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method was to plant beech trees at proper distances among Scotch firs, upon otherwise barren
Height in Circumference in heaths. These trees,' says Mr. Wagstaffe, 'in
Feet. Feet. Inch. a soil perhaps without clay or loam, with the heathy sod trenched into its broken strata of Lombardy poplar 60 to 80 sand or gravel, under the protection of the firs, Arbeal
50 to 70 have laid hold, though slowly, of the soil; and,
Plane . 50 to 60 accelerated by the superior growth of the firs, Acacia , . 50 to 60 have proportionally risen, until they wanted an
40 to 60 enlargement of space for growth when the firs
Chestnut . 30 to 50 were cut down. He adds that, when the firs
Weymouth pines 30 to 50 are felled, their roots decay in the ground; and
Cluster ditto | 30 to 50 thus furnish by that decay a new support to the
Scotch fir. | 30 to 50 soil on which the beeches grow; whereby the
Spruce ditto i 30 to 50 latter receive an additional vigor, as well as an
50 to 60 enlargement of space and freer air; the firs themselves, though cut down before they arrived at their full growth, being also applicable to From this table it appears that plauting of many valuable purposes.
timber trees, where the return can be waited In the Annals of Agriculture, vol. vi., we find for during the space of twenty years, will unthe culture of trees recommended by Mr. Har- doubtedly repay the original profits of planting, ries; and be informs us that the larch is the as well as the interest of the money laid out; quickest grower and the most valuable of all the which is the better worth the attention of a proresinous timber trees; but, unless there be pretty prietor of land, that the ground on which they good room allowed for the branches to stretch grow may be supposed good for very little else. out on the lower part of the trunk, it will not from a comparative table of the growth of oak, arrive at any considerable size; and this obser- ash, and elm timber, given in the Annals of vation, he says, holds good of all pyramidal Agriculture, vol. ii., it appears that the oak is by trees. Scotch firs may be planted between them, much the slowest grower of the three. and pulled out after they begin to obstruct the With respect to the growth of underwood, growth of the larch. Some of these larches he which in some cases is very valuable, it is to be had seen planted about thirty years before, remarked that, to have an annual fall of it, the which, at five feet distance from the ground, whole quantity of ground, whatever its extent measured from four feet to five feet six inches in may be, ought to be divided into annual sowings. circumference. The most barren grounds, he The exact number of sowings must be regulated says, would answer for these trees, but better by the uses to which it is intended to be put. soil is required for the oaks. In this paper he Thus, if, as in Surrey, stakes, edders, and hoops takes notice of the leaves of one of his planta- are saleable, there ought to be eight or ten tions of oaks having been almost entirely de- annual sowings; or if, as in Kent, hop poles are stroyed by insects ; in consequence of which demanded, fourteen or fifteen will be required; they did not increase in bulk as usual ; but and if, as in Yorkshire, rails be wanted, or, as another, which had nearly escaped these ravages, in Gloucestershire, cordwood be most marketaincreased at an average one inch in circuinferé ble, eighteen or twenty sowings will be necessary ence. 'A tree four feet round,' says he, that to produce a succession of annual falls. Thus has timber twenty feet in length, gains by this the business, by being dirided, will be rendered growth a solid foot of timber annually, worth less burdensome; a certain proportion being one shilling at least, and pays five per cent. for every year to be done, a regular set of hands standing. It increases more as the tree gets will, in proper season, be employed; and, by from five to six feet round. I have in my groves beginning upon a small scale, the errors of the 3000 oaks that pay me one shilling each per first year will be corrected in the practice of the annum, or £150 a year. My poplars have second, and those of the second in that of the gained in circumference nearly two inches, and third. The produce of the intervals will fall a Worcester and witch elm as much. I have into regular course; and, when the whole is lately been informed that the smooth cut of a completed, the falls will follow each other in holly tree, that measures twenty inches and up- regular succession. The greatest objection to wards round, is worth to the cabinet makers this method of sowing woodlands is the extra2s. 6d. per foot.'
ordinary trouble in feucing; but this objection The following table shows the increase of trees does not hold if the sowings lie at a distance in twenty-one years from their first planting. from one another; on the contrary, if they lie It was taken from the marquis of Lansdowne's together, or in plots, the entire plot may be plantation, begun in 1765, and the calculation enclosed at once; and, if it contain a number of made on the 15th of July 1768. It is about sowings, some subdivisions will be necessary, six acres in extent, the soil partly a swampy and the annual sowing of these subdivisions meadow upon a gravelly bottom. The measures may be fenced off with hurdles, or some other were taken at five feet above the ground; the temporary contrivance; but, if the adjoining small firs having been occasionally drawn for land be kept under the plough, little temporary posts and rails, as well as rafters for cottages; fencing will be necessary. But, in raising a ind, when peeled of the bark, will stand well woodland from seeds, it is not only necessary to or seven years.
defend the young plants against catile and sheep, but against hares and rabbits; so that a close looked over from time to time; and this, with fence of some kind is absolutely necessary. cultivating the intervals, and keeping the drills
With regard to the preparation of the ground free from weeds, will be all that is necessary for raising timber, if the soul be of a stiff clayey until the tops of the plants begin to appear. nature, it should receive a whole year's fallow; The crops may be continued for several years ; if light, a crop of turnips may be taken; but at and, if they only pay for the expenses, they will all events it must be made perfectly clean before still be of considerable advantage, by keeping the tree seeds be sown, particularly from peren- the ground stirred, and preserving the plants nial root weeds; as, after the seeds are sown, from hares and rabbits. Even after the crops the opportunity of performing this necessary are discontinued, the ground ought still to be business is in a greit measure lost. If the situa- stirred, alternately throwing the mould to the tion be moist, the soil should be gathered into roots of the plants, and gathering it into a ridge wide lands, sufficiently round to let the water in the middle of the interval. The best method run off from the surface, but not high. The of doing this is to split the ground at the aptime of sowing is either October or March; and proach of winter, to throw it up to the trees on the method as follows:- The land being in fine both sides; this will preserve the roots from order, and the season favorable, the whole should frost; gather it again in the spring, which will be sown with corn or pulse adapted to the season check the weeds, and give a fresh supply of air; of sowing; if in autumn, wheat or rye may be split again at midsummer, to preserve the plants the crop; but if in spring, beans or oats, from drought; gather, if necessary, in autumn, Whichever of these species be adopted, the and split as before at the approach of winter. quantity of seed ought to be less than usual, to The spring and midsummer ploughings should give a free admission of air, and prevent the be continued as long as a plough can pass becrop from 'lodging. The sowing of the grain tween the plants. being completed, that of the tree seeds must be Whenever the oaks intended for timber are in immediately set about. These are to be put danger of being drawn up too slender for their in drills across the land ; acorns and nuts should height, it will be necessary to cut off all the be dibbled in, but keys and berries scattered in rest at the height of about a hand-breadth above trenches or drills drawn with the corner of a the ground; and those designed to stand must hoe, as gardeners sow their pease. The distance now be planted at about two rods distant from might be a quarter of a statute rod, or four feet each other, and as nearly a quincunx as possible, and one inch and a half. A land chain should The second cutting must be determined by the be used in setting out the drills, as not being demand for the underwood; with this proviso, liable to be lengthened or shortened by the that the timber stands be not too much crowded weather. It is readily divided into roods; and by it; for, rather than this should be the case, the the quarters may be easily marked.'
coppice should be cut, though the wood may not The species of underwood to be sown must have reached its proper profitable state. What be determined by the consumption of it in the is here said of the method of rearing oak trees neighbourhood. Thus, if stakes, hoops, &c., in woods is in a great measure applicable to be in request, the oak, hazel, and ash, are es- that of raising other trees in timber groves. The teemed as underwood. Where charcoal is species most usually raised in these are the ash, wanted for iron furges, beech is the prevailirg elm, beech, larch, spruce fir, Weymouth pine, underwood. The oak, box, birch, &c., are all poplar, willow, alder, chestnut, walnut, and in request in different countries, and the choice cherry. The three last are used as substitutes must be determined by the prevailing demand for the oak and beech, and these two for the As the keys of the ash sometimes lie two or even mahogany. three years in the ground, it will be proper to have the places where they are sown distinguished
PART V. by some particular marks, to prevent them from OF THE MANAGEMENT OF LIVE STOCK. being disturbed by the plough after harvest ; as a few beans may be scattered along with them, if As great part of the stock of a husbandman the crop be oats; or oats if the crop be beans. must always consist of cattle, and one of his The crop should be reaped, not mown, at har- principal expenses is in the maintenance of vest time, and be carried off as fast as possible them, this part of his business is certainly to be Between harvest and winter a pair of furrows looked upon as important. The cattle belonging should be laid back to back in the middle of to a farm may be divided into two classes, viz. each interval, for meliorating the next year's such as are intended for work, and such as are crop, and laying the seedling plants dry; wbile designed for sale. The former are now princithe stubble of the unploughed ground on each pally horses. In the second volume of Bath side of the drills will keep them warm during Papers, we have an account of a comparative the winter. The next year's crop may be pota- experiment of the utility of horses and oxen in toes, cabbages, turnips; or, if the first' was husbandry, by Mr. Kedington of Bury, in which corn, this may be bearis ; if the first was beans, the preference is decisively given to oxen. le this may be wheat drilled. In the spring of the says that when he began the experiment, in 1779, third year the drills which rose the first year he was almost certain that there was not an ox must be looked over, and the vacancies filled up worked in the whole country: finding, however, from those parts which are thickest; but the the expense of horses very great, he purchased a drills of the ash should be let alone till the single pair of oxen, but found much difficulty in fourth year. The whole should afterwards be breaking them, as the workmen were so much prejudiced against them, that they would not He begins with estimating the number of square take the proper pains. At last he met with a miles in England; and this he supposes to be laborer who undertook the task; and the oxen 30,000 of cultivated ground. Supposing the
soon became as tractable and as handy, both at work of husbandry to be done by horses only, ploughing and carting, as any horses.' On this and each square mile to employ twenty horses, he determined to part with all his cart horses; which is about three to 100 acres, the whole and when he wrote his lelter (1781) he had not number used throughout Britain would be a single horse, nor more than six oxen; which 600,000; from which deducting one-sixth, for the inconsiderable number performed, with ease, all number of oxen now employed, the number will the work of his farm (consisting of upwards of be 500,000. Admitting that each horse works 100 acres of arable land and sixty of pasture ten years, the number of farm-horses which die and wood), besides the statute duty on the high- annually are 50,000; each of which requires full ways, timber and corn, carting, harrowing, roll- four years keep before he is fit for work. Horses ing, and every part of rural business. They indeed are broken in at three, some at two years are constantly shod; their harness is the same old, but they are, or ought to be, indulged in as that of horses (excepting the necessary keep and work till they are six; so that the cost alterations for difference of size and shape); of rearing and keeping may be laid at full four they are driven with bridles and bits in their ordinary years. For all this consumption of mouths, answering to the same words of the vegetable produce he returns the coinmunity not ploughman and carter as horses will do. A a single article of food, clothing, or commerce ; single man holds the plough, and drives a pair even his skin, for economical purposes, being of oxen with reins : and our author informs us barely worth the taking off. By working horses that they will plough an acre of ground in less in husbandry, therefore, the community is losing than eight hours, or even in seven. The inter- annually the amount of 200,000 years keep of a vals of a small plantation, in which the trees growing horse; which, at the low estimate of £5 are set in rows iep feet asunder, are ploughed a-year, amounts to a million annually. On the by a single ox with a light plough, and he is contrary, supposing the business of husbandry to driven by the man who holds it. The oxen go be done solely by cattle, and admitting that oxen in a cart either single, or one, two, or three, may be fatted with the same expenditure of veaccording to the load. Four oxen will draw getable produce as that which old horses require eighty bushels of barley or oats in a waggon to fit them for full work, and that, instead of with ease; and, if good of their kind, will travel 50,000 horses dying, 50,000 oxen, of only fiftyas fast as horses with the same load. One ox two stone each, are annually slaughtered; it is will draw forty bushels in a light cart, which our evident that a quantity of beef nearly equal to author thinks is the best carriage of any. On what the city of London consumes would be anthe whole, he prefers oxen to horses for the fol- nually brought into the market; or 100,000 lowing reasons:-1. They are kept at much less additional inhabitants might be supplied with expense, never eating meal or corn of any kind. one pound of animal food a-day each, without In winter they are fed with straw, turnips, car- consuming one additional blade of grass.' 'Oxen,' rots, or cabbages : or, instead of the three last, adds Mr. Marshal, appear to be perfectly they have each a peck of bran per day while handy, and work, either at plough or cart, in a kept constantly at work. In spring they eat manner which shows that although horses may hay; and, if working harder than usual in seed- be in some cases convenient, and in most cases time, they have also bran. When the vetches pleasurable to the driver, they are by no means are fit for mowing, they get them only in the necessary to husbandry. A convenience used in stable. After the day's work in summer they this country is a moveable harness-house, with a have a small bundle of hay, and stand in the sledge bottom, which is drawn from place to stable till they cool; after which they are turned place as occasion may require. Thus no labor is into the pasture. Our author is of opinion that lost either by the oxen or their drivers. In an ox may be maintained in condition for the Yorkshire oxen are still used, though in fewer same constant work as a horse for at least 24 numbers than formerly. The Yorkshire plough less annually. 2. After a horse is seven years was formerly of such an unwieldy construction old, his value declines every year; and when that four or six oxen, in yokes, led by two lame, blind, or very old, he is scarcely worth horses, were absolutely requisite to draw it; but any thing : but an ox in any of these situations the improvements in the construction of the may be fatted, and sold for even more than the plough have of late been so great that two horses first purchase; and will always be fat sooner are now sufficient for the purpose; so that, as after work than before. 3. Oxen are less liable Yorkshire has always been famous for its breed to diseases than horses. 4. Horses are often of horses, we are not to wonder at the present liable to be spoiled by servants riding them disuse of oxen.' For these and other reasons, without their master's knowledge, which is not the employment of oxen at all is to Mr. Marshal a the case with oxen. 5. A general use of oxen convincing argument of their utility as beasts of would make beef plentiful, and consequently all draught. The timber carriers still continue to use other meat; which would be a national benefit. them, even though their employment be solely
Mr. Marsbal, in his Rural Economy of the upon the road. They find them not only able to Midland Counties, also shows the advantage of stand working every day, but to bear long hours employing oxen in preference to horses, from the better than horses going in the same pasture. An mere article of expense, which, according to his ox in a good pasture soon fills his belly, and lies calculation, is enormous on the part of the horses. down to rest; but a horse can scarcely satisfy
his hunger in a short summer's night. Oxen are short and straight, and his legs short and clean: also much superior at a difficult pull to horses. as strong as an ox, yet active as a poney; equally Horses of draught cost, at four years old, from suitable for a cart or a lighter carriage.' £20 to £30; they will, with extravagant keep, The stallions in this country are bred either by extraordinary care and attendance, and much farmers or by persons whose business it is to good luck, continue to labor eight or ten years, breed them, and who therefore have the name of and may then generally be sold for 5s. a-head. breeders. See Equus and HORSE. These last If we had no other species of animals adapted to either cover with them, or let them out to others the purposes of draught in the island, cart-horses for the season, or sell them. The prices given would be very valuable. But it is evident that, for them are from fifty to 200 guineas by purwere only a small share of the attention paid to chase; from forty to eighty or 100 by the season ; the breeding of draught oxen which is now or from half a guinea to two guineas by the mare. bestowed on the breeding of cart-horses, animals Mr. Marshal owns that this breed of horses are a equally powerful, more active, less costly, equally profitable species of live stock, and, as far as adapted to the purposes of husbandry if harnessed there is a market for six-years-old-horses of this with equal judgment, less expensive in keep and breed, it is profitable to agriculture. But,' says attendance, much more durable, and infinitely he, viewing agriculture in general, not one oemore valuable after they have finished their cupier in ten can partake of the profit; and, being labors, might be produced. A steer, like a colt, kept in agriculture after they have reached that ought to be familiarised to harness at two or profitable age, they become indisputably one of three years old, but should never be subjected to its heaviest burdens. Even the brood mare, hard labor until he be five years old; from which after they have passed that age, may, unless they age, until he be fifteen or twenty, he may be be of a very superior quality, be deemed unconsidered as in his prime as a beast of draught. profitable to the farmer.'
An ox,' says Mr. Marshal, which I worked Mr. Marshal complains that the ancient breed several years in Surrey, might, at seventeen or of Norfolk horses is almost entirely worn out. eighteen years of age, have challenged, for They were small, brown muzzled, and light boned, strength, agility, and sagacity, the best bred cart- but they could endure very heavy work, with little horse in the kingdom.'
food : two of them were quite equal to the plough Of horses, and the methods of breeding, rearing, in the soil of that county, which is not deep. The and feeding them. The midland counties of present breed is produced by a cross with a large England have for some time been celebrated on one of Lincolnshire and Leicestershire already account of their breed of the black cart-horse; mentioned. He approves of the Suffolk breed, though Mr. Marshal is of opinion that this kind which, he says, are a half-horse, half-hog race are unprofitable as beasts of draught in husban- of animals, but better adapted to the Norfolk dry. The present improvement in the breed took husbandry than the Leicestershire breed;' their its rise from six Zealand mares sent over by the principal fault, in his opinion, is a flatness of the late lord Chesterfield during his embassy at the rib. İn the Vale of Gloucester most farmers Hague. These mares being lodged at his lord- rear their own plough horses. They are of a very ship's seal at Bretby in Derbyshire, the breed of useful kind, the color mostly black, inclinable to horses thus became improved in that county, and tan color, short and thick in the barrel, and low for some time it took the lead for the species of on their legs. The price of a six-year-old horse these animals. As the improved breed passed from £25 to £35. Some cart horses are bred as into Leicestershire, however, through some un- Cotswold hills; the mares are worked till tre known circumstances, it became still more im- time of foaling, but not while they suckle; an proved ; and Leicester has for some time taken the foals are weaned early, while there is plenty the lead. It is now found, however, that the of grain upon the ground. Yorkshire, wbich has very large horses formerly bred in this district been long celebrated for its breed of horses, stu are much less useful than such as are of a smaller stands foremost in that respect among the Em size. Mr. Marshal describes in lofty terms one lish counties. It is chiefly remarkable for the of these large horses, a stallion belonging to Mr. breed of saddle horses, which cannot be reared in Bakewell, which, he says, was the handsomest Norfolk, though many attempts have been ma horse be ever saw. He was,' says he, the for that purpose. Yorkshire stallions are often fancied war-borse of the German painters; who, sent into Norfolk; but, though the foals may be in the luxuriance of imagination, never perhaps handsome when young, they lose their bezary excelled the natural grandeur of this horse. A when old. In Yorkshire, on the other hano man of moderate size seemed to shrink behind though the foal be ever so unpromising, it acquires his fore end, which rose so perfectly upright, beauty, strength, and activity as it grows up that his ears stood (as Mr. Bakewell says every Mr. Marshal supposes that from 5000 to 10,00 horse's ears ought to stand) perpendicularly horses are annually bred up between the eastern over his fore feet. It may be said, with little Morelands and the Humber. In the breeding a latitude, that in grandeur and symmetry of form, horses he complains greatly of the negligence viewed as a picturable object, he exceeded as far the Yorkshire people, the mares being all the horse which this superior breeder had the totally neglected; though in the brute creatiu honor of showing to his majesty, and which was almost every thing depends upon the female afterwards shown publicly at London, as that With regard to the general maintenance of horse horse does the meanest of the breed.' Amore useful our author recommends the Norfolk manat horse, bred also by Mr. Bakewell, however, is ment of horses as the cheapest method of feeding described as having a thick carcase, his back them practised any where. In winter, when Litla
work is to be done, their only rack-meat is bar- bellied and full in the flank. Here, perhaps, ley-straw; a réserve of clover-hay being usually lies much of the merit of these horses, for we made against the hurry of seed-time. A bushel know, from observation and experience, that all of corn in the most busy season is computed to deep-bellied horses carry their food long, and be an ample allowance for each horse, and in consequently are enabled to stand longer and more leisure times a much less quantity suffices. harder days' works. However, certain it is that Oats and soinetimes barley, when the latter is these horses do perform surprising days' works. cheap and unsaleable, are given; but in this case It is well known that the Suffolk and Norfolk the barley is generally malted, i.e. steeped and farmers plough more land in a day than any other afterwards spread abroad for a few days, until it people in the island ; and these are the kind of begin to vegetate, when it is given to the horses, horses every where used in those districts.'-Culand is supposed to be less heating than in its ley on Live Stock, p. 27. natural state. Chaff is universally mixed with . Another horse in high repute for labor with horse corn; the great quantities of corn grown the farmers in Scotland, and the north of Engin this country afford in general a sufficiency of land, is the Clydesdale: it is probably equal, natural chaff; the chaff, or rather the awns of says Mr. Cleghorn, to any other breed in Britain barley, which in some places are thrown as use of the breeding and rearing of cattle. These less to the dunghill, are here in good esteem as are reared for two different purposes, viz. for provender. This method of keeping horses, work, and for slaughter. For the former purpose which Mr. Marshal approves of in the Norfolk Mr Marshal remarks that it is necessary to profarmers, is practised, and probably has been so cure a breed without horns. This he thinks from time immemorial, in many places of the would be no disadvantage, as horn, though for north of Scotland; and is found abundantly suf- merly an article of some request, is now of very ficient to enable them to go through the labor little value. The horns are useless to cattle in required. In summer they are in Norfolk kept their domestic state, though nature has bestowed out all night, generally in clover leys; and in them upon them as weapons of defence in their summer their keep is generally clover only, a few wild state; and our author is of opinion that it tares excepted.
would be quite practicable to produce a hornless In the Annals of Agriculture, vol. iv., Mr. breed of black cattle as well as of sheep, which Young gives an account of the expenses of last has been done by attention and perseverkeeping horses; which, notwithstanding the vast ance; and there are now many hornless breeds numbers kept in the island, seem still to be of sheep in Britain. Nay, he insists that there very indeterminate, as the informations he re- are already three or four breeds of hornless cattle ceived varied no less than on his own farm of in the island; and that there are many kinds of the expense of horses kept from £8 to £25 a which numbers of individuals are hornless, and year. From accounts kept for no other pur- from these, by proper care and attention a breed pose than that of agriculture he stated the might be formed. The first step is to select feaverage of the whole at £11 12s. 3d. On the males; and, having observed their imperfections, disco rdant accounts he received, Mr. Young ob- to endeavour to correct them by a well chosen serves that many of the extra expenses depend male. on the extravagance of the servants; while some The other properties of a perfect breed of of the apparent savings depend either on their black cattle for the purposes of the dairy as well carelessness, or stealing provender from their as others, according to Mr. Marshal, are as folbeasts privately. He concludes, however, that the lows :-1. The head small and clean, to lessen more exactly the expense of horses is examined the quantity of offal. 2. The neck thin and into, the more advantageous will the use of oxen clean, to lighten the fore end as well as to lessen be found.' Every day's experience convinces me the collar and make it sit close and easy to the more and more of this. If horses kept for use animal in work. 3. The carcase large, the chest alone, and not for show, have proved thus ex- deep, and the bosom broad, with the ribs standpensive to me, what must be the expense to ing out full from the spine; to give strength of those farmers who make their fat sleek teams an frame and constitution, and to admit of the inobject of vanity? It is easier conceived than testines being lodged within the ribs. 4. The calculated.'
shoulders should be light of bone, and rounded Notwithstanding all these strong arguments, off at the lower point, that the collar may be urged by Mr. Young, Mr. Henry Harper, an easy, but broad to give strength; and well coeminent Lancashire farmer, in a comparative vered with flesh for the greater ease of draught, view of the expense of the purchase and keep of as well as to furnish a desired point in fatting three horses and three oxen for one year, makes cattle. 5. The back ought to be wide and level a balance of £44 Os. 6d. in favor of horses. But throughout; the quarters long; the thighs thin, in the calculation he states 49s. per week, or and standing narrow at the round bone; the ud£127 8s. a year, for gain by his horse team. der large when full, but thin and loose when
The Suffolk punch is a very useful animal for empty, to hold the greater quantity of milk; with labor, according to Culley. Their color is large dug veins to fill it, and long elastic teats for mostly yellowish or sorrel, with a white ratch or drawing it off with greater ease. 6. The legs, blaze on their faces; the head large, ears wide, below the knee and hock, straight, and of a muzzle coarse, fore-end low, back long but very middle length; their bones, in general, light and straight, sides flat, shoulders too far forward, clean from fleshivess, but with the joints and hind quarters middling but rather high about the sinews of a moderate size, for the purposes of tips, legs round and short in the pasterns, deep- strength and activity. 7. The flesh ought to be