank of and taste ; the one side being generally russet, and rear admiral of the white, Jan. 1st., 1801 ; and on the other streaked like a pearmain. Mortimer.


RUSSIA (from Sclav. Rossi or Russi, a small By a treaty of peace in August 1811 between Sclavonic tribe) comprehends a portion of Russia and Turkey the former obtained the proEurope and Asia, exceeding in extent any em- vince of Bessarabia, and the eastern part of Molpire that was ever before included under one davia ; for by that treaty the Pruth, from its enform of government. It borders on the Baltic, trance into Moldavia, to its junction with the the Euxine, and the Caspian, and is washed Danube, and this last river to the Black Sea, both by the Arctic and Great Pacific Oceans. were fixed as the boundaries between the two Stretching from the eastern confines of Asia to empires. The grand duchy of Warsaw was the mountains of Olonetz, and from the mouths also annexed to Russia in 1815, but now conof the Don, the Volga, and the Kuban, to the stitutes a great part of the present kingdom of Frozen Sea, Russia comprises, independently of Poland. islands and promontories, 165° of longitude and This empire has undergone much variation in 32° of latitude; being 9684 miles in length and its political divisions. In 1796 Catherine II. 2400 in breadth. It contains a surface of about divided the whole into fifty governments; a divi4,000,000 square miles, and a population of sion annulled by Paul in 1800, another, commore than 42,000,000 inhabitants, or about ten prising forty-one governments, being substituted persons to each square mile. The population in its stead. When the late emperor ascended of European Russia, exclusively of the kingdom the throne, he re-established most of the governof Poland, does not much exceed 40,000,000. ments which his father had abolished; and a The chief augmentations by which the empire Ukase for that purpose was published in Sephas been enlarged (for since its provinces were teniber 1801, by which the forty-one existing united under one government they have never governments were increased by five others that been contracted) are the following, as stated in had previously been established, and four more the Russian Court Calendar for 1817 :

were added, which made the number fifty. The The conquest of Siberia took place in 1573. acquisition of Finland has been made since that Yermark, the hetman of the Don Cossacks, re- period. The following are its present chief dibelled against the authority of Russia, and was visions :obliged to flee before the forces of the czar. In

GOVERNMENTS ON TIE NORTH. this extremity he ascended the Ural mountains, and discovered the vast plains of Siberia. Anis Governments.

Capitals. mated by the idea of founding a new empire, in Finland . . . . . Abo these unknown regions, he pushed on from con Wyburg . . . . . Wyburg quest to conquest, till he had subdued all the Olonetz . . . . . Olonetz savage tribes from the Ob and the Ural to the Archangel . . . . Archangel Altaian mountains. But, being unable to pre Esthonia . . . . Revel serve the conquests which his valor had achieved, St. Petersburgh... St. Petersburgh. he laid the fruit of his victories at the feet of the Novogorod ... Novogorod-Veliki czar, who not only forgave his rebellion, but re Vologda ..... Vologda warded his talents, his courage, and his enter Livonia . . . . . Riga prise. “Thus an empire more extensive than Pskove . . . . Pskove Mexico or Peru was added to the Russian terri Twer . . . . . . Twer tory, by a man inferior to the conquerors of tne

Jarosla . . .

... Jarosla New World, only because his exploits have not Kostroma . . . . . Kostroma. been recorded.' Little Russia was added to the

GOVERNMENTS IN THE CENTRE. former possessions in 1644; and Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, Carelia, Viborg, and several islands Smolensko ... . Smolensko in the gulf of Finland, were ceded to Sweden, Moscow . . . . . Moscow at the peace concluded between the two powers

Volodimir . . . . . Volodimir in 1721. White Russia was annexed in 1772; Nizney Novogorod. Nizney Novogorod and the Crimea, the island of Taman, and a great Kaluga . . . . . Kaluga part of the Kuban, comprising a vast territory,

Tula . . . . . Tula with about 1,500,000 inhabitants, were wrested Riazan . . . . . . Riazan from the Porte, by the treaty which the menac Tambof ..... Tambof ing attitude of Catharine II., and her celebrated

Orel . .

. . . Orel minister Potemkin, induced that power to sign

Kursk . . .

. . . Kursk in 1784. The dukedoms of Lithuania and Cour Woronetz . . . . . Woronetz land augmented the accumulating mass in 1793; Tschenigo . . . . . Tschenigo and the partition of Poland, about two years Ukraine . . . . . Karkof. afterwards, added nearly 3440 square leagues, and about 2,000,000 inhabitants. Georgia was

annexed in 1801; and Bailystock in 1807. The Kiev . . . . . . Kiev
war between Russia and Sweden, in 1809, proved Cathariposlaf. . . . Catharinoslaf
disastrous to the latter, and Russia acquired Cossacks . . . . . Tscherkaskoy
Finland by the peace that was concluded in Taurina . . . . . Caffa
September of that year.

Caucasus (part in Asia).

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