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pure Dishley sheep are by no means the most being able to clear his expenses. His first expeprolific, nor the best nurses; and adds that, the riment was attended with a loss of a guinea heads of the improvers having had time to cool, per hog; the second with the loss of 118. 8d.; it is no longer boasted that new Leicester sheep the third of 3s. In these three the hogs were are able to subsist, and even thrive, on the fed with pease; given whole in the two first, but shortest commons. In fine, it is contended, the ground into meal in the last. The fourth experimerits of this stock as an improving cross (their ment, in which the hog was fed with Jerusalem grand point of utility), being so undeniably great, artichokes, was attended with no loss; but anotheir disadvantages have been overlooked : and, ther, in which pease were again tried, was atfurther, that though the Dishley cross has made tended with a loss of 4s. Barley was tried, its way into every part of this island, to the ground along with pease and beans; this was Land's End, to the bottoms of the Welsh moun- attended with a profit of 178. 4jd. In another tains, and of the Scottish Highlands, to Ireland, experiment in which the hogs were fed with and even to Russia, its general success has been at- pease and barley ground, the beans being omitted tended with various particular instances of failure, as useless, there was a profit of 12s. 3d. upon an a remarkable one'of which is given by lord Somer- expense of £20 15s. 9d. In this experiment the ville, in his Facts, in respect to the Bampton or pease and barley meal were mixed into a liquid Western long-woolled sheep. The cross is some- like cream, and allowed to remain in that state times very injudiciously used with short or carding for three weeks, till it became sour. This was wool stock, excepting where the intention is only attended in two other instances with profit, and forward lamb. On stock naturally good and im- in a third with loss : however, Mr. Young is of proveable this peculiar effect of the new Lei- opinion that the practice will still be found adcester cross has resulted : the improved have vantageous, on account of the quantity of dung considerably surpassed, in the most valuable pro- raised, and that the farmer can thus use his pease perties, their improvers. Of this many examples and barley at home, without carrying them to may be seen, it is supposed, in the improved market. Lincoln, Northumberland, and Midland county Mr. Marshal remarks that, in the midland sheep. It has been stated by lord Somerville district, oats are preferred to barley as a food that all the breeds of sheep in this kingdom may both for young pigs and breeding swine. It is be arranged into two classes; those which shear also supposed that young pigs require warm the short or clothing, and those which shear the meat to make them grow quickly. Barley meal long or combing wool. And that the quality of and potatoes are used in fattening them. In the flesh in each class follows the character of the this district it is common to keep two or three wool, the short-woolled sheep being close in the pigs in the sty along with the old hogs to be grain as to flesh, consequently heavy in the scale, fatted. and high flavored as to the taste; the polled In Staffordshire, Mr. Pit: says, the breed of long-woolled sheep more open and loose in the hogs most esteemed is not the large slouchedgrain, and larger in size. We have as above de- eared breed, but a cross between them and a scribed the three chief long-woolled varieties, smaller dwarf breed. They should be fine in the and must refer to our article Sheep for further bone, thick and plump in the carcase, with a fine observations on this valuable animal and its thin hide, and of a moderate size ; large enough habits.
to fat, at from one to two years old, to the Of the rearing and fattening of hogs.-The weight of from 300 lbs. to 400 lbs. each. These, practice of keeping these animals is so general, if well bred, will keep themselves in good plight especially in England, that one should think the with little feeding, and will soon grow fat with a profit attending it would be absolutely indis- plentiful allowance of proper food. Hogs of putable; and this the more especially when it is the large breed have been fatted there, to from considered how little dicety they have in their 600 lbs. to 800 lbs. each, exclusive of the enehoice of food. From such experiments, how- trails; but, requiring much time and food, have ever, as have been made, the matter appears to pretty generally given way to a smaller-sized, be very doubtful. In the Annals of Agriculture, finer-boned, thick, plump, animal. Hogs are vol. i., we have an experiment by Mr. Mure, of generally fatted there by farmers with the refuse feeding hogs with the cluster potatoe and carrots; of the dairy, boiled potatoes, and barley meal, by which it appeared that the profit on large and pease either whole or ground: by millers hogs was much greater than on small ones; the with the husk or bran of wheat ground down, latter eating almost as much as the former, with- but not wholly divested of its flour; also with out yielding a proportionable increase of flesh. other sorts of grain and pulse ground down; by The gain was counted by weighing the large and butchers with the refuse or offal of slaughtered small ones alive; and it was found that from animals. The best way of managing the potaNovember 10th to January 5th they had gained toes is to boil them in their own steam, and put in the following proportion: twenty large hogs them afterwards into a large oven when the bread £1' 38. 6d.; twenty small 7s. 8d.; two stag is drawn, to evaporate the watery parts: they hogs, £1 178. 8d. On being finished with pease, will then go nearly as far as chestnuts or acorns however, it appeared that there was not any real in feeding. profit at last; for the accounts stood ultimately In Lancashire Mr. Holt observes, that Mr. at par; the expense being £95, and the product Eccleston has a breed between the wild boar and being exactly the same.
the Chinese, which have very light and small In some experiments by Mr. Young, related bellies. Upon the same food, he thinks, they will in the same volume, he succeeded still worse, not yield onefourth more flesh than either the large Irish or Shropshire breeds. Their size is but it. The cure is the sweetest hay that can be got. small, weighing only from ten to fifteen score, 2. A kind of madness, which is known by their generally about twelve score.
tumbling about, with their heels upwards. The In Kent a great number of pigs are reared and cause is full feeding ; the cure, keeping them low, fed on the corn stubbles for the butchers, which and giving them tare thistle. One buck rabbit are killed in autumn for roasting, at the age of will serve nine does. three or four months, then weighing three or four Of poultry.—Under this head are comprescore pounds each. Some are also fattened and hended a variety of birds, which are objects of killed at from six to twelve months old, and sold. attention to the farmer. 1. Fools --The farm In the west part of this district, a few farmers yard cannot be said to be complete until well have the larger kind, or Berkshire breed; but in stocked with fowls; the advantage of which is general they are mixtures of many different sorts. most considerable in situations where the farmer Little attention, says Mr. Boys, is paid to this is best supplied with grain, and has the best animal, though the breed might doubtless be very means of preserving the birds. In choosing this much improved with proper care. Many hogs, kind of stock, prefer the best breeders and the says he, are likewise kept in the woods of the best layers; the oldest being the best sitters, and Weald of Kent in the autumn, on acorns, and the youngest the best layers; but no sort will be fattened on corn in the winter.
good for either, if they are kept too fat. The Pigs, Mr. Holt says, should, during their best age to set a hen for chickens is two years growth, be regularly turned out to graze. This, old, and the best month is February; though any besides the advantage of grass, which is nutritious, month between that and Michaelmas is good. by the fresh air and exercise causes a disposition Hens sit twenty-one days, during which they to take their rest; and sleep after a meal con- should constantly have meat and drink near them, tributes to their cleanliness, and renders their that they may not straggle from their eggs, and flesh of superior flavor. Mr. Young has inserted chill them. If fowls are fed with buck or French a number of experiments on feeding hogs in the wheat, or with hemp seed, they will lay more eggs Transactions of the London Society of Arts; than ordinary; and buck-wheat, either whole or and, on the whole, prefers pollard and skimmed ground, made into paste, will fatten fowls very milk, as the best feeding; and, next to these, speedily; but the common food used is barleyboiled carrots and potatoes.
meal, with milk or water; but wheat flour moisof rabbits.-In particular situations these tened is the best. A good ben should be workanimals may be kept to advantage, as they mul- ing, vigilant, and laborious, both for herself and tiply exceedingly, and require no trouble in her chickens, and the larger the better. The bringing up. A considerable number of them elder hens are rather to be chosen for haiching are kept in Norfolk, where many parts, consisting than the younger, because they are more conof barren hills or heaths, are proper for their re- stant, and will sit out their time; but, if chosen ception. They delight in the sides of sandy for laying, take the youngest. Those eggs that hills, which are generally unproductive when are laid when the hens are a year and a half or tilled; but level ground is improper for them. two years old are the best ; at that time give the
Mr. Marshal is of opinion that there are few hens plenty of victuals, and sometimes oats, sandy or other loose soiled hills which would not with fenugreek to heat them, if you would have pay better in rabbit warrens than any thing else. large eggs. * The hide of a bullock,' says he is not worth In setting hens, take care that the eggs be new, more than one-twentieth of his carcase; the skin which may be known by their being heavy, full, of a sheep may, in full wool, be worth from a and clear. While sitting, a hen should never be sixth to a tenth part of his carcase; but the fur disturbed from her nest, lest she forsake it. A of a rabbit is worth twice the whole value of the hen-house should be large and spacious, with a carcase; therefore, supposing a rabbit to consume pretty high roof and strong walls, to keep out a quantity of food in proportion to its carcase, it thieves and vermin; there should likewise be is, on this principle, a species of stock nearly windows on the east side, for the benefit of the three times as valuable as either cattle or sheep.' rising sun; and round about the inside of the Rabbit warrens ought to be enclosed with a stone walls, upon the ground, should be made large or sod wall; and, at their first stocking, it will be pens, three feet high, for geese, ducks, and large necessary to form burrows to them until they have fowls to sit in; and near the covering of the time to make them for themselves. Boring the house long perches, reaching from one side to the ground horizontally with a large auger is perhaps other, should be fixed, on which cocks, hens, cathe best method that can be practised. Eagles, pons, and turkeys, may sit. At another side of kites, and other birds of prey, as well as cats, the house, at the darkest part of the ground peps, weasels, and polecats, are great enemies of rab- fix hampers full of straw, for nests, for the hens bits. The Norfolk warreners catch the birds by to lay their eggs; but, when they sit to hatch traps placed on the tops of stumps of trees or chickens, they should be on the ground: there artificial billocks of a conical form, on which they should likewise be stakes stuck in the walls, that naturally alight. Traps also seem to be the only the poultry may climb to their perches with ease; method of getting rid of the other enemies, and the floor should not be paved, but made of though thus the rabbits themselves are in danger earth smooth and easy. The smaller fowls should of being caught.
also have a hole at oue end of the house to go in Rabbits are subject to two diseases :-1. The and out when they please, else they will seek out rot, occasioned by too much green food, or giving roosts in other places. It would likewise be it to them fresh gathered, with dew or rain upon of great advantage to have the hen-house, si
tuated near some kitchen, brew-house, bake the method is the same. They are to be put in house, or kiln, where it may have the heat of the a quiet dark place, and kept in a pen, where fire, and be perfumed with smoke, which is very they are to have plenty of corn and water; any grateful to pullets.
kind of corn will do, and with this single diTo fatten chickens, put them into coops, and rection they will fatten extremely well in fifteen feed them with barley-meal; put a small quan- or twenty days. tity of brick dust into their water, which will 3. Geese are advantageous both for food, feagive them an appetite and fatten them very soon; thers, and grease. They will live upon comfor all fowls and birds have two stomachs, the one mons, or any sort of pasture, and need little care is their crop, that softens their food, and the other and attendance ; only they should have plenty of the gizzard, that macerates their food; in the last water. The largest geese are reckoned the best; we always find small stones and sharp sand, but there is a sort of Spanish geese that are much which help to do that office.
better layers and breeders than the English, es2. The duck, a native of Great Britain, is pecially if their eggs be hatched under an Engfound on the edges of all quiet waters through lish goose. Geese in general lay in spring, the out Europe. In breeding, one drake is generally earlier the better, because of their price and of put to five ducks; the duck will cover from their having a second brood. They commonly eleven to fifteen eggs, and her term of incuba- lay twelve or sixteen eggs each. One may know tion is thirty days. They begin to lay in Fe- when they will lay by their carrying straw in bruary, are very prolific, and are apt, like the their mouths, and when they will sit by their turkey, to lay abroad, and conceal their eggs, by continuing on their nest after they have laid. A covering them with leaves or straw. The duck goose sits thirty days, but if the weather be fair generally lays by night, or early in the morning; and warm she will hatch three or four days white and light-colored ducks produce similar sooner. After the goslings are hatched, some eggs, and the brown and dark-colored ducks keep them in the house ten or twelve days, and those of a greenish blue color, and of the largest feed them with curds, barley meal, bran, &c. size. In setting ducks, it is considered safest to After they have got some strength, let them out put light-colored eggs under light ducks, and the three or four hours a-day, and take them in again, contrary; as there are instances of the duck till they are big enough to defend themselves. turning out with her bill those eggs which were For fattening green geese, they should be shut not of her natural color. During incubation, the up when they are about a month old, and they duck requires a secret and safe place, rather than will be fat in about a month longer. The fatting any attendance, and, will, at nature's call, cover of older geese is commonly done when they are her eggs, and seek her food, and the refreshment about six months old, in or after harvest, when of the waters. On hatching, there is not often they have been in the stubble fields, from which a necessity for taking away any of the brood, food some kill them; but those who wish to have barring accidents; and having hatched, let the them very fat shut them up two or three weeks, duck retain her young upon the nest her own and feed them with oats, split beans, barley meal, time. On her moving with their brood, pre- or ground malt, mixed with milk. Geese will pare a coop upon the short grass, if the wea- likewise fatten well with carrots cut small. ther be fine, or under a shelter, if otherwise: 4. Turkeys prosper very well in open couna wide and flat dish of water, often to be re- tries, where there is not much shelter to harbour newed, standing at hand; barley, or any meal, vermin to destroy them, as they are naturally inthe first food. In rainy weather, particularly, it clined to ramble. The hens are so negligent of is useful to clip the tails of the ducklings, and the their young, that, while they have one to follow surrounding down beneath, since they are else them, they never look after the rest; and thereapt to draggle and weaken themselves. The fore care must be taken while they are young to duck should be cooped at a distance from any watch them, and to keep them warm, as they other. The period of her confinement to the cannot bear the cold. When kept with corn, coop depends on the weather and the strength of they are very great feeders; but, if left to their the ducklings. A fortnight seems the longest liberty when grown up, they will get their own time necessary; and they may be sometimes living, without trouble or expense, by feeding on permitted to enjoy the pond at the end of a herbs, seeds, &c. Turkeys, being very apt to week, but not for too great a length at once, least straggle, will often lay their eggs in secret places; of all in cold wet weather, which will affect, and therefore they must be watched, and made to lay cause them to scour and appear rough and at home. They begin to lay in March, and sit draggled. In such case they must be kept in April; eleven or thirteen eggs are the most within a while, and have an allowance of bean they sit on. They hatch in twenty-five or thirty or pea-meal mixed with their ordinary food. days. . The young ones may be fed either with The meal of buck-wheat and the former is then curds, or green fresh cheese. Their drink may proper. The straw beneath the duck should be be new milk, or milk and water. Some give often renewed, that the brood may have a dry them oatmeal and milk boiled thick together, and comfortable bed; and the mother herself be into which they put wormwood chopped small, well fed with solid corn, without an ample al- and sometimes eggs boiled hard, and cut in lowance of which ducks are not to be reared or pieces. They must be fed often ; and, when they kept in perfection, although they gather so much have got some strength, feed them abroad in a abroad. Duck eggs are often hatched by hens. close walled place where they cannot stray ; they The fattening of ducks at any age is very easy; must not be let out till the dew is off the grass, whether it be the duckling or the grown duck, as it is very prejudicial to them. In the fatting of turkeys, sodden barley is very excellent, or that of many counties in the kingdom; and yet sodden oats for the first fortnight.
so sterile was this part of the estate considered, 5. Pigeons.-These, Mr. Pitt observes, can when he came into possession of it, that a large hardly, in general, be considered as an article of tract of it had been let, tithe free, on a long lease, profit to the occupier of a farm, though there are at 3s. per acre; and Mr. Coke offered another instances in Staffordshire, where something hand- lease, of twenty-one years, at 5s. per acre, but some is actually made of them by tenants; yet the tenant had not courage to take it, and Mr. these instances are rare, and too seldom occur to Coke procured him a farm under another landbe reckoned upon in a general account. But lord. At that time wheat was not cultivated in few farm-houses are indeed furnished with the this district : in the whole tract, between Holknecessary accommodations for them; and the ham and Lynn, not an ear was to be seen, nor increase of them beyond a certain degree must was it believed that one would grow. The system be injurious to the cultivation of grain ; within of farming was wretched, and the produce of the due bounds they do little harm; but, increased soil of little value. What a change has been efbeyond it, they prove pernicious vermin, both fected by capital, skill, and industry! Notwithto the new sown crops and the early part of standing the rain of that summer had been, on harvest. They are particularly voracious on other farms, so productive of weeds, and had early pease. Mr. Kent says that pigeons are rendered crops, in general, more than usually much fewer in Norfolk than formerly, as many of. foul, I cannot help repeating that there was the pigeon-houses have been dropt, on account of scarcely a weed to be seen here. In several the injury which they did to thatched buildings. places the barvest had commenced, and the
Of bees.-Under the article APIs, we have ground, which was exposed on cutting the given so full an account of the management of wheat, was as clean as a barn floor. The day these useful and industrious insects, that we need being fine, it was pleasing to see the reapers at add nothing here on the subject of bee hus- work--they were divided into parties, who bandry
seemed to have certain quantities allotted to SKETCH OF HOLKRAM FARMING.
them to cut; among the rest I observed, with
some interest, a man, and two girls about twelve In concluding this practical article we trust or fourteen years of age, who had also a certain our readers will be gratified with an abstract of share; he proved to be a widower, and these Dr. Rigby's able account of Holkham' farming: were his children. we give it not only with a view to doing justice On the second morning Mr. Coke accompato the efforts of the distinguished proprietor of, nied me to an extensive farm of his at Warham, that estate in improving and extending the scien- a neighbouring 'parish, in the occupation of Mr. tific pursuit of agriculture, but also as containing Blomfield, cultivated on the Holkham system, many valuable passing hints on several of the and exhibiting the same weedless surface, and topics of this paper. Dr. Rigby tells us that his the same rich produce, as Mr. Coke's. On one paper was originally read at the Norwich Philo- piece of seventy acres, very near the sea, I think sophical Society in December 1816: and written the wheat exceeded Mr. Coke's in luxuriance from notes taken at Holkham, not intended for and quantity. publication.
Mr. Blomfield has the merit of having made My observations,' says our author, 'will be a discovery, and adopted a practice, which must principally directed to the extraordinary im- be of singular benefit to Norfolk. This county is provement Mr. Coke has effected in the value of deficient in old pasture, and the attempt to lay his extensive estate, by a system of agriculture down land, as it is called, for a permanence, 80 almost peculiar to himself; by an encouraging as to procure this kind of valuable pasture, bas liberality to his tenants, in a system of leasing hitherto been attended with great expense, and his farms, equally peculiar to himself; and by has not always been successful. He effects it by his judicious and extensive system of planting, what he has, rather ludicrously, called inoculating which, I believe, already exceeds any thing of the land, and literally in one summer it produces the kind in the county, and is still progressively a rich, and, strange as it may sound, an old pasincreasing. I had the advantage of riding with ture. Without describing the process in detail, Mr. Coke several hours, two successive mornings, it will give a sufficient idea of it to say that the over the Holkham farm in his own occupation, immediate operation on the land consists in and over another at Warham, occupied by an in- placing pieces of grass, turf, or flag, of about telligent tenant; and, as he allowed me to be three inches and a half square, at certain disfuil of questions, and seemed to have a ready tances, leaving an interval uncovered equal to pleasure in answering them, I had ample means that which is covered by the pieces of flag: these of gratification and information.
are well rammed down, and, in doing this, Mr. My first impression was that of surprise and Blomfield jocularly said it was inoculating the admiration at the exuberance of the crops, at the land, which gave it its name: this process takes seeming richness of the soil, and at its unexampled place in a winter month, and in the spring some freedom from weeds. The first crops which at- grass seeds are sown on the uncovered spots; tracted our notice were some extensive ones, but, before the end of the summer, the pieces of both of wheat and barley. I had never before flag extend themselves, and, uniting, the whole seen such. Mr. Coke estimated the wheat from not only appears to be, but really is, the same as ten to twelve coombs per acre, and said nearly old pasture. I saw thirty acres near Mr. Blom. twenty coombs per acre of barley had grown field's house, a most ordinary soil, light and upon it, which is at least double the average gravelly, and not worth 58. an acre, under thus top in the county of Norfolk, and nearly treble process, become an excellent pasture, worth at least £i 10s. an acre. Mr. Coke was preparing removing it, and which, though inferior in degree, a large piece, within view of the house at Holk- is evidently similar in principle, to transplanta ham, to be thus improved. I asked Mr. Blom- ing it; for, in both cases, Dr. Darwin explains field how the thought occurred to him; he said, the process to be effected by accumulating earth from observing pieces of flag laid on the hedge- above the first few joints of the stems, whence row banks, and beaten firmly on with a spade new buds spring, generated and nonrished by when these banks are dressed, and which, he the caudex of the leaf, which surrounds the joint, added, soon extended themselves and covered the as the original stem was generated and nourished banks, if free from weeds, with a similar flag.' from the grain itself, and which, like the seed,
Mr. Coke's system of husbandry is the drill withers away, when sufficient roots have been system, which he adopted at a very early period, formed for the future support of the plant. Sir and his extraordinary success in it is owing to Humphry Davy also entertains a similar opinion the progressive improvement he has effected in on this subject, and considers the tillering of the process, so as effectually to answer the pur- corn, or the multiplication of stems, as favored pose of loosening the soil, at different seasons, by the drill husbandry; for, he says, loose earth and of completely extirpating weeds. The ad- is thrown, by hoeing, round the stalks.-Elevantage of deep and repeated ploughings and ments of Agricultural Chemistry, p. 204. harrowings, to clean, loosen, and pulverise the In drilling turnips, Mr. Coke has gradually soil, preparatory to its receiving the different extended his lines on ridges, in what is called the seeds, every one knows, and, to a certain degree, Northumberland method, from twelve to fifteen, this is practised on every farm; but the impor- to eighteen, and even to twenty-seven inches. tance of stirring the soil, destroying weeds, and These wide drills allow the horse-hoe of the earthing up the young plants in the summer largest dimensions, and of various forms, adapted months, was not ascertained until effected in the to the different purposes of turning up the soil drill system, by horse-hoeing, &c.; and Mr. and earthing up the plants, to pass most readily. Coke's great improvement in it, derived from 1816 was the first year in which the turnips bis long experience, consists in his having were drilled so widely, and Mr. Coke expected gradually drilled at wider distances
that the twenty-seven inch drilled Swedish turWhen the drilling of wheat was first practised, nips would exceed in weight those of eighteen the lines were four and six inches distant. Mr. inches, by ten tons an acre. Dr. Rigby saw a Coke now drills it at nine inches distance, which large piece of these, about sixty acres, in which admits ample room for horse-hoeing, in the half were at eighteen inches distance, and half at spring and early summer months, obviously twenty-seven inches; the latter were evidently much more effectual in loosening the soil, de- the largest, in the most vigorous growth, and stroying weeds, and moulding up the plants, certainly promised to meet Mr. Coke's expectathan hand-hoeing, particularly as usually prac- tions. Drilled turnips, however, obviously retised by women and girls; who, in most in- quire cross-hoeing, which must necessarily be stances, by a partial stirring of the earth, and an done by hand; but as this is merely to destroy incomplete destruction of weeds, promote the the supernumerary plants, it is easily effected by more vigorous growth of those which remain. women and young persons. The Swedish turnips But he does not think it advisable to earth up form his principal and most valuable crop, and white-straw crops, and thercfore, in horse-hoeing are sown upon the best soils, from the middle of wheat, he does not recommend moulding up the May to the middle of June; but Mr. Coke culplants.
tivates on his lightest soils the common and the The true estimate of every process in agricul- Scotch yellow turnip, both which are sown from ture must indeed be obtained from experience; the middle of June to the middle of July. but the drawing earth round the stems would In 1814 Mr. Blaikie published some observaseem to promote their tillering, or the produc- tions on preserving Swedish turnips, by placing tion of new stems by suckers or pullulations; them, as he terms it, and this has been successand this was one of the great advantages which fully adopted at Holkham. They are taken up Tull, who has unquestionably the merit of having about the middle of November, or as soon as been the first to suggest the drill system, ex- they have attained their full growth; the tails or pected from horse-hoeing wheat. And it is wor- bulb roots only are cut off, and they are placed thy of remark to what an extent the stems may in an orchard, or on old turf land, close to, and be multiplied under favorable circumstances, an touching each other, with the tops uppermost, indispensable one being the supplying the lower and only one turnip deep. An acre of good part of the plant with fresh earth to work in. turnips from the field will occupy much less The most perfect way in which this can be ef- space when placed than could be imagined. In fected is, obviously, by transplanting. Dr. Dar- very severe weather a slight covering of litter is win, in his Phytologia, gives a drawing of a . thrown over them. In this way they will keep plant of wheat taken from a corn field in the very well, and be sound and firm in June. Those spring, which then consisted of two stems; it taken up in the spring, when the bulb or fibrous was replanted in his garden, and purposely roots begin to shoot, and which, if suffered to buried so deep as to cover the two or three first remain on the ground, would greatly deteriorate joints of both the stems beneath the soil. On the soil, may be placed in the same way; and at taking up the plant, on the 24th of September, it this time, if under the shade of trees the better. had assumed the form delineated, and consisted The carrying off the Swedish turnips, and, of six stems, p. 278. Another way of effecting a placing them elsewhere for consumption, is, multiplication of the stems is by drawing fresh however, principally recommended on strong earth round the lower part of the plant, without soils and retentive sub-soils, where they cannot