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be eaten on the ground without injury. But upon nip crop, though so highly important, has hitherto light soils, and open sub-soils, the turnips should however, even under the best management, been be placed where they grow, and put into beds considered as avery uncertain one, depend in galof a proper width for a common hurdle to cover most wholly on seasons. In a rainy season it them; a furrow of earth should be ploughed has been unusually good; but in dry seasons against the outside rows to protect them from there is frequently a general failure; and, indethe severity of the weather, and from the depre- pendent of the plant suffering from a deficiency dations of game. The expense of placing a me- of moisture, in its very early state, it is liable, in dium crop of Swedish turnips, with tops and tails all seasons, and peculiarly in dry ones, to beon, is about four shillings and sixpence per acre, come a prey to the ravages of the fly, which not and five shillings per acre, when the tails are cut unfrequently sweeps off whole and repeatedly from the bulbs. When turnips are eaten where sown crops. Some ingenious mechanical conthey are placed, the ground is hurdled off and trivances have been applied to remedy this latter folded in the usual way; they are chopped in evil, and a curious trap, invented by Mr. Paul pieces, and thrown about for full-mouthed sheep; of Starston, a most intelligent and active farmer, but when given to young and old sheep they are has been successfully used in saving many crops; cut into slices by a machine, and given to the but its application is necessarily attended with sheep in troughs, which are frequently shifted. trouble ; and it is, at least, an additional source The refuse is thrown about, and the bottoms of of occupation at a time when all hands are the beds, where the turnips were placed, are more than ordinarily employed in making hay, shovelled and spread about; particular attention &c., and it has never, therefore, been generally being paid to shifting the folds, so that the land made use of. Mr. Coke, however, no longer conis regularly manured. It is not generally known siders the turnip crop as an uncertain one ; under that the texture of the larger Swedish turnips is his improved system of cultivation, it appears firmer, and the specific gravity, consequently, to be alike secure both from the seasons and the greater than in the smaller ones, the reverse be- depredations of this insect. ing the case in the common turnip. The rind, By depositing a much larger quantity of seed the least nutritive part, is also, in the same pro- than is usually sown, Mr. Coke produces a portion, thinner; 'but, were it equally thick, greatly increased number of plants, which, as there would still be proportionately less of it, the the time of the insect feeding upon them is lisurface of a large sphere bearing, obviously, a mited, obviously increases the chance of a less proportion to the interior contents than the greater number of them being ultimately left unsurface of a smaller sphere. These may appear touched ; and this chance is much increased by trifting circumstances, but they not only show shortening the period of the existence of the the intrinsic superiority of the Swedish turnip, leaf on which these little animals feed, which but the manifest advantage of endeavouring, by is effected by accelerating the growth of the a superior cultivation, to grow large ones, thereby plants, by the stimulus of manure placed imme improving their quality as well as increasing diately under them, and also by the judicious their weight per acre; and this, it is evident, method of depositing the seed immediately after can in no way be so completely effected as by the earth has been well stirred by the plough, the improved drill system, and which was never by which is all seasons some moisture is evolved, so convincingly apparent as in the most magni- and some chemical changes effected, which much ficent crops of the year 1817, both at Holkham favor the first process of vegetation. The leaf and on lord Albemarle's farm, at Quiddenham, on which the insects feed is the first or cotylein this county.
don leaf, which is known to live only until the Mr. Coke is liberal in manuring for turnips: second or rough leaf is formed. The cotyledon he allows not less than fourteen loads of manure leaf appears to be an expansion or evolution of per acre, the common quantity not often exceed the seed itself, and being probably nourished by ing ten loads; he is enabled to do this by ma. the saccharine matter, which, from analogy, we nuring his wheat with oil cake, which he drills may suppose is elaborated during its process of in with the seed, one ton being sufficient for six germination, it acquires a degree of sweetness acres; or he puts it in between the rows by the which attracts the fly. This communication be drill in the following spring, and this not only tween the seed and cotyledon leaf continues, saves time, labor of horses, &c., as well as ma- however, only until the roots are thrown out nure, but certainly answers well, as his wheat whose office it is to supply nutriment, derived crops sufficiently prove. Mr. Coke mixes the immediately from the soil, to the plant in its more farm-yard dung in compost heaps, by which advanced state, and simultaneously with their means he not only increases the quantity, but he formation below the surface are the second or seems to improve the quality of the manure, so rough leaves formed above ground; and, as soon much so that he now grows better crops of tur- as this curious economy between the roots and nips upon the Northumberland ridge method, these leaves is established, the seed, no longer with compost manure, and without oil cake, than necessary as a source of nourishment, wastes he has formerly done, when his turnips were away, the cotyledon leaves die and fall off, and, sown upon the flat, either drilled or broad cast, the rough leaves not being sweet, the fly is po with all his farm-yard dung in the common me- longer attracted, disappears also, and the crop is thod, and a large proportion of oil-cake added to secure. it; and he has the advantage of reserving the This excellent method of cultivating the tur. oil cake for the wheat crop, to which he consi- nip will, probably, be understood by the followders it more adapted than to turnips. The tur- ing brief detail of the process of sowing it. It is effected by forming trenches and raising ridges never thinks it thick enough if he can easily pass on a clean tilth, by a trench or double-breasted his finger through the stems, near the ground. plough and a pair of horses, one of which always He cuts his wheat very early, even when the goes in the last trench, and this sets out the width ear and stem are greenish, and the grain not and preserves the straight line with tolerable ac- hard. He says the wheat, thus early reaped, is curacy. A cart and two or three horses pass always his best sample, and he gets 2s. a quarter down the trenches, which are thus opened, drop- for it more than for wheat cut in a more mature ping heaps of compost manure, which are spread state. He, perhaps, loses something in the meaby two men with forks, and the manure falls sure, the skin being thinner, and the grain, propretty equally in the rows; another plough, like the bably, not quite so bulky; but, if this be true, former, passes through the middle of the first form- it is fully compensated by his suffering no loss ed ridge, divides it equally, covers the manure, and by shedding on the ground, which, when the ear forms another ridge immediately over it; a boy is ripe and the weather windy, is often not inwith a mule, or little horse, drawing a very light considerable. He is equally early in cutting roller, follows this second operation, and Hattens oats and peas : when Dr. Rigby observed to the top of the ridges; another boy, with a like him that, in both these, the seeds were not all horse, follows the roller with a drill, and deposits ripe; his answer was that he should lose more the seed on the middle of the ridges, and a light by the falling of the ripe seeds at the bottoms, chain attached at each end to the back of the than he should gain by waiting until the rest were drill and which at first sight appeared as if ac- ripe; and that the straw in this state, retaining cidentally fallen from it, throws the earth into some immature seeds, was of more value to his the drilled lines and covers the seed, and thus stock in the yards, than if cut later. the work goes on, the laborers and the relative to prove the utility of reaping wheat early, progress of the work being so proportioned, that Mr. Coke had hung up, in his own room, a few none are idle, none stand in each other's way; handfuls of wheat which was greenish and imthe manure is not left to dry in the sun, but the mature; in a few days they had ripened in the operation is completed as it proceeds, and about capsule. "Mr. George Hibbert, of Clapham, a three acres in a day, with fourteen cart loads gentleman well skilled and much experienced in of manure on each, as before observed, may the cultivation of plants, was with us,' says our be accomplished with one complete set.
author, and he has since, in a letter, observed In drilling wheat, Mr. Coke allows much to me that this is a common natural process, more than the usual quantity of seed; ten pecks more especially when the capsules are of a sucan acre are the utmost which most farmers drill culent nature, and which all gardeners very well or dibble, and even six pecks have sometimes know; and he mentioned a remarkable instance been thought sufficient; but he allows four which occurred to him respecting a plant whose bushels an acre in October, and even five bushels seed had no considerable envelopement. James in November. In depositing so large a quantity Niven was employed by him to collect the seeds of seed, and burying it so much deeper than of plants in Southern Africa: he sent a speciwhen sown broadcast, it certainly does not seem men of a beautiful erica, lamenting, in his letter, so requisite to earth up the plants, as probably that he had never been able to find one of that there will ever be a sufficient number of stems species advanced into fruit; but out of that very derived, in the first instance, from the seeds specimen, which he seems to have gathered in themselves; but then a question arises, and the full vigor of flowering, Mr. Hibbert actually which may merit consideration, whether there obtained ripe seeds, and produced plants here would not, eventually, be an equal number to by sowing them. When Niven returned, he produce ears, were a less quantity of seed sown, showed him the specimen, and he said a very and the plants afterwards judiciously moulded considerable progress towards fructification must up. It would seem, indeed, to come to the have been made during the transit from the Cape same thing, and if so in the latter case there of Good Hope, hither, by the rising of the sap would be a manifest, and on a large scale a very within the specimen.' great saving of seed. It cannot be expected: Mr. Coke's course of husbandry, that is, the that nature should conform her processes to cal- succession of his crops, varies but little from culations on paper ; but if the production of buds that which is general throughout the county of and stems from the joints of wheat plants, when Norfolk. It is called the four or five course :duly surrounded with earth, depends upon an first year, turnips--second, barley, laid down established and unvarying law of nature, it must with clover or other grass seeds—third, grass to be the same thing whether twelve stems are pro- cut or feed-fourth, wheat. He has, within a duced directly, from six grains of wheat, or six few years, found it profitable to lay down a cerstems are produced from three grains, and six tain quantity of land with cock's-foot grass, dacmore are subsequently produced by surrounding tylis glomerata, and this lies two years, making the lower joints with earth. A few experiments, the course on this land five years. conducted as they usually are at Holkham, would This grass does not stand for hay, but is exdecide the question.
cellent sheep feed; when fed close, it tillers very Mr. Coke is an advocate for early sowing; much; or spreads and branches on the ground and, as the drill puts in the seed quickly, and, as with multiplied stems, and, in the season most before observed, no time is lost in carting on favorable to vegetation, it will grow more than manure; he has seldom much to sow in Novem- an inch in a few days. Sheep are very fond of ber. He says he has always the best crops when it, and Mr. Coke says he can pasture more upon the wheat is very thick in the rows; and he it than on any other layer of artificial grass. The seeds of this grass, which is indigenous, are ga- 500 on their recommendation, and, finding they thered in the woods and lanes by women and fully answered his purpose, he got rid of his children, who cut the tops off with scissars, Norfolks, and has had none since but the about six inches !ong, an inch and a half below Southdowns. Mr. Coke was much gratified on the lower spur; they are paid 3d. a bushel for finding that Mr. Cline confirmed this preference it, measured as hay; one bushel of seed is ob- in his paper on the forms and constitutions of tained from seven bushels of it in the state it is animals, in which he considers the characteristic thus gathered.
mark of health and vigor, in an animal, to be the Though not cultivated as other artificial grasses, expanded chest, the thorax which has ample in the regular course of husbandry, saintfoin has room for the free play of the heart and lungs. been found, at Holkham, a valuable source of In the Norfolk sheep the sternum terminates hay, and of autumnal pasturage. It was first almost in a line or edge, the ribs contracting cultivated in this district, in the year 1774, upon too much as they approach it; while the chest the Brent Hill Farm, by Mr. Beck, the then of the Southdowns is more rounded and wider, occupier. Mr. Beck's example was followed by terminating with a less angle at the sternum. Mr. Coke, and he has cultivated saintfoin, in He remarked, on showing Dr. Rigby his admiHolkham park, about forty years. It seems rable dairy of North Devon cows, the same cha- . most adapted to thin soils, incumbent on chalk. racteristic superiority of form over the Norfolk The seed is generally sown, in the pod, at the cows. He particularly pointed out the flat line rate of five bushels per acre, with the barley, the ribs take in spreading from the spine, in the after a turnip crop; nine pounds of trefoil per upper part of the chest. acre are sown at the same time. The saintfoin. When Mr. Coke came to his estate at Holkbeing in pod, attention is required to bury the ham, the rent was £2200,--this was forty-one seed properly. The trefoil produces a crop to years ago. The produce of his woods and planmow in the following year, and dies away in the tations amounts now to a larger sum; for he has succeeding years. The saintfoin is not in full had the spirit and judgment to plant 1500 acres; perfection until the third and fourth years. It the greater part of which have become magnificontinues good until the ninth year, after which cent woods, which have not only by their picit becomes weaker, and is ploughed up for the turesque beauty, unspeakably improved the land to go through a regular course of husban- landscape; by their protection in checking the dry. The saintfoin is seldom manured or top- cold rude winds, so prevalent on this coast, madressed: it produces a ton and a half of hay per terially softened the temperature; and, by the acre, annually, while in perfection. It is never annual fall of their leaves, even contributed spring-fed, but is depastured by all sorts of something to the fertilisation of the soil; but, at cattle, to consume the after-math in autumn. this time, the annual fall of timber, poles, and
Mr. Coke is ever ready to try the cultivation underwood, from them, averages about £2700. of any new article. The introduction of the The timber and poles are applicable to most Swedish turnip into general cultivation is much building purposes; some of them are used in owing to him. I was pleased, says Dr. R., to the buildings, which he is constantly carrying on see a crop of mangel wurzel in a good state: upon an extensive scale; his houses, cottages, and he told me he had procured some Heligo- barns, stables, and other farming buildings being land beans, a new and promising article, which all in a superior style of architecture; and the is said to yield sixty bushels or fifteen coombs remainder is sold in the neighbourhood. per acre, and he proposed dibbling them on the 'I saw,' says Dr. R., a handsome house, transplanted land; but I saw no cabbages, no built in the summer of 1815, and now occupied succory, no burnet, no parsnips. In Mr. Blai- by his head gardener: the doors, windows, kie's pamphlet, on the Conversion of Arable floors, stairs, as well as the roofs, joists, spars, Land into Pasture, he gives the result of two &c., were all of Scotch larch, and spruce fir, of trials of dibbling the Heligoland beans on this Holkham growth; and his timber yard, from land; the one was upon land which had under- the same source, displayed no mean quantity of gone a complete summer fallow, previous to its rough timber, balks, planks, &c. In the planbeing transplanted; and the other was land from tations, several of which I rode through, the which Swedish turnips were taken up in No- oaks and Spanish chestnuts have already attained vember, but they seem not to have answered in a considerable size, and are in a state of vigoreither case; the failure is, however, attributed to ous growth; some of the oaks, particularly those the beans having been put into the ground too near the house, being the largest I ever saw, of late. In another instance, Poland oats were the same age; these in time will, obviously, besown, and produced twelve coombs per acre. come the most valuable timber on the estate; in
Mr. Coke's flocks are highly estimated, and he time they may even supply our future wooden is distinguished for his skill and attention in this walls, and, under a change of form, navigate the branch of rural economy. His sheep are all very sea which washes the shores on which they Southdowns, but he told me he had not the merit are now growing.' of selecting them himself. Some years ago he Firs, of the different species, the Scotch larch, was visited by some gentlemen from the South spruce, and silver, have attained a sufficient of England, who found much fault with the growth to be applied to the above-mentioned Norfolks, which then composed his flocks, and useful purposes; and, like the oaks, for many told him that the sheep in their county, the years to come, will have an increasing value. Sussex Southdowns, were much more profitable There are also other trees, which, though of a and better adapted to his pastures :-he bought subordinate character, Mr. Coke turns to a good account; the Salix cærulea, or the French wil. different directions, being conveyed over an exlow, at six years' growth, can be advantageously tensive surface of land, to which they impart a riven into laths, which are very tough, and wonderfully fertilising principle, and by anticianswer the purpose quite as well as those made pating the common period of the growth of of foreign deal : the populus monilifera, the grass in the spring, and by continuing it lux. Canada poplar, also grows very luxuriantly. The uriantly during the whole seasons of vegetating wild cherry is also cultivated extensively, and temperature, the supply of grass is much more its timber is valuable for all building purposes, early, and infinitely more abundant, than could when of forty or fifty years' growth. "Another be obtained on the land of such a farm under poplar, the black Italian, said to be the most common circumstances. The grass wbich first profitable for planting of all poplars, is judici- shows itself in the spring, in the watered meaously planted as a skreen, round some barns and dows, is the festuca fuitans, the long and farming buildings.
broadish leaves of which are known to float on Mr. Coke's system of letting his estates is not the surface of water, in ditches, &c. The cattle less excellent than his farming system : a long are very fond of this grass, and, on being first lease and a moderate rent cannot fail to be highly turned into these meadows, run with eagerness advantageous both to landlord and tenant; to to get it. These water meadows were well dethe occupier it affords every encouragement to signed and executed under the direction of Mr. invest capital, and every motive for the skilful Smith, the engineer, but at a very considerable cultivation of his farm; and to the landlord expense. Mr. Coke, who has given a long lease eventual permanent profit in the improved value of the farm to Mr. Beck, is said to have been at of his estate. The following have been the im- half of the expense; and, in addition to it, he portant results :—Mr. Coke's tenants are en- has built him an excellent house, on a rising riched, and his property has increased in value ground, and at a proper distance from the water, to an almost incredible degree. He gives which is here as much a feature of decoration twenty-one years' leases, and he has already seen and beauty as in any gentleman's ground ; and the termination of such leases on most of his the whole would form a picturesque scene, were farms, and, though he continues the same encou- more trees growing on the opposite side of the raging system of long lease and moderate rent, water. his present relatively moderate rents, relatively Dr. Rigby afterwards visited Holkham at the as to the improved state of his farms, have ad- sheep-shearing. At this time, he says considermitted the total increase of his Norfolk rents to ing the extreme dryness of the season, the crops, amount to the enormous sum of £20,000; an particularly the wheat, were excellent. The increase in the value of landed property, a crea Devon cattle were not only beautiful, but, by tion of wealth, probably, unexampled, except in the state of their flesh, they betrayed no marks the vicinity of large towns, or in populous ma of the prevailing drought, it being a peculiar nufacturing districts. On the renewal of many excellence of this stock that they will keep of his leases, he has given the tenants the bonus themselves in good condition in moderate pasof a capital house: these afford not only every tures. The flocks of Southdown sheep appear possible accommodation to his tenants' families, to be every year improving, showing the judicibut are striking ornaments to the country.
ous and unceasing attention paid to them. About Irrigation is one of the superior improvements three o'clock the company returned to the hall, in agriculture, which Mr. Coke has advocated and not fewer than 300 persons sat down to dinand adopted; but this can, obviously, be only ner in the statue gallery, Mr. Coke presiding at effected in peculiar situations, and can only be one table and the earl of Albemarle at the other. undertaken by persons of considerable capital. After giving a fine fleece and a fat carcase,' The situation of Holkham does not admit of ir- Mr. Coke proposed the health of lord Erskine, rigating to any extent; but even here Mr. Coke who sat near him. He should not, however, he exhibits a water meadow, where it could be said, give him as a lawyer, but as a farmer. little expected; it is near the house at Longlands, The circumstance of his lordship having, of late his principal farm, and rather on high ground; years, turned his attention to agriculture, and the source is a large pond, originally formed for having been, several times during the morning the common purposes of a farm-yard. There engaged in conversation with him on the subject may be a spring which feeds it in some degree, of Merinos, whose cause he seems disposed to but its principal supply is from the heavens. advocate, he was induced to anticipate some obWhen the pond is full, the water is well-directed servations from his lordship on that subject, and, to an adjoining meadow, whose level is a little in a vein of humor, alluded to the rudiments of below it. To a certain degree it has its use, his lordship's agricultural studies, and the probut the supply of water is inadequate to an ex- gress he had made. I am led to hope, said Mr. tensive and long continued irrigation.
Coke, that we shall hear something instructive, The best specimen of complete irrigation, especially on the subject of Merinos, which, you on any of his estates, is at Lexham,' says Dr. know, has many times been discussed in this Rigby, which I have seen, when visiting his room with great good-humor. It will give me respectable tenant there, Mr. Beck. A small pleasure, and I am persuaded it will give you stream, tolerably well supplied, runs through a all pleasure, to hear his lordship inform you of little valley of ordinary meadow land; a large his great success. I am fond of instruction, reservoir of several acres has been formed by an have met it many times where I did not expect embankment, and raised so much above the con- it, and look for it now very anxiously.-I know tiguous grounds as to admit of many streams, in his lordship's abilities; but I fear the subject is
a difficult one, as I have never yet known a good the fruits of our skill and labor rise to give tescarcase supported under 10 or 12 lbs. of such timony; and where the very earth is eloquent, close and fine wool; and I have long been con- and speaks nothing but the truth. If, continued vinced that good carcases and fine fleeces toge- his lordship, we only consider the subject of ther, early maturity and a quick return, which manure, we shall perceive one of the most strikwe have in the Southdowns, will always beat the ing bounties and benefits of the divine ordination, Merinos.—Their backs are as narrow as rabbits, and of that wisdom with which we are blessed, and their faults appear to be incorrigible. in a thousand ways, without our knowing it : Perhaps every one here may not think so, and I this very substance, the refuse of every thing, know there is a considerable party of public- had it been useless, must have accumulated in spirited gentlemen who still persist in the Me- heaps, intolerably noisome, and perpetually pesrino cause. I am persuaded they do it from the tilential; but, by the blessing of providence, it is best motives: I heartily wish them success, but every man's interest to remove these otherwise I do not envy them; I do not envy my honor- increasing mountains of filth, and by decompoable friend here, and hope he has reaped a plen- şition, in various ways, concealed in a great tiful and encouraging profit. For my part, I measure from us, it gives increase to our fields, am governed by experience, and I always make and adds to the means of industry and the re haste to discard error when I find it out. I ward of the husbandman. In allusion to what must beg, however, to relate an anecdote, which he was expected to deliver in the Merido cause, will show you what immense progress his lord- his lordship very pleasantly waived the subject, ship must have made in these studies, since the by saying that it was a subject on which he was first time I had the honor of his company here, yet considerably deficient in knowledge and exto venture upon such a subject. He was riding perience, and he must take a few more lessons with me in a barouche by a field of wheat, some before he could venture to sum up the evidence years ago, at a time when he certainly was not before such a jury. prepared to enlighten us on the difficulties of the In proposing the health of lord Lynedock, Mr. point in question, and he suddenly clapped his Coke took occasion to advert to the Scotch hushands together, and exclaimed, “What a beau- bandry. He alluded to a report which had prevailtiful piece of lavender !'-bui sipce that time, ed, which had perhaps been industriously circulatgentlemen, his lordship is, I know very well, ed, and eagerly listened to, as all calunnies were, considerably improved, and may be thoroughly by many persons. It had been said that he had prepared to defend the cause upon which I have found fault with the agriculture of Scotland. so long been in an error, if it be one.
Found fault ! said Mr. Coke, to be sure I did, His lordship, in reply, commented, in a strain and I praised it likewise. But the first only is of pleasantry, on Mr. Coke's observations rela- remembered by those who would malign my obtive to his studies in agriculture. He had stu- servations. If there be a fault, it ought to be died it under an able master, and, if he had made noticed, or how should we improve? The truth no considerable progress, it must be owing to his is, the agriculture of Scotland deserves very own want of capacity. He, however, assured great praise, and especially their turnip husbanthe company that he did know wheat from laven- dry, which equals any thing I ever saw. If I der; but he certainly had made the exclama had wavered before in opinion, I should have tion alluded to; and was it to be wondered at? been at once convinced of the decided superiority He had seen wheat many times before ; but, of the ridge system, by what I saw in Scotland; never having seen any so admirably cultivated, and I now think it my duty to declare my conwas a sufficient reason for his not knowing the viction that the ridge system of cultivating this plant again.-He had seen such facts and ex- crop is not only the best for producing the amples at Holkham, that he had been struck largest crops, but it will obtain, what can never with the conviction that agriculture must be an be insured by the other, a certain crop. By important branch of knowledge : important not what we witness this year, notwithstanding the only to the good of mankind, but to mental im- drought, the crops in this neighbourhood, by the provement; to the understanding of a man, and ridge system, are both forward and promising; to the science of a philosopher. He had indeed, and, as this is the foundation of the success of the his lordship observed, commenced his study of whole course, it must be the most important agriculture late in life, when, perhaps, the vigor point in our favor. Mr. Coke then congratulated of his attention was spent in other pursuits, more the neighbourhood around him, for having very important to him at the time, but never more generally adopted this system, for which they pleasing. It is this day, said his lordship, forty were much indebted to Mr. Blaikie. The fault years since I was called to the bar ;-I have he had found in Scotland, Mr. Coke observed, studied Coke at Westminster, and I now study was that the land, with the crop after turnips, Coke at Holkham. But the difference between was not so clean as it might be, and he was induced these studies is very great; they differ as the to observe it, in order to draw the attention of laws of man differ from the laws of nature; as a the Scotch farmers to the probable defect there complex and opposing system of facts and pre- might be in cleaning the fallows; but he willingcedents,- where no two cases can be perfectly ly allowed that they had a very troublesome parallel, where human interests and passions are weed in the north, which seemed to be peculiar perpetually excited, where human evidence is to Scotland; and, as the root was a small bulb, often incomplete, often doubtful,-differs from it was difficult to be destroyed. It increased so that order and regularity, where the finger much in the land before the field came to wheat, of nature points 10 certain conclusions; where that the crop, if lodged, would be presently tied