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Alani, advancing to their relief, had not trampled rous army'; and again an accommodation with down the infantry of the Franks ; who, after an Honorius was set on foot. However, Rome was honorable resistance, were compelled to relin- a third time besieged, and at last taken and planquish the unequal contest. The victorious con- dered. Procopius says that there was not in the federates pursued their march; and on the last whole city one house left entire ; and both St. day of the year, in a season when the waters of Jerome und Philostorgius assert that the great the Rhine were most probably frozen, they en- metropolis of the empire was reduced to a heap tered without opposition the defenceless pro- of ashes and ruins. Though many of the Goths, vinces of Gaul. This memorable passage of the pursuant to the orders of their general, refrained Suevi, the Vandals, the Alani, and the Burgun- from shedding the blood of such as made no redians, who never afterwards retreated, may be sistance; yet others more cruel and blood-thirsty, considered as the fall of the Roman empire in massacred all they met: so that in some quarters the countries beyond the Alps; and the barriers the streets were seen covered with dead bodies, which had so long separated the savage and the and swimming in blood. However, not the least civilised nations of the earth were from that injury was offered to those who fled to the fatal moment levelled with the ground. While churches; nay the Goths themselves conveyed the peace of Germany was secured by the attach- thither, as to places of safety, such as they were ment of the Franks and the neutrality of the desirous should be spared. Many of the statues Alemanni, the subjects of Rome, unconscious of of the gods, that had been left entire by the emtheir approaching calamities, enjoyed a state of perors as excellent pieces of art, were on this quiet and prosperity which had seldom blessed occasion destroyed, either by the Goths, who, the frontiers of Gaul. This scene of peace and though mostly Arians, were zealous Christians, plenty was suddenly changed into a desert, and or by a dreadful storm of thunder and lightning the prospect of the smoking ruins could alone which fell at the same time upon the city, as if it distinguish the solitude of nature from the deso had been sent on purpose to complete with them lation of man. The flourishing city of Mentz the destruction of idolatry. Some writers, howwas surprised and destroyed; and many thou- ever, affirm that the city suffered very little at this sand Christians were inhumanly massacred in time, not so much as when it was taken by the church. Worms perished after a long and Charles V. Alaric did not long survive the taking opstinate siege: Strasburg, Spires, Rheims, Tour- of Rome, being cut off by a violent fit of sicknay, Arras, Amiens, experienced the most cruel ness in the neighbourhood of Rhegium. oppression of the German yoke; and the con- After his death the affairs of Honorius seemed suming flames of war spread from the banks of a little to revive by the defeat and death of Conthe Rhine over the greatest part of the seventeen stantine and some other usurpers ; but the proprovinces of Gaul. That rich and extensive vinces of Gaul, Britain, and Spain, were now country, as far as the Ocean, the Alps, and the almost entirely occupied by barbarians, in which Pyrenees, was delivered to the barbarians, who state they continued till the death of Honorius, drove before them in a promiscuous crowd the which happened in the year 423, after an unforbishop, the senator, and the virgin, laden with tunate reign of twenty-eight years. the spoils of their houses and altars.'

VALENTINIAN III.-After some usurpations In the midst of these calamities, a revolt hap- which took place on his death, his nephew Vapened in Britain, where one Constantine, a com- lentinian III. was declared emperor of the west, mon soldier, was raised to the imperial throne, and his mother, Placidia, regent during his mimerely for the sake of his name. He governed nority. He was scarcely seated on the throne, Britain with great prosperity; passed over into when the empire was attacked by the Huns Gaul and Spain, the inhabitants of which submit- under the celebrated Attila (see that article). ted without opposition, being glad of any pro- The empress then had two celebrated generals, tector whatever from the barbarians. Honorius, Bonifacius and Aetius; who by their union incapable of defending the empire, or repressing might have saved the empire; but, unhappily, the revolt, was obliged to acknowledge him for through the treachery of Aetius, Bonifacius his partner in the empire.

revolted, and a civil war ensued. Aetius, In the mean time Alaric, with his Goths, notwithstanding his treachery, was pardoned, threatened a new invasion, unless he was paid a and put at the head of the forces. He defended certain sum of money; and Stilicho, having ad- it against Attila with great spirit and success, vised a compliance with this demand was accused, notwithstanding the deplorable situation of afafter all his services, of corrupt motives, and put fairs, till he was murdered by Valentinian with to death. The money, however, not being readily his own hand. In the mean time, the provinces, sent, Alaric laid siege to Rome, and would have except Italy itself, were totally over-run by the taken it, had not the emperor finally complied with barbarians. Genseric, king of the Vandals, rahis demand. The ransom of the city was 5000 lbs. vaged Africa and Sicily; the Goths, Suevians, of gold, 30,000 of silver, 4000silk garments, Burgundians, &c., had taken possession of Gaul 3000 skins dyed purple, and 3000 lbs. of pepper. and Spain; and the Britons were oppressed by On this occasion, the heathen temples were the Scots and Picts, so that they were obliged stripped of their remaining ornaments, and to call in the Saxons to their assistance. In the among others of the statue of Valor; which the year 455 Valentinian was murdered by one Pagans did not fail to interpret as a presage of the Maximus, whose wife he had ravished. speedy ruin of the state. Alaric, having received MAXIMUS immediately assumed the empire; this treasure, departed for a short time, but soon but felt such violent anxieties that he designed after he again blocked up the city with a nume- to resign it, and fly out of Italy, to enjoy the quiet of a private life. However, being dis- Italy; but Odoacer, investing the place without suaded from this by his friends, and his own wife loss of time, took it soon after by assault, dying soon after, he forced the empress Eu- gave it up to be plundered by the soldiers, doxia to marry him. Eudoxia, who had ten- and then set fire to it. Orestes being taken derly loved Valentinian, provoked beyond mea- prisoner, and brought to Odoacer, he carried sure at being married to his murderer, invited him to Placentia, and there caused him to be Genseric king of the Vandals into Italy. This put to death on the 28th of August, the day on proved a most fatal scheme; for Genseric im- which he had driven Nepos out of Ravenna, mediately appeared before Rome; a violent and obliged him to abandon the empire. From tumult ensued, in which Maximus lost his life; Placentia Odoacer marched straight to Ravenna, and the city was taken and plundered by Gen- where he found Paul, the brother of Orestes, seric, who carried off what had been left by the and the young emperor Augustulus. The former Goths. A vessel was loaded with costly statues; he immediately hut to death; but sparing Augushalf the covering of the capitol, which was of tulus, in consideration of his youth, he stripped him brass plated over with gold; sacred vessels en of the ensigns of the imperial dignity, and confined riched with precious stones ; and those which him to Lucullanum, a castle in Campania; where had been taken by Titus out of the temple of he was treated with great humanity, and alJerusalem; all of which were lost with the ves- lowed a handsome maintenance. Rome readily sel in its passage to Africa.

submitted to the conqueror, who immediately MARJORIANUS.—Nothing could now be more caused himself to be proclaimed king of Italy, deplorable than the state of the Roman affairs; but would not assume the purple. Thus nevertheless, the Western empire continued to ex- failed the very name of an empire in the west. ist for some few years; and even seemed to revive Britain had been long abandoned by the Rofor a little under Marjorianus, who was declared mans; Spain was held by the Goths and Suéemperor in 458. He was a man of great cou- vans; Africa by the Vandals; the Burgundians, rage, and possessed of many other excellent Goths, Franks, and Alans, had erected several qualities. He defeated the Vandals, and drove tetrarchies in Gaul; at length Italy itself, with them out of Italy. With great labor he fitted its proud metropolis, which for so many ages out a fleet, of which the Romans had been long had given law to the rest of the world, was endestitute. With this he designed to pass over slaved by a contemptible barbarian, whose family, into Africa ; but, it being surprised and burnt by country, and nation, are not well known to this the enemy, he himself was soon after murdered day. by one Ricimer, a Goth, who had long governed every thing with an absolute sway. After the

PART V. death of Marjorianus, Athemius was raised to the empire : but, beginning to counteract Rici- EASTERN, OR CONSTANTINOPOLITAN mer, the latter openly revolted, and besieged and

EMPIRE took Rome; where he committed innumerable cruelties, among the rest putting to death the From the death of Theodosius to the time emperor Anthemius, and raising one Olybius to when the Roman empire in the west was totally the empire.

destroyed by the Goths, we find little remarkable The transactions of Olybius's reign were very in the history of Constantinople; or during the few, as he died soon after his accession. On his reigns of Theodosius II., Marcian and Leo I. death Glycerius usurped the empire. He was and II., except that Leo II., who had been assodeposed in 474, and Julius Nepos had the name ciated by his materual grandfather, (Leo I.) reof emperor. He was driven out the next year signed in favor of his father Zeno, whom he by his general Orestes, who caused his son Ro. crowned with his own hands. When the wesmulus Augustulus to be proclaimed emperor. tern empire ended in Augustulus, the Eastern But the following year, 476, the barbarians who was usurped by Basiliscus, who had driven out served in the Roman armies, and were distin- Zeno the lawful emperor. Zeno fled into Isauria, guished with the title of allies, demanded, as a where he was pursued by Illus and Trecondes, reward for their services, the third part of the two of the usurper's generals; who, having easily lands in Italy; pretending that the whole coun- defeated the few troops he had with him, forced try, which they had so often defended, belonged the unhappy prince to shut himself up in a castle, of right to them. As Orestes refused to comply which they immediately invested. But in a short with this insolent demand, they resolved to do time Basiliscus having become obnoxious to the themselves justice, as they called it; and, openly people by his cruelty, avarice, and other bad revolting, chose one Odoacer for their leader. qualities, his generals joined with Zeno, whom Odoacer was, according to Ennodius, meanly they restored to the throne. After his restoration, born, and only a private man in the guards of Zeno having got Baisliscus into his power, conthe emperor Augustulus, when the barbarians, fined him in a castle of Cappadocia, together revolting, chose him for their leader. However with his wife Zenonide, where they both perished he is said to have been a man of uncommon with hunger and cold, A. D. 478, after Basilisability. He marched against Orestes and his sou eus had reigned about twenty months. During Augustulus, who still refused to give them any the time of this usurpation a fire happened at share of the lands in Italy. As the Roman Constantinople, which consumed great part of troops were inferior, both in number and valor, the city, with the library containing 120,000 voto the barbarians, Orestes took refuge in Pavia, lumes; among which were the works of Homer, at that time one of the best fortified cities in written, it is said, on the great gut of a dragon 120 feet long. Zeno was not improved by his people, highly dissatisfied with the conduct of misfortunes. He still continued the same vicious John the præfectus prætorii, and of Trebonianus courses which had given occasion to the usurpa- then questor, forced Hypatius, nephew to the tion of Basiliscus; yet, though other conspiracies emperor Anastasius, to accept the empire, and were formed against him, he had the good for- proclaimed him with great solemnity. As these tune to escape them. He engaged in a war two ministers were greatly abhorred on account with the Ostrogoths, in which he proved unsuc- of their avarice, Justinian immediately discharged cessful, and was obliged to yield the provinces them, hoping thus to appease the tumult; but of Lower Dacia and Mæsia to them. "In 484 this was so far from answering the purpose that Theodoric, their king, mace an irruption into the people only grew more outrageous; and, Thrace, and advanced withia fifteen miles of most of the senators joining them, the emperor Constantinople; but the following year they re- was so much alarmed that he had thoughts of tired in order to attack Odoacer king of Italy, abandoning the city. But the empress Theodora of which country Theodoric was proclaimed persuaded him rather to part with his life than king in 493. The emperor Zeno died in 491, in his empire, and he resolved to defend himself to the sixty-fifth year of his age, and seventeenth the utmost. In the mean time the rebels, having of his reign. The Roman empire had long been attempted in vain to force the gates of the paon the decline, before it fell a prey to the Goths. lace, carried Hypatius in triumph to the circus, The ancient valor and military discipline, which where, while he was beholding the sports from had rendered the Romans superior to other na- the imperial throne, amidst the shouts and acclations, had now greatly degenerated. But what mations of the people, Belisarius, who had been proved of the greatest detriment was the allow- recalled from Persia, entered the city with a coning vast swarms of barbarians to settle in the siderable body of troops. Being now apprised different provinces, and to serve in the empire of the usurpation of Hypatius, he marched strait in separate and independent bodies. This had to the circus ; fell sword in hand upon the disproved the immediate cause of the dissolution of armed multitude; and, with the assistance of a the western empire; but, as it affected the castern band of Heruli, headed by Mundus, governor of parts less, the Constantinopolitan empire conti- Ilyricum, cut about 30,000 of them in pieces. nued for near 1000 years after the western was Hypatius the usurper, and Pompeius, another totally dissolved. The weak administrations of nephew of Anastasius, were taken prisoners, and Zeno, and Anastasius I., who succeeded him, carried to the emperor, by whose orders they rapidly reduced the eastern empire; and it might were both beheaded, and their bodies cast into possibly have fallen soon after the western one, the sea. Their estates were confiscated with had not the wise and vigorous conduct of Justin, those of such senators as had joined with them; and his partner Justinian, revived in some mea- but the emperor caused great part of their lands sure the ancient martial spirit. Justin ascended and effects to be afterwards restored, together the throne in 518. In 521 he engaged in a war with their honors and dignities, to their children. with the Persians, who had long been very for- Justinian, having now no other enemy to contend midable enemies. Against them he employed with, turned his arms against the Vandals in the famous Belisarius, but nothing remarkable Africa, and the Goths in Italy; both which prohappened till after the accession of Justinian. vinces he recovered out of the hands of the bar

JUSTINIAN I.-This prince was the nephew of barians. But before Belisarius had time to reJustin, and was by him taken as his partner in establish fully the Roman power in Italy, he was the empire in 527; the same year Justin died, recalled to carry on the war against Cosrhoes in the seventy-seventh year of his age, and ninth king of Persia, who, regardless of the late treaty, of his reign. Justinian, being now sole master entered the Roman dominions at the head of a of the empire, bent his whole force against the powerful army. The same year a new peace Persians. The latter proved successful in the was concluded upon the following conditions :first engagement; but were soon after utterly 1. That the Romans should, within two months, defeated by Belisarius on the frontiers of Persia, pay to the Persian king 5000 lbs. weight of gold, and by Dorotheus in Armenia. The war continued and an annual pension of 500 lbs. 2. That the with various success during the first five years of latter should relinquish all claim to the fortress Justinian's reign. In the sixth a peace was con- of Daras, and maintain a body of troops to cluded, stipulating, 1. That the emperor should guard the Caspian gates, and prevent the barbapay the king of Persia 1000 lbs. weight of gold. rians from breaking into the empire. 3. That 2. That both princes should restore the places upon payment of that sum Costhoes should imthey had taken during the wars. 3. That the mediately withdraw his troops from the Roman commander of the Roman forces should no dominions. The treaty being signed, and the longer reside at Daras, on the Persian frontiers, stipulated sum paid, Cosrhoes began to march but at Constantina in Mesopotamia. 4. That back again; but by the way plundered several the Iberians, who had sided with the emperor, cities. Justinian hereupon resolved to renew the should be at liberty to return to their own coun- war with vigor; but had scarcely for that purtry or stay at Constantinople. This peace, con- pose despatched Belisarius into the east before cluded in 532, was styled eternal; but proved he was obliged to recal him, in order to oppose of very short duration.

the Goths, who had gained great advantages in About this time happened at Constantinople Italy. The Persian war was carried on with inone of the greatest civic tumults recorded in his- different success till A. D. 598, when a peace tory. It began among the different factions in was concluded, upon the emperor again paying the circus, but ended in an open rebellion. The an immense sum to the enemy.. The same year

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the Huns, passing the Danube in the depth of successors 3000 pounds weight of gold, fifty winter, marched in two bodies for Constantinople; slaves, and as many choice horses. This peace and, laying waste the countries through which was scarcely concluded when the empire was in they passed, came, without opposition, within vaded by the Bulgarians; who, breaking into 150 furlongs of the city. But Belisarius, march- Thrace, defeated the Roman army, and ravaged ing out against them with a handful of men, put the country far and wide. Constantine IV., in them to flight; the emperor, however, agreed to 678, agreed to pay them an annual pension, pay them an annual tribute, upon their promising rather than continue a doubtful war; and allowed to defend the empire against all other barbarians. them to settle in Lower Mæsia, from them called This was the last exploit performed by Belisarius, Bulgaria. who, on his return to Constantinople, was dis In 687 they were attacked by Justinian II., graced, stripped of his employments, and con- who entered their country without provocation fined to his house, on pretence of a conspiracy. but they, falling suddenly upon him, drove him See BELISARIUS. In 565 a real conspiracy was out, and obliged him to restore the towns and formed against Justinian, which he happily es- captives he had taken. In 697 Justinian was caped, and the conspirators were executed; but deposed; and in his exile fled to Trebelis, king the emperor did not long survive, being carried of the Bulgarians, by whose aid he was restored off by a natural death in 556, in the thirty-ninth to his throne; but; soon forgetting this favor, he year of his reign.

invaded the country of the Bulgarians, with a JUSTINIAN'S SUCCESSORS, TO THE FIRST TURK- design to wrest from them those provinces which ISH INVASION.-During the reign of Justinian the he had yielded to them. In this expedition he majesty of the Roman empire seemed to revive. was attended by no better success than his inHe recovered the provinces of Italy and Africa gratitude deserved, his army being defeated, and out of the hands of the barbarians, by whom they himself obliged to make his escape in a vessel had been held for a number of years; but after .to Constantinople. The Bulgarians, continuing his death they were soon lost, and the empire their inroads and ravages at different times, getended fast to dissolution. In 569 Italy was nerally defeated the Romans who ventured to conquered by the Lombards, who held it for the oppose them, till A. D. 800, the seventh of the space of 200 years. Some amends, however, reign of Nicephorus I., when they surprised the were made for this loss by the acquisition of Per- city of Sardica, and put the whole garrison, consian Armenia, the inhabitants of which being sisting of 6000 men, to the sword. The empepersecuted on account of the Christian religion, ror marched against them with a considerable which they professed, revolted to the Romans. army; but the enemy retired at his approach; This produced a war between the two nations, and he, instead of pursuing them, returned to who continued to weaken each other, till at las! Constantinople. Two years after he entered Bulthe Persian monarchy was overthrown, and that garia at the head of a powerful army, destroying of the Romans greatly reduced by the Saracens. every thing with fire and sword. The king offered These new enemies attacked the Romans in 632, to conclude a peace with him upon honorable and pursued their conquests with incredible terms; but Nicephorus, rejecting his proposals, rapidity. Within four years they reduced Egypt, continued to waste the country, destroying the Syria, and Palestine. In 648 they became mas- cities, and putting all the inhabitants, without ters of Mesopotamia, Phænicia, Africa, Cyprus, distinction of sex or age, to the sword. The king Aradus, and Rhodes; and having defeated the was so much affected with these cruelties, that Roman fleet, commanded by the emperor Con- he sent a second embassy to Nicephorus, offering stans II. in person, they concluded a peace on to conclude a peace with him upon any terms. condition of keeping the vast extent of territory But, Nicephorus dismissing the ambassadors with they had seized, and paying for 1000 nummi scorn, the Bulgarian monarch attacked the Roman a-year. An expedition against the Lombards camp, forced it, and cut off almost the whole was about this time undertaken, but with very army, with the emperor himself, and a great little success, a body of 20,000 Romans being number of patricians. His successor, Michael I., almost entirely cut off by one of the Lombard likewise engaged in a war with the Bulgarians; generals. In 671 the Saracens ravaged several but, being utterly defeated, resigned the empire. provinces, made a descent in Sicily, took and After this the Bulgarians continued to be very plundered the city of Syracuse, and overran the formidable enemies till the year 979, when they whole island, destroying every thing with fire were vigorously attacked by Basilius II. The and sword. In like manner they laid waste Ci- Bulgarians were now governed by a king named licia; and, having passed the winter at Smyrna, Samuel; who having ravaged the Roman terrientered Thrace in the winter of 672, and laid tories, 'Basilius sent against him Nicephorus siege to Constantinople itself. Here, however, Uranus at the head of a powerful army. Uranus, they were repulsed with great loss : but next leaving his baggage at Larissa, reached by long spring they renewed their attempt, in which they marches the Sperchius, and encamped with his met with the same bad success: many of their whole army over against the enemy, who lay on ships being burnt by the sea fire, as it was called, the opposite bank. As the river was greatly because it burnt under water; and in their return swelled, with the heavy rains that had lately home their feet was wrecked off the Scyllæan fallen, Samuel, not imagining the Romans would promontory. At last a peace was concluded for attempt to pass it, suffered his troops to roam in thirty years, on condition that the Saracens large parties about the country. But Uranus, should retain all the provinces they had seized; having at length found out a place where the and that they should pay to the emperor and his river was fordable, passed it in the night, fell

upon the Bulgarians, who lay for the most part had at intervals invaded the Roman dominions, asleep : cutting great numbers in pieces, and and even attempted to make themselves masters making himself master of their camp. Samuel of the capital. Their internal divisions, howand his son were dangerously wounded; and ever, rendered them now much less formidable would have been taken, had they not concealed enemies than they had formerly been; so that themselves among the dead. The next night some provinces were recovered for a time out of they stole away to the mountains of Etolia. their hands. In 1040 the empire was first inThe following year the emperor entered Bulgaria vaded by the Turks; an enemy who, though not at the head of a numerous and well disciplined very powerful at that time, by degrees gathered army; defeated Samuel in a pitched battle, and strength sufficient to overthrow both the Roman took several strong cities. The emperor himself, and Saracen empires. See TURKEY. Cutluhowever, at last, narrowly escaped being cut off Moses, nephew to Tangrolipix, the Turkish sulin a narrow pass. From this danger he was tan, having been refused a passage through relieved by the arrival of Nicephorus Xiphias, Media, in his retreat from Arabia, by Stephen governor of Philippopolis, with a body of troops; the Roman governor, forced his passage and dewho, falling upon the enemy's rear, put them to feated the Roman army with so much ease that flight. Basilius pursued them close ; and, having he told his uncle the province might be easily taken an incredible number of captives, caused conquered. Tangrolipix accordingly sent Asan, their eyes to be pulled out, leaving to every hun- another nephew, with an army of 20,000 mer. tó dred a guide with one eye, that he might conduct reduce Media. The young prince entered that them to Samuel. This shocking spectacle so country, and committed every where dreadful affected the king that he fell into a deep swoon, ravages ; but, being drawn into an ambush by and died two days after. The emperor, pursuing the Roman generals, he was cut off with his his conquests, in the space of two years made whole army. Tangrolipix, not discouraged, sent himself master of most of the enemy's strong a new army into Media of nearly 100,000 men, holds. He defeated also the successor of Samuel who, after having ravaged the country without in several engagements; and, having at last killed opposition, laid siege to Artza, a place of great him in battle, the Bulgarians submitted without trade. Not being able to reduce it by any other reserve. The vast treasures of these princes means they set it on fire; and 150,000 of the were by Basilius distributed among his soldiers. inhabitants perished either by the flames or the Soon after the royal family surrendered them- sword. After this Abraham Halim, half brother selves to the emperor, by whom they were re- to Tangrolipix, hearing that the Romans, reinceived with the utmost respect. Ibatzes, how- forced with a body of troops under Liparites ever, a person nearly allied to the family, who had governor of Iberia, had taken the field, marched distinguished himself in an eminent manner during against them, and the two armies engaged with the whole course of the war, refused to submit. incredible fury. The victory continued long At last Eustathius Daphnomelus, whom Basilius doubtful; but at length inclined to the Romans, had lately appointed governor of Achridus, the who nevertheless did not think proper to pursue chief city of Bulgaria, undertook to secure him. the fugitives, as their general Liparites was taken Without communicating his design to any, he prisoner. The emperor despatched ambassadors repaired, with two persons in whom he could with rich presents, and a large sum of money to confide, to the mountain on which I batzes had redeem him, and at the same time to conclude fortified himself. He hoped to pass undis- an alliance with Tangrolipix. The presents the covered among the many strangers who flocked sultan received; but immediately returned them thither to celebrate the approaching feast of the together with the money to Liparites, whom he Virgin, for whom Ibatzes had a great veneration. set at liberty without ransom. Not long after In this he found himself mistaken; for he was Tangrolipix sent an ambassador to Constanknown by the guards, and carried before the prince. tinople : who having exhorted the emperor to To him he pretended to have something of import- submit to his master, and acknowledge himself ance to communicate; but, as soon as Ibatzes had his tributary, was ignominiously driven out of retired with him into a remote place, Daphnomelus the city. Tangrolipix, highly affronted at this threw himself suddenly upon nim, and with the entered Iberia, while the emperor Constantine assistance of the two men whom he had brought Monomachus was engaged in a war with the with him, put out his eyes; and got safe to an Patzinacæ, a Scythian nation. Having ravaged abandoned castle on the top of the hill. Here that country, he returned to Media, and laid they were immediately surrounded by the troops siege for forty days to Mantzichierta, a place deof Ibatzes ; but Daphnomelus exhorting them fended by a numerous garrison. The next now to submit to the emperor, by whom he as- spring Tangrolipix returned, and ravaged Iberia sured them they would be well received, they with the utmost cruelty, sparing neither sex nor congratulated Daphnomelus on his success, and age. But, on the approach of the Roman army, suffered him to conduct the unhappy Ibatzes a he retired to Tauris, leaving 30,000 men on the prisoner to Basilius. The emperor was no less frontiers of the empire. Till the time of this surprised than pleased at the success of this bold emperor the provinces bordering on the countries attempt; and rewarded Daphnomelus with the of the barbarians had maintained, at their own government of Dyrrhachium, and all the rich charge, forces to defend them: and were on that moveables of his prisoner. After this, having account exempted from paying tribute; but, as accomplished the entire reduction of Bulgaria, Monomachus exacted from them the same sums he returned to Constantinople with an incredible that were paid by others, they were no longer in number of captives. All this time the Saracens a condition to defend themselves.

Vol. XIX.

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