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mellow in the state of fleshiness, and firm in the skimmed milk and one-third of water, with a state of fatness. 8. The hide mellow and of a small addition of flax seed jelly well dissolved. middle thickness.
The second object, namely, that of improving As the milk of cows. is an article of great im- skimmed milk, according to the plan of the duke portance, it is an object to the husbandman, if of Northumberland, seems to be the more possible, to prevent the waste of that useful fluid practicable of the two. Mr. Young informs us which in the common way of rearing calves is that it has answered well with him for two seaunavoidable. A method of bringing up these sons; and two farmers to whom he communicatyoung animals at less expense is proposed by the ed it gave likewise a favorable report duke of Northumberland. His plan is to make In vol. iii. of the same work we are informei skimmed milk answer the purpose of that which that the Cornwall farmers use the following meis newly drawn from the teat; and which, he thod in rearing their calves :— They are taken supposes, might answer the purpose at one-third from the cow from the fourth to the sixth day: of the expense of new milk. The articles to be after which they have raw milk from six to ten added to the skimmed milk are treacle and the or fourteen days. After this they feed them common linseed oil cake, ground very fine, and with scalded skimmed milk and gruel made of almost to an impalpable powder : the quantities shelled oats, from three quarts to four being given of each being so small that to make thirty-two in the morning, and the same in the evening gallons would cost only sixpence, besides the The common family broth is thought to be better skimmed milk. It mixes very readily, and al- than the gruel. The proportion of gruelo most intimately, with the milk, making it more broth is about one-third of the milk giver rich and mucilaginous, without giving it any them. A little fine hay is set before them, whic! disagreeable taste. The recipe for making it is they soon begin to eat. as follows :—Take one gallon of skimmed milk, In vol. v. of Bath Papers, we have an accoun and to about a pint of it add half an ounce of by Mr. Crook of a remarkably successful expe treacle, stirring it until it is well mixed; then riment in rearing calves without milk at all take one ounce of linseed oil cake finely pulver- This gentleman, in 1787, weaned seventeer. ised, and with the hand let it fall gradually in calves; in 1788, twenty-three; and in 1789 very small quantities into the milk, stirring it in fifteen. In 1787 he bought three sacks of linthe mean time with a spoon or ladle until it be seed, value £2 5s. which lasted the whole three thoroughly incorporated; then let the mixture years. One quart of it was put to six quarts of be put into the other part of the milk, and water; which, by boiling ten minutes, was rethe whole be made nearly as warm as new milk duced to a jelly; the calves were fed with this when it is first taken from the cow, and in that mixed with a small quantity of tea made by state it is fit for use. The quantity of the steeping the best hay in boiling water. By the oil-cake powder may be increased as occasion use of this food three times a day, he says that requires, and as the calf becomes inured to its his calves throve better than those of his neigbflavor.
bours which were reared with milk.—These On this subject Mr. Young remarks that, in natural kinds of food, however, are in many rearing calves, there are two objects of great im- cases apt to produce a looseness, which in the end portance. 1. To bring them up without any proves fatal to the calves. In Cornwall thesis milk at all; and, 2. To make skimmed milk medy this sometimes by giving acorns as an answer the purpose of such as is newly milked astringent; sometimes by a cordial of which or sucked from the cow. In consequence of opium is the basis. In Norfolk the calves are premiums offered by the London Society, many reared with milk and turnips; sometimes with attempts have been made to accomplish these oats and bran mixed among the latter. Winter desirable purposes; and Mr. Budel, of Wanbo- calves are allowed more milk than summer odes; rough in Surrey, was rewarded for an account of but they are universally allowed new milk, or bis method. This was to give the calves a gruel even to suck. made of ground barley and oats. But Mr. According to Parkinson there seem to be two Young, who tried this method with two calves, distinct kinds of Welsh cattle. The large sort assures us that both of them died. When in are of a brown color, with some white on the runp Ireland he had an opportunity of purchasing and shoulders,denoting a cross from the long hors calves at three days old from 1s. 8d. to 3s. each; though in shape not the least resembling them by which he was led to repeat the experiment They are long in the legs, stand high according many times over. This he did in different ways, to their weight, are thin in the thigh, and rather having collected various recipes. In consequence narrow in the chine; their horns are white and of these he tried hay tea, bean meal mixed with turned upwards; they are light in flesh, and wheat flour, barley and oats ground nearly but next to the Devons, well formed for the yoke; not exactly in Mr. Budel's method; but the have very good hoofs, and walk light and niinbls. principal one was flax seed boiled into a jelly, The other sort is much more valuable; cols and mixed with warm water: this being recom- black, with very little white; of a good users mended more than all the rest. The result of all form, short in the leg, with round deep bodies these trials was that, out of thirty calves, only the hide is rather thin, with short hair; thes han three or four were reared; these few were a likely look and a good eye; and the bours brought up with barley and oatmeal, and a very though not very small, are neither large B small quantity of fax seed jelly: one only ex- clumsy; and the cows are considered go cepted, which at the desire of his coachman was milkers.' (Parkinson on Live Stock, vel. i. brought up on a mixture of two-thirds of 135).
Alderney cattle are much prized in England fleece; and, on the last division, the breeds are for the sake of their milk, which is rich, and not necessarily small and hardy, and, in regard to always small in quantity. The race is consider- form and general properties, still almost in a ed by competent judges as too delicate and ten- state of nature. The improvement of sheep der to be propagated to any extent in Britain. must mainly depend on the circumstances of Their color is mostly yellow, light red, or dark every district, in regard to the food and shelter dun, with white or mottled faces; they have it affords them; and it is only where these inshort horns, are small in size, and often ill shap- dispensable requisites are abundantly provided ed; yet are they fine in bone; and their beef, by nature, or by human industry, that the most though high colored, is well flavored. Mr. skilful management can be successful. Culley says he has seen some very useful Culley gives, as in the case of cattle, his idea of cattle bred from a cross between an Alderney the best general form of the male :-His head,' cow and a short horned bull. See Bos. he says, of the ram, should be fine and small,
Whatever be the breed,' says Mr. Culley, 'I his nostrils wide and expanded, his eyes propresume that, to arrive at excellence, there is minent, and rather bold or daring, ears thin, his one form or shape essential to all, which form I collar full from his breast and shoulders, but tashall attempt to give in the following description pering gradually all the way to where the neck of a bull.
and head join, which should be very fine and The head of the bull should be rather long, graceful, being perfectly free from any coarse and muzzle fine; his eyes lively and prominent; leather hanging down; the shoulders broad and his ears long and thin; his horns white; his full, which must at the same time jain so easy to neck rising with a gentle curve from the shoulders, the collar forward, and chine backward, as to aud small and fine where it joins the head; his leave not the least hollow in either place; the shoulders moderately broad at the top, joining mutton upon his arm, or fore-thigh, must come full to his chine and chest backwards, and to the quite to the knee; his legs upright, with a clean neck-vane forwards; his bosom open; breast fine bone, being equally clear from superfluous broad, and projecting well before his legs; his skin and coarse hairy wool from the knee and arms or fore thighs muscular, and tapering to hough downwards; the breast broad and well his knee; his legs straight, clean, and very fine forward, which will keep his fore-legs at a proboned ; his chine and chest so full as to leave per wideness; his girth or chest full and deep, no hollow behind the shoulders; the plates and, instead of a hollow behind the shoulders, strong to keep his belly from sinking below the that part by some called the fore-flank should be level of his breast; his back or loin broad, quite full; the back and loins broad, flat, and straight, and flat; his ribs rising above one another, straight, from which the ribs must rise with a in such a manner that the last rib shall be rather fine circular arch; his belly straight, the quarters the highest, leaving only a small space to the long and full, with the mutton quite down to the hips or hooks, the whole forming a round or bar- hough, which should neither stand in nor out; rel-like carcase; his bips should be wide placed, his twist deep, wide, and full, which, with the round or globular, and a little higher than the broad breast, will keep his four legs open and back; the quarters (from the hip to the rump) upright; the whole body covered with a thin long, and, instead of being square, as recom- pelt, and that with fine, bright, soft wool. The mended by some, they should taper gradually nearer any breed of sheep comes up to the above from the hips backward, and the turls or pott- description, the nearer they approach towards bones not in the least protuberant; rumps close excellence of form. to the tail; the tail broad, well haired, and This kind of stock is highly advantageous to set on so high as to be in the same horizontal the farmer in various points of view : as supplyline with his back. (Culley on Live Stock, ing food and clothing, and as a means of imp. 38.)
proving the farm. See Ovis, SHEEP, and Wool. Of sheep.-According to Culley there are four- The sheep of different counties excel in these teen different breeds of sheep in Great Britain, different properties, and in some parts they have all of them readily distinguishable by their horns, been much improved by crossing the breeds. or by being hornless, by the color of their faces Kent, in his Survey of Norfolk, observes, that and legs, and by the length and quality of their there ought always to be some affinity or similiwool. Parkinson (on Live Stock, vol. i. p. 249) tude between the animals wbich are crossed. It enumerates no fewer than thirty-seven breeds. is, says he, a manifest incongruity to match a «Perhaps,' says the article Agriculture, Supple- Norfolk and a Leicester sheep; or a Norfolk ment to Encyclopædia Britannica,' the most eli- and a South Down; or any long-woolled sheep gible mode of classification would be, to consi- with a short-woolled; but a Leicestershire sheep der separately those races which are best adapt- may be matched, with some degree of propriety, ed to enclosed arable land ; those which occupy with a Cottswold ; and a South Down sheep with green hills, downs, and other tracts of moderate a Berkshire or a Herefordshire Ryland. elevation; and, finally, such as inhabit the higher in the Survey of Staffordshire Mr. Pitt says, hills, and mountains. On the first description of the Wiltshires crossed by a heavy ram have proland every sort of practicable improvement may duced sheep, at little more than two years old, be effected, though there the carcase has hitherto of forty pounds per quarter, and which have been the chief object; on the second, the carcase been sold to the butcher at £3 10s. each. The is smaller but the wool generally finer,--and it Dorsetshire breed, which are well made and s probably with such sheep that the greatest compact, have often answered well, and are, in ipprovements ought to be attempted on the the opinion of some experienced fariners, equa to any other breed. The fact is, that any breed very good breed; there being mady instantes of sheep, if sound and healthy, may be enlarged in which the old breed were become too course, and improved by good keeping, and by crossing and the new too fine. The stock of Mr. Dyat, with rains selected with attention.
of Freeford near Litchfield, a gentleman who has The best sheep for fine wool are said to be attended much to this subject, is closely bed those bred in Herefordshire and Worcestershire; from the new Leicester breed, by rams for many but they are small and black faced, and conse- years procured from the best breeds. His faro. quently bear but a small quantity. Warwick, ing is to the extent of 800 acres or more; and Leicester, Buckingham, and Northamptonshire, the main object sheep. His stock of breeding breed a large-boned sheep, of the best shape, ewes is 260, and he never sells a lamb, which and deepest wool. The marshes of Lincolnshire upon the average rearing is about 300. He is also breed a very large kind of sheep, but their formed our author that his annual sales from wool is not good. The northern counties in sheep and wool amounted upon an average to general breed sheep with long, but hairy wool; £650, that his sheer hogs or yearling wether and Wales breeds a small hardy kind of sheep, generally go to the butcher at two guineas exh. which has the best tasted flesh, but the worst and the culls of this age make 35s. each ; 2. wool of all. The farmer, according to some by keeping to February he has sometimes soud writers, should always buy his sheep from a them at 50s. each, under two years old. He is worse land than his own, and they should be several times killed sheep kept to a greater big-boned, and have long greasy wool curling that have weighed forty pounds per quarter. close and well. These sheep always breed the Mr. Pitt says that there are some other fick finest wool, and are also the most approved of such as those of lord Bagot's tenants, and pez by the butcher,
cularly some lately belonging to Mr. Haris, Pitt, in his Survey of Staffordshire, tells us, in his lordship's steward, that deserve attentzat that populous manufacturing county the consi- This breed is gaining ground fast, and is se derable demand for lamb, as well as mutton, in- posed by many to be the best pasture sheep-box duced a great proportion of farmers to keep none in the kingdom. The superiority consists in the other than an annual stock of sheep, consisting that the pastures may be stocked much harde of ewes bought in at Michaelmas from Cannock with these than any other stock of equals; Heath, Sutton Coldfield, the common of Shrop- as they are always fat, even when sols shire, and sometimes even from Gloucestershire, lambs. The ewes, full grown, will weigh na Wiltshire, and Dorsetshire. These ewes being twenty to twenty-five pounds per quit; immediately put to a ram, the lambs in spring wethers at two years old about the same: bu are suckled till they are fit for the butcher; they when kept another year they rise 102 are then sold, and the ewes kept in good pasture, pounds per quarter. The fleeces weigh ta fatted and sold after them, and the wbole stock seven to ten pounds. These sbeep he descia generally cleared off within the year: the lambs to be fine and light in the bone; thick a and wool generally pay the original purchase of plump in the carcase; broad across the the ewe, and sometimes more; and the price of with the back bone not rising into a ridet, the fat ewe remains for keeping and profit. He sinking in a nick, and a double chine of us observes that the rams of Mr. Fowler, a celebrated rising on either side ; fine and clean in the De breeder of this kind of stock, are stout, broad- and shoulder; not too short in the leg; ant : backed, wide on the rump, and well made, with a sufficient bulk in the carcase to rise fine wool to the very breech; the largest of them weight above-mentioned. would, he believes, fatten to more than thirty In Norfolk, those who keep ewe flocks pounds the quarter; and the sinallest would be Kent observes, find them answer extremely considerably above twenty pouuds. Great at- for, besides the fleece and manure, the area tention has been paid for several years past to price of the lambs is 12s. Those who byty improving this breed both in wool and carcasses. wether lambs with a view of bringing them up But Mr. Fowler himself thinks the breed is now fatting stock, after keeping them eighteen pushed rather too far in bulk and weight, for the nineteen months, generally sell them at and pasturage of the common, or even of the neigh- rage of 30s., which is a very handsome pro bourhood, unless they are driven into better Mr. Boys informs us that the tuanagement land for fatting. But he is clearly of opinion sheep in the different parts of Kent is a that pushing or increasing the size or bulk of lows:- In the eastern part the flock farmers sheep hy improving their pasturage, or removing in lambs at Romney fair the 20th August, at tram them to a better pasture, does not at all tend to 128. to 14s. each ; and when they have kept test injure the staple, or degenerate the fineness of two years they either sell them lean to the likes clothing wool, provided due attention be paid to grazier, or fatten them themselves on turnips a: selecting the finest-woolled rams. The Leices- pea or bean straw. Oats, and cullings of games tershire breeds, he says, are of two kinds, the beans, are sometimes given to finish them 137 old and the new. The old Leicesters are large, spring. When these two yearling sheep are thick, heavy sheep, with long combing wool; the in autumn to the graziers, the price is from *** new Leicester breed is a refinement upon the to 28s. each ; and when made fat they produk old, by crossing with a finer-boned and a finer- from 34s. to 42s. according to their size and woolled ram. These are now established in ness. But these prices have lately considera various parts of Staffordshire, and increasing in advanced. The few sheep bred in the mars other places. The old Leicester breeds are cross- are of the same sort, except some small pupa ing with the new, which bids fair to produce a of Dorsetshire and South Down ewes. But 3
most the whole of the sheep kept on the upland just sold to make room for them. These are farms of East Kent are the true Romney marsh commonly the best conditioned tegs, in which breed; whose carcases and bones being large, there may sometimes be loss from the sudden and wool long and heavy, they require rich land transition from poor to too good keep, though and good keep to make them fat. Mr. Boys they are not, in general, so subject to some sorts keeps no other than South Down sheep, and has of disease as the old ones, on such changes being every reason to be satisfied with them: bis flock made in their food. The marsh sheep-graziers is about 1000, 400 of which are breeding ewes. have lately been much in the practice of prevail
In the isle of Sheppey the sheep are of the ing on the farmers to keep such flocks a fortRomney marsh sort, true Rents. The soil being night, or even double that time, on turnips, much inferior to Romney marsh, the sheep are which has the advantage of enabling them to somewhat smaller; and, from the same cause, double the stock on the same pastures during their wool is lighter and finer. The wethers are the summer; while, on the other hand, it is evifattened at three years old, then weighing from dent that, when they are so hard stocked early in twenty to twenty-four pounds per quarter. The the spring, they can neither have so luxuriant a sheep mostly kept in the district of West Kent growth nor be so full of grass. The pastures are the South Down sort, bought in wether are likewise eased gradually, as the fat ewes or lambs at the autumnal fairs on the Downs, Oc. wethers are taken off, and their places supplied tober 2nd. The usual practice with the lambs by the wether-tegs, while the ewe-tegs are sufin the Romney marshes is that of sending them, fered to remain on their original pastures until about the beginning of September, to be kept by they are selected, or set for going to the rams. the neighbouring upland or hill farmers during The wether tegs in the autumn are removed to the winter. They go in separate lots, being re- the fatting, and the ewe-tegs to the breeding ceived at certain appointed places by the far- grounds, among the two and three yearling ewes. mers, and driven to the houses or taken to the The wethers remain till July or August following, farms by their servants. They are then com- when, as they become fat, they are drawn out monly put upon the stubbles or grations, as they and sold to the butchers at the marsh markets, are called; but in some cases they have also or sent to Smithfield. The two-yearling wethers, pastures to run upon, though too little attention when fat, at this season weigh from twenty to is, in general, paid to the changing of them; by twenty-eight pounds per quarter, and some of which they suffer much, and are often greatly in the largest and best fed a few pounds more. The jured, especially such as are weakly and deli- old ewes, there called barrens, are put to fattening cate. It is found that there is a prodigious as soon as their milk is dried after the third benefit in keeping the lambs in winter, in such lamb, which is at the age of four years, on some situations, in having the grounds dry and warm, of the best lands; where they are placed, from instead of being of a cold, wet, clayey nature. two to three per acre, for the winter. These, in Lambs should by no means be stocked along favorable winters, are sometimes made fat, and with the ewes, as the old sheep will constantly sold in the spring. The practice of fattening take the feed, and stench the land, by which the sheep on turnips, assisted by oil cake, corn, hay, lambs may be greatly hurt. They should always saintfoin, &c., is greatly in use among the upland be stocked separately, and the pastures be fre- farmers of this county; not so much for the quently changed, circumstances which are little profit by feeding with those articles, as for the regarded here. Some think that lambs do not great improvement of the soil where the turnips thrive well on being put to grass, after having are fed off. The manure from sheep fed on oil been fed on luxuriant food, such as turnips, old cake and turnips is reckoned very enriching to tares, rye-grass, &c. The price of the keeping the land. A great number of fold flocks of lean of lambs in these cases is very different; some sheep are kept by the farmers in the east part of paying only 3s. 6d. the lamb, while others pay the county, of from eight to twenty score. These 58.; and where no neat stock are kept they charge are each attended by a shepherd, who removes as high as from 6s. to 6s. 6d. the head, for the the fold every morning to fresh ground, at six space of about six months. This is but a late o'clock in summer, and at break of day in winadvance; however it makes the price of keep ter : the flock is then driven away to the most a serious object. The loss of lambs in this sys- inferior keep at the first part of the morning, and tem of winter management is occasionally con- is returned into the fold for two or three hours siderable, but depends much on the nature of in the middle of the day, while the shepherd the season, as to mildness or severity, amounting goes to dinner; in the afternoon it is gradually in some cases to four or more in 100.
led to the best keep in the farm, that the sheep The tegs, or one-year old lambs, in this system may return full fed to the fold in the evening. are brought from the uplands, where they have Great caution is necessary in feeding sheep on been wintered too often in a low state of con- clover in summer, and on turnips in the first part dition, for the supply of the marsh graziers, of winter. which enables them to keep more ewes and fat- Mr. Robertson has inserted the following actening sheep on the marsh lands. This is done count of feeding ewes with early lambs in his about the beginning of April, when the upland Survey of Mid Lothian, as stated by an accurate farmers are indulged with a feast or treat at the observer. The number in all was sixty; fed off expense of the graziers, as a recompense for their in four weeks the expense was £12. Thus each care and attention to the lambs, in which libe- - lamb cost 4s. The expense of twenty fed five rality has a great effect. As the flocks reach the weeks was £5 12s.6d., or 5s. 7 d. each lamb:marsh, they are put into the poorest pastures, at 'Feeding on grass takes six weeks to feed off. the rate of five to the acre, their old sheep being The average rent of good grass may be £2 per acre, which will feed off four ewes with lambs. The Lincolnshire breed is characterised by their He considers six weeks from the middle of April, having no horns; white faces; long, thin, weak the usual time of laying on, to be full one-half carcases; thick, rough, white legs; bones large; of the value of the grass for that season; hence pelts thick; slow feeding; mutton coarsethe lambs cost 58. each in that time. In turnip grained; the weight per quarter in ewes from feeding sheep, by flaking them on the field, fourteen pounds to twenty pounds; in threetwenty sheep eat an acre in fourteen weeks. If year old wethers from twenty pounds to thirty they be led off to a grass field, ten score will pounds; the wool from ten to eighteen inches in tathe or dung an acre in seven days, worth £2 length. And it is chiefly prevalent in the dis108. As to feeding in the house, he finds the Irict which gives the name, and other rich grazing dung worth the trouble of carting, and the value ones. The writer of the work on Live Stock of the straw it takes for litter. He finds also the supposes that this breed is DOW so generally imlambs fed on grains not only sooner ready, but proved by new Leicester tups, that they are probamore white and firm in the flesh; the ewes are bly, in a great measure, free from those defects of also in better condition. He likewise found that, the old breed of which Mr. Culley, with much at times, to mix a little salt among the grains reason, complained, namely, slow feeding, from was of great service; but it was necessary to a looseness of form, and too much bone, and avoid, above all things, giving them grains when coarse-grained flesh. It must not, however, be gour, or old kept; and of importance also to feed denied, that a good old Lincoln has ever been, them regularly, and to give them fresh clean and the name, at least, still continues a great falitter every day. A sheep will consume about vorite at Smithfield. The new or improved twenty pounds of turnips in twenty-four hours, Lincolns have finer bone, with broader loins and if it be allowed as many as it can eat, which trussed carcases, and are among the best, if not should always be allowed to fat sheep; but, as actually the best, long-woolled stock we have. sheep vary in size, so they will consume more or The New Leicester, or Dishley, is an improved less food.
breed of sheep, readily distinguished from the The Teeswater breed of sheep is said to be the other long-woolled sorts, according to Culley, by largest in Great Britain; is at present the most baving fine lively eyes; clean heads, without prevalent in the fine fertile lands on the banks of horns; straight, broad, flat backs; round or the Tees in Yorkshire; and supposed to be from barrel-shaped bodies; fine small bones; thin the same stock as those of the Lincolns. It is a pelts; and a disposition to make fat at an early breed only calculated for warm rich pastures, age; to which may be added a superiority in the where they are kept in small lots enclosed, and fineness of the grain and the flavor of the mutton well supported with food in severe winters. The to that of other sheep of the large long-woolled produce in mutton is large, but, from their re- kinds. The weight per quarter in ewes three or quiring so much longer time and richer keep, and four years old from eighteen pounds to twentybeing admitted in so much smaller proportions six pounds; in two-year old wethers, trom on the acre, they are not, upon the whole, so pro- twenty pounds to thirty pounds; the length of fitable, perhaps, as the smaller more quick-feed- wool from six to fourteen inches. The author of ing breeds. In the ewes there is, however, the Treatise on Live Stock characterises them as according to Culley, a property which is of much having a fulness of form and substantial width consequence, which is, that in general they are of carcase, with a peculiar plainness and meek very prolific, bringing two and frequently three ness of countenance; the head long, thin, and lambs, and in some cases a greater number each. leaning backward; the nose projecting forward; He gives the following description of the breed :- the ears somewhat long, and standing backward, The legs are longer, finer boned, and support a great fulness of the fore-quarters; legs of mode thicker and more firm and heavy carcase than rate length, and the finest bone; tail small; the Lincolnshires; the sheep are much wider on fleece well covering the body, of the shortest and the backs and sides, and a faiter and finer-grained finest of the combing wools, the length of stape mutton. The weight per quarter in two-years six or seven inches. The fore-flank, a terin of old wethers is from twenty-five pounds to thirty- the old school, current in the time of Lisle, or five pounds, and in particular instances to fifty- that flap of skin and fat appended to the rils. five pounds or more. The wool is shorter and and the inferior part of the shoulder, is remarkless heavy than in that breed.
ably capacious in this breed. New Leicester In the Corrected Report of the West Riding mutton, it is believed, is the most finely grained of Yorkshire, Mr. Parkinson supposes that à of all the large long-woolled species, but of a useful kind is capable of being bred by crossing flavor bordering on the insipid. And it is added, the ewes of this sort with Dishley rams. It is that it is reported, and with the strongest proadded that by the use of these, and those of the bability, from the appearance of the stock, lk Northumberland kind, the quality of the wool fineness of the wool, and the grain of the mutton and the mutton has not only been greatly im- that a Ryeland cross was a prime instrument proved, but the quantity of bone and offal much the Dishley improvement of sheep. Probably lessened ; and, at the same time, the fattening the root or foundation was Lincoln. In tx property considerably increased : they becoming ordinary and gradual course of improvement fatter at two years old than the others are at or alteration of form, it must have taken, it three. The wethers of this improved sort gene- thought, a long time and vast pains, to mould the rally sell, unshorn, at two years old, from 45s. animals into that artificial and peculiar shape to 55s. a piece, and weigh from twenty-four to which distinguishes this remarkable variety. thirty pounds the quarter.
The author of the Treatise on Cattle says, te