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down by the stems of this weed growing through spoke, with warm eulogy, of the ardent manner it, and it could not rise to ripen the grain. He in which his efforts had been seconded, not only said he had visited lord Lynedock's farm, and he by his own tenants, but by many of the noblewas beyond measure gratified at his reception. men and gentlemen, as well as yeomen, his The noble lord had carried inoculation into Scot- friends and neighbours. land; he thanked him for it, and it proved that this meeting did good.
PART V. In the course of this meeting, Mr. Coke stated that it had existed forty-two years. Upon no
OF IMPLEMENTS OF HUSBANDRY. foriner occasion had it been so numerously at- Upon this topic we can of course accomplish tended : a proof that the motives for its establish- nothing more than a selection of the most approved ment had met with the approbation of his neigh- modern instruments of agriculture. Many of the bours, and that the result had been favorable to machines and implements involved meet our sepathe country. He trusted that it would still in- rate attention in their alphabetical places : others, crease in numbers every year, and that he should as the peck, the mattock, the spade, fork, &c., he honored with the company of all who desired seem too minute, and of too universal applicato see agriculture cultivated on the liberal princi- tion, to be inserted in a work of this description. ple of a community of interest between landlord We begin therefore with the most important, and tenant. When he began this institution, the perhaps, of agricultural implements. land of Holkham was so poor and unproductive 1. Of ploughs.-In our plate AGRICULTURE that much of it was not worth 5s per acre.—He (Plate I.) are figures of ploughs, whose names began with a trial of the Leicester breed of sheep; are given. The first, the Roman plough, has good but, by the advice of Mr. Ellman of Sussex, he authority for its iron part or share, such as it is; was induced to adopt the Southdown breed, and but we are doubtful as to the wheels and handle. to that admirable stock he much attributed the The Roman plough was according to Cato of progress which Norfolk had made in cultivation. two kinds, one for heavy and one for light soils. The extension of farms, where flocks were to be There is a plough still in use in Spain, which is employed, was unavoidable. Such farms must supposed to come the nearest to the Roman im be large; but if capital and skill were applied to plement generally used. It is our fig. 2, plate I. them, and the flocks were made the means of in- RURAL ECONOMY. creasing the corn produce, so far from its being Virgil describes a plough with a mould-boara injurious, as a question of political economy, ex- used for covering seed and ridging: to supply perience had proved it to be highly advantageous, its place a sort of diverging stick was used, it since he could state, from actual enumeration, seems, in the form described : this stick appears to that three times the number of inhabitants were have been inserted in the share head, or lield obmaintained on the same space of ground as be- liquely and sloping towards the side to which fore; the population of Holkham had increased the earth was to be turned. The Romans did from 200 to 600, within a few years back, since not plough their fields in beds, by circumvolving cultivation, by the union of capital and skill, had furrows; but the cattle returned to the same furadvanced. In all his parish there was scarcely a row. Virgil also mentions wheel ploughs, which single individual, of any age, that did not find Lasteyrie thinks were invented in or not long full employment, and they even wanted hands.- before the time of Pliny, who attributes the inHe had been applied to, some time ago, by the vention to the inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul. principal inhabitants of the three parishes of Lasteyrie gives figures of three wheel ploughs Holkham, Warham, and Wighton, to say that from a Sicilian model, and from Caylus's Coltheir poor-house was no longer wanted; that, in lection of Antiquities. fact, it was a burden to keep it up; their poor Cato says, of ploughing, What is the best culwere so much diminished, they had no use for it. ture of land ? Good ploughing. What the And when he told them to consider well what second best? Ploughing in the common way. they were about, and to look forward to times What the third ? Laying on manure. The Rowhen the poor might increase upon them, they man season for ploughing was any time when replied, they were convinced that, by the spirit land was not wet : in the performance, the furof independence which their comfort inspired, row is directed to be kept equal in breadth and the certainty of labor, they had no dread of a throughout, one furrow equal to another; and reverse, for the whole district was industrious and straight furrows. The usual depth is not menmoral.—The workhouse was therefore pulled tioned, but it was considerable, as Cato says corndown, and the aged and infirm were a small bur- land should be of good quality for two feet in den on the three parishes. The introduction of depth. No scamni or balks (hard unmoved the drill husbandry, which he could now, from the soil) were to be left, and, to ascertain that this most ample experience, recommend, had justified was properly attended to, the farmer is directed, all the hopes he had entertained of it. It was the when inspecting the work done, to push a pole most profitable course a farmer could pursue, iuto the ploughed land in a variety of places. and, with the turnip crops, completed the Nor- The plough was generally drawn by one pair of folk system of husbandry. He paid merited oxen, guided by the ploughman without the aid compliments to Mr. Blakie, his steward, for su- of a driver. In breaking up stiff land he was perior talents, indefatigable attention, and inte expected to plough half an acre; and in free grity in the conduct of his affairs, as well as for lands an acre; and light lands one acre and a the many plain, practicable, and ingenious com- half each day. Land was ploughed in square munications he had given to the public; and he plots of 120 feet to the side, two of which made
a jugerum or acre. We may here add, though a
But some of these inconveniences have little out of piace among mere implements, in been obviated by the invention of moveable most cases a crop and a year's fallow succeeded mould-plates, as will be seen afterwards. Yet, each other; though, when manure could be got, in the construction of all sorts of ploughs, there two crops or more were taken in successior; are, notwithstanding, a few points or circumand on certain rich soils, which Pliny describes stances that ought to be particularly and in all as favorable for barley, a crop was taken every cases attended to; such as the following: that year. In fallowing, the lands were first ploughed part which perforates the soil, and breaks it up, after the crop was removed, generally in August; and which is usually termed the throat or breast, they were again cross-ploughed in spring, and at should have that sort of clean, tapering, sharpleast a third time before sowing, whether spring ened form, that is introduced with the greatest corn or winter corn was the crop. There was, readiness, and which affords the smallest resisthowever, no limit to the number of ploughings ance in its passage through the ground. Accordand sarclings, and when occasion required ma- ing to some, this part should be long and narrow, nual operations; the object being, as Theo- making an acute angle with the beam, as the phrastus observes, “to let the earth feel the cold length of the breast is supposed to have a tenof winter, and the sun of summer, to invert the dency to preserve the fag from being broken, soil, and render it free, light, and clear of weeds, on account of the surface for its support being so that it can most easily afford nourishment.' longer; which is a circumstance of consequence (Theo. de Caus. Plant. lib. iii. c. 25). Manuring in the ploughing of old lays for wheat, pease, was held in such high esteem by the Romans, and other similar crops ; as, by such means, the that immortality was given to Stercutius for the growth of weeds through the broken ground is invention.
prevented. And the resistance of the earth To return to our modern ploughs. In the against the breast is likewise lessened, in propor* Rural Economy of Yorkshire,' after the simi- tion to the acute angularity of that part against larity of the principles that are requisite in the the beam of the plough. The mould-board construction of the ship and the plough is no- should also have that sort of curved, twisted, or ticed, and the difficulty of fixing and reducing hollowed-out form, which is best calculated to them to a regular theory as nearly the same, it Jessen resistance, and at the same time give the is observed that the art of construction in either furrow-slice the proper turn. And the beam case is principally attained by practice. In this and muzzle of these implements should likewise district, says the writer, the pioughs of different have such a construction as that the team or makers pass through the soil with various de- moving power may be attached in the best and grees of facility and execution; nevertheless, most suitable line of draught, as this is a cirthough he has paid some attention to the dif- cumstance of great importance, when several ferent makes, he finds himself entirely incapable animals are made use of together, that the of laying down such particular rules of con- draught of the whole may coincide in the most struction as would do his country any service, or perfect manner, and with the utmost exactness. his work any credit. Even the general princi- Likewise, in the construction of every sort of ples of construction he must mention with diffi- plough, much regard should be paid to the dence.
weight, so that they may have sufficient strength The principal difficulty in the construction of for the purpose, without being unnecessarily a plough is that of adapting it to all soils, in all heavy. Much may be done in this intention, by seasons, and to all depths. If the soil break up lessening the quantity of wood in those party in whole furrows, every inch of depth requires where there is no particular stress, while it is in strictness a separate plough, or a separate re- retained so as to have full power in the others. gulation. Here rests the main objection to the This has been much less attended to in the winding mould-board, which admits no regula- making of ploughs than its importance would tion in respect of depth. If the serni-arch, or seem to demand. nollow of the hind part of the mould-board, be It is noticed, in the Agricultural Survey of the raised sufficiently high to turn a thick furrow County of Essex, that the throat at the fore end completely, it is of no use in turning a thin one. or neb of the plate or breast in the Norfolk, and On the contrary, if it be brought down suffi- most other ploughs, with the exception of the ciently low to turn a shallow furrow properly, Rotherham, rises from the upper surface of the it is impossible to turn a deep one with it in a share too perpendicularly, and too much at right workman-like manner. There is not room for angles to the line of friction, or pressure of the it within the hollow, or semi-archway of the earth the plate has constantly to act against : mould-board. The inevitable effect of this is, working thus abruptly in the ground, the slice either the furrow is forced away wholly by the or furrow is violently torn, or burst from off the upper edge of the mould-board, and set on edge; ground hand, broken and imperfectly turned or the mould-board rides upon the furrow, rais- over, instead of being gradually cut, raised ing the heel of the plough from the ground, the whole, and whelmed over; as will always be the bad effects of which need not be explained. An case, when the plough enters the ground obupright stern, with a moveable heel-plate to liquely, and at a proper angle; and that the turn the furrow at any given depth, is, in this plate or mould-board is properly turned for point of view, much preferable to a hollow raising up, and turning the slice completely over. mould-board; and, if its use in raising a crest It is a clear position, proved by experiment, of mould, for the purpose of covering the seed, that a semi-ellipsis is the true form of throat be added, its preference is still more conspi- which is necessary in ploughs, which is the part or space from the share point to the junction or The old Norfolk plough of our plate I. AGRIapproach of the breast to the beam : and that CULTURE is held in much esteem in that, as well there is found a remarkable variation in the form as some other light districts, as performing the of the breasts, or mould-boards of the ploughs work in an easy and expeditious manner. The throughout the northern parts of the same dis- carriage and wheels in all ploughs of this nature, trict, and which is chiefly in the degree of con- however, form objections to them, and render cavity or convexity. Some wheel-wrights and them clumsy implements. The wheels added 10 farmers prefer a form rather concave, a flatness them in our figure are an improvement. in the fore part, which joins the share, and which The head and beam are short; the carriage gradually fills up as the sweep recedes ; others part and wheels stand very high, of course the like it neither concave nor convex; and therefore end of the beam is much elevated, by which are many ploughs in which the convexity is ex. advantage is gained in driving the horses, as it is tremely great. The great length of the breast, usually drawn by two horses yoked abreast, the in some ploughs, is a circumstance which gives ploughman directing them by reins. steadiness to the implements; but, at the same of the swing sort, the Rotherham plough time, it is probably the means of increasing the is perhaps the most popular. See Agriculdraught to the horses in a great degree. The TURE, plate I., figure 3. It is a light useful shortness of the breast, if the curve or sweep be plough for all the less heavy sorts of soil, and in perfection, or wears equally every where, may has certainly much superiority where one plough lessen friction, and certainly does, if the earth is only required, and where the advantageous and be loose ; but it probably may not have the same economical method of performing the work with effect in the first earth, upon a stiff layer. It is, one man and two horses without a driver is used. however, a pretty general opinion, that it lessens It is in much estimation in all the West Riding it in all cases. A great variety of breasts, of of Yorkshire, and is said in the Agricultural Surdifferent forms and constructions, are repre- vey of the Riding district to have been invented sented in the plates upon ploughs, in the Agri- by Mr. Joseph Foljambe, of Eastwood, about cultural Survey already referred to, which are seventy years ago. In that district its usual diwell worth consulting by the enquirer. .
mensions are From the end of stilt on landside to the point of the Feet. Inches. share
7 From the end of beam where inserted into it to ditto,
3) bottom working surLength of surface on which the plough touches the
2 103 Height from ground to top of beam where coulter goes
through Width between stilts at the end Height of ditto from the ground
1 11 Weight of wood and iron work, about 13 cw
And it has also a copse rack, or hock with at work to go with more ease to the teams than teeth, to admit of more land being given to the most others. It has been supposed that the plough, or the contrary, which is particularly beam, from its crooked form, which is obvious useful in many cases.
in some of its improvements, by being fixed so It is noticed that with a few trifling altera- low down in the part next to the handles, makes tions it is made use of over the whole district, the plough require less force, and to go in a and from that being often called the Dutch more sliding manner. And that from the fore plough, it is supposed to have been originally end of the beam being so much higher than the brought from Holland by the inventor.
hinder part, the holder of the plough has more In Mr. Bailey's improved Rotherhạm plough power, as the draught does not oppose so much the mould-board, which is of cast-iron, 'is resistance to him ; for, if the beam were fixed to so formed that the sod to be raised presses the handles much higher, as is usually the case equally against it, in every part, from the sock in other ploughs, this plough would be conpoint to the place where it leaves it; and it stantly rippling on the point, and in that way varics from other mould-boards, in not beginning increase the weight of draught. And where it to take its rise from the bottom of the heel, but meets with any resistance, such as a stone, it is at least twelve inches farther forward towards the liable to rise up, while in this form it proceeds sock, and in being cut away at the bottom op- in a sliding manner, which affords a steadier posite the heel, about three inches high, from motion, and renders it more easily held. Besides, the sole, by which the turning of the sod or fur- it is much stronger ; particularly in the part where row-slice is said to be much facilitated. Thus the left handle and the beam are joined, underimproved, these ploughs have been found to neath the mortise where the tenon of the beam; answer perfectly in different trials, and have by which the bearing of the ploughman on the been allowed by those who have seen them handles does not in the least affect thai part, which in other ploughs is the weakest. In this greatest ease. A plough of this sort is shown at improvement of the Rotherham plough the fig. 1., plate II., Rural Economy. mould-board is so constructed at the breast as to Lord Somerville's single plough is also a plough have a slight degree of convexity, instead of of this sort, in which the throat is sharpened, an.! being concave, as is often the case, by which the the mould board rendered moveable in the marfurrow-slice is supposed to be prevented from ner of his double furrow plough, shown in fig. slipping down ; and by the keeping the lower 5 of plate AGRICULTURE. It is capable of being part from the ground, when it comes to the turn made use of with advantage in breaking up deep of the breast, it falls off; consequently, as the stiff soils, as from the moveable nature of the furrow-slice is rested on or by the side of the extreme part of the mould-board the furrow-slice breast, when the plough has advanced twelve can be laid more or less flat. inches the work is finished. By this improve- Ducket's skim-coulter, or trenching plough, is ment it is supposed that the plough will turn a an implement of this sort, capable of being emfurrow of any extent, from four to eighteen ployed with great advantage where the surface inches, where requisite, and the same in depth; is coarse or grassy. The principle upon which as the plough that will produce a wide furrow this plough operates is that of trenching ground and turn it well is capable of ploughing deep: in the practice of gardening, or depositing the the convexity of the breast also causes it to clean surface spit of earth in the bottom of the preitself better, which is a desirable property, as it ceding furrow, and placing the second, or that is thereby rendered less heavy, and less resistance taken from below, upon it. Where the soils are afforded by one portion of earth being prevented sufficiently deep it is capable of performing its from rubbing upon another, and at the same work to a considerable extent. It has been ob•ime the work performed in a more perfect man- served by lord Somerville, in a little tract on per. The coulier has likewise a position so as ploughs and oxen, that the skim requires a perto cut in a slanting manner, which causes any pendicular direction, and that the coulter-hole resistance to rise up more expeditiously, and the should be removed farther from the throat and land to be opened with more facility than where share, as in the common position it would choak it has a more perpendicular direction. Where when in work. this improved plough is employed with more The use of the paring plough, the fourth figure than two horses abreast, the additioual ones must of the plate AGRICULTURE, will be shown in that be put before the pair, as it has not land enough part of this article which treats of preparing' to follow single horses.
land on the arable system, Wheels have been added to these ploughs for Plate I. RURAL ECONOMY, fig. 3, shows a particular purposes ; and with either one or two plough to be made entirely of iron, to which a fixed near the points of the beams, without any new kind of share is attached, the invention of Mr. carriage parts, they have been found to pass Finlayson. This share, a, instead of having its through the soil in a very light, easy, and steady cutting edge curved, or forming an obtuse angle manner, and where there are two to require with the land side, is made straight, and extendno holder in many cases, except in setting in ing nearly the whole length of the mould-board, turning out of the work at the ends of the ridges. at an acute angle with the land side. At the
The Northumberland or Cumberland plough is back part of the share a triangular piece, or only an improved plough of this kind.
wing, b, is to be introduced occasional y by Small's chain plough is esteemed one of the screwing its pin into a hole in the share, for the best of the swing kind, and seems capable of purpose of enabling it to turn and accommodate very extensive application. It has its name from itself to the way of the plough. The intended that of the inventor, who constructed it about purpose of this wing is to cut the clods of the forty years ago. It is neatly formed, and very earth, and break them in a perpendicular direclight in its appearance, but at the same time, tion. In order to prevent the plough from choking from the addition of the chain, possessing great at the coulter, the beam is made to curve upwards strength. It is, therefore, capable of being em- as seen at с, the coulter being introduced at the ployed in strong rough sorts of soil, where other under side, and made fast by wedges. Another sorts of ploughs are liable to be destroyed, as contrivance to effect the same object is shown at when the share, or even the coulter, in this im- fig. 4, and consists in opening the beam by plement, meets with any sudden impediment or lateral curves, c,c, the coulter being attached by obstructing cause, the stress is immediately screw bolts, and rounded off at top. By these thrown upon the chain instead of the beam. The means, should any stubble or other vegetable sock is formed with a fin or feather, by which matters accumulate in front, they would be the firm earth in the bottom of the furrow is cut enabled to rise over the top of the coulter without and moved more readily, and in a more con- choking or obstructing the progress of the plough. plete manner than could be done by the sock in For the purpose of regulating the depth at which the common plough. In this plough the mould- the share shall cut the ground, the shackle by board is mostly made of cast-iron, having a which the plough is drawn is to be shifted higher gentle curve, by which the furrow-slice is thrown or lower, at the muzzle or nose of the beam. off with the least possible resistance. It is sup- This is done by means of a screw, d, in fig. 3, posed by Mr. Donaldson to be on the whole one which passes through the bolt of the shackle, and, of the best constructed swing-ploughs for all by being turned, moves the shackle higher or sorts of sails. It is capable of ploughing, with lower, and thereby causes the share to be drawn one man and two horses yoked abreast without through the ground at a less or greater depth any driver, more than an acre a day with the beneath the surface, as circumstances may require. The mode of adjusting the lateral draugnt this hoe scufflers are introduced, their extremi. of the plough so as to give the share more or less ties being formed like shares for the purpose of land, and also to enable it to be drawn by a single cutting away obstructions. or double team of horses, is by the addition of a The inventor has, we understand, received bar f, fig. 5, to the end of which one of the draw- testimonials from a number of highly respectable ing shackles is to be attached. The plough, agriculturists, expressing their unqualified apshown at fig. 5, is constructed in every respect probation of the efficacy with which these ploughs upon the ordinary principles of what is called a performed when employed upon rough and unScotch plough, the side bar only excepted, which broken ground, for which they are particularly by sliding horizontally, in a lateral direction upon designed: and the manner in which they throw a plate g, may be set at any angle fo the beam, off the stubble, permitting those obstructions to ard, being there fixed by a bolt, will cause the escape without clogging the progress, is obviously plough to follow a certain course to which the calculated to diminish the labor of draught, as well draught by the adjustment of the bar will incline it. as perform clean work.
The skeleton plough, fig. 6, designed for wet 2. Other harrows are exhibited, AGRICULTURE, land, is constructed of bars set in the usual form plate II.,' as the first, or tusset harrow, and of the inould-board, and landside; these bars second, or fallow, with their teeth separately unmay be either square or round, and set by screws derneath. Then follow the double seed and or bolts, cradled together so as to produce the chain and screw harrows. By mistake the plate general figure of those surfaces. The object of containing the common and iron seed harrows This construction is that the earth shall not adhere has been numbered plate II. of AGRICULTURE, to the surfaces, but pass through between the as well as that containing the ploughs ; but the bars, and by that means allow the plough to figures with these inscriptions speak sufficiently clear itself as it proceeds.
for themselves. The field roller of this plate is Fig. 7 represents the improved harrow; it is a very useful instrument: its weight being of formed of bars, which support a peculiar sort of course adapted to the land. tines (shown detached at fig. 8, and another form Harrows have not undergone much improveat fig. 9). The intention in forming these tines ment in their construction; the principal point with rounded heads is that the stubble, roots, in which they have been rendered more benefiand other vegetable matters, may be enabled to cially applicable and convenient for use, appears rise over the top of the tines, and clear them. to be in the form of the frames; the method of In order to regulate the depth at which the tines attaching the draught; the position and manner of this harrow shall penetrate the ground, the of fixing in the tines or teeth; and the directions carriage of the fore-wheel is connected to a lever of the bulls or solid parts. bar, a, by the raising and lowering of which the It has been justly hinted by a late writer that nose of the harrow is depressed or elevated to there is no one harrow, whatever the nature of any required distance from the ground, and con- its construction may be, that can be applicable sequently the depth to which the tines are in- to every description of soil, or which can opetended to penetrate will by these means be de- rate with equal effect and advantage on such termined. The lever that regulates the fore-wheel lands as are rough and smooth, loose and solid, is held at the hinder part of the harrow by a &c. It is necessary that they should constantly spring-guide, b, consisting of two rods placed be fitted to the particular nature of the soil, and close together with swells or bands, forming the peculiar uses to which it is devoted. open spaces at several parts for the lever to rest In the lighter sorts of ground, it is obvious in. When the tines are intended to penetrate that smaller and lighter sorts of harrows, with the ground to the greatest depth, the handle of shorter teeth, may more fully answer the purpose the lever must be raised to the top of the guide; than in such as are strong, heavy, and tenacious, but, when the tines are to be drawn out of the or which have been lately broken up from the ground, the handle must be pressed upon so as state of old sward, and that of common moor to cause the lever 10 fall to the bottom of the heath, and other sorts of waste, where they guide, the elastic lateral pressure of the guide should have much greater weight and length of holding the lever in any intermediate position to tines. It is frequently the practice, where the which it may have been shifted for adjustment. soil is rough and stubborn, as in some instances As it is frequently necessary to lift the tines of of fallowing stiff clayey lands, to unite two comthe barrow out of the ground instantly, without mon harrows together, in order more completely stopping the horses, as in turning at the head- to reduce and break down the lumpiness of such lands, that may be done by merely pressing upon grounds. And in the view of effecting these the handle of the lever. The linder wheels of purposes, especially where the soil is stiff
, adhethe harrow are also to be raised or lowered to sive, and much matted with weeds, it has been correspond with the fore-wheel, and this is done found advantageous not to have the harrows too by means of screws, c, c, which pass through the thickly set with tines, by which they are liable end bearings of the frame into the axle of the to become choked up, and prevented from workwheels. The last improvement proposed is a ing in a proper manner. horse-hoe, or drill-harrow, with peculiarly formed The hitching or riding of harrows upon each tines attached to the frame-work, as seen in fig. other it has been attempted to remove, by having 10. One of these tines has been shown at fig. 9, them constructed with running bulls, which are and before alluded to, as designed to permit the said to answer the purpose. It has also been stubble to rise over its top, and thereby to relieve suggested that inconveniences of this nature may the hoc or harrow from choking. At the sides of be obviated by the mere fastening of the different