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necessary operations that have been already would be at the rate of 4 lbs. per quarter, or 16 noticed-such as the extirpation of weeds and lbs. per sheep. But suppose in all only 100 lbs. noxious shrubs, clearing away ant and mole-hills, at 8d. per pound, that would amount to £3 178. &c., there are few points respecting the manage- 10d. The wool would be worth about two ment of this kind of land on which some dif- guineas more, besides the value of the winter ference of opinion does not prevail. The time of keep; and the total may be stated at about £7 stocking—the number of the animals, and whether per acre, got at little expense. Such lands canall should be of one or of different species--the not be better employed. From other causes, extent of the enclosures-and the propriety of very light land, where sheep are both bred and eating the herbage close, or leaving it always in fed, must, in part at least, be left as permanent a rather abundant state—are all of them ques- pasture: and those of the county of Norfolk are tions which it is scarcely possible to decide in a here adduced in proof. Great injury has been satisfactory manner by the application of general sustained, we are told, by breaking up permanent rules. Mr. Marshal states that, in all cases where pastures on such soils, more especially when fatting cattle or dairy cows make a part of the subject to rectorial tithes : lands of an inferior stock, and where situation, soil, and water will soil, which kept two sheep on an acre, paying permit, every suit of grazing grounds ought to only vicarial tithes, and rented at 10s. per acre, consist of three compartments. One for head since they have been broken up cannot pay, even stock (as cows or fatting cattle); one for followers without rent, both the tithe of corn and the ex(as rearing and other lean stock); and the third pense of cultivation. In general it may be alto be shut up to freshen, for the leading stock.- lowed that a farm lets best with a fair proportion Marshal's Yorkshire, vol. ii. p. 158.
of grass land upon it, which admits of a mixed
management. PART III.
Under the following particulars are given, in
the Code of Agriculture, the result of the inforOF THE CONVERTIBLE OR ALTERNATE
mation communicated to the Board : i. e. wheSYSTEM.
ther any previous steps are necessary before The Board of Agriculture, under the direction lands in grass are broken up; the proper mode of government, was long engaged in an enquiry of effecting that object; the course of crops ;
into the best means of converting portions of the manure necessary : the system of managegrass lands into tillage, without exhausting the ment during the rotation; the mode of laying soil, and of returning the same to grass, after a down the land again to grass; that of sowing the certain period, in an improved state, or at least grass-seeds; and the subsequent management. without injury: and, while the author of the sup- 1. If the land be wet, it is said to be advisable plemental article on Agriculture in the Encyclo- to drain it completely, previous to its being pædia Britannica thinks the industry of the broken up; as it is not improbable that its being Board was ill-directed, much information was kept in pasture was partly on that account. certainly collected by this means. Sir John Sin- Land that long has been in pasture does not reclair is confident that a 'much larger proportion quire dung during the first course of crops that of the United Kingdom than is at present so cul- is taken after being broken up; but the applicativated, might be subject to the alternate system tion of calcareous manure is always, in suck of husbandry, or transferred from grass to tillage, cases, expedient. Sometimes lime is spread on and then restored to grass. Much of the middling the ground before it is ploughed; at other times sorts of grass lands, from 200 to 400 feet above when it is either under summer fallow, or a the level of the sea, is of this description; and all drilled crop of turnips. Marl and chalk also well-informed husbandmen, and friends to the have been used for the same purpose with great general prosperity of the country, regret that advantage. The land thence derives additional such lands are left in a state of unproductive strength and vigor; the succeeding crops are pasturage, and excluded from tillage."
much improved; the soil is commonly so sofThere are lands, however, respecting which it tened in its texture that it may be ploughed seems the general testimony was, that they ought with half the strength that would otherwise be never to be thus broken up; as strong clays, un- necessary; and, whenever it is restored to grass, fit for barley or turnips; soft clayey loams, with the herbage is abundant. a clayey or marly sub-soil; and the deeper valley 2. Wherever the soil is not too shallow, or or river meadows, most of which improve an- friable, or when the turf cannot soon be rotted, nually while kept under good grazing manage- if land is to be broken up from old pasture, ment. The grass lands of Lincolnshire are in- paring and burning is the proper system. In stanced as the richest altogether in the kingdom. this way good tilth is speedily procured; the daThey let from £1 158. to £3 per acre, and the mage that might otherwise be sustained by the value of the produce is froin £3 to £10 per acre, grub, the wire-worm, and other insects, is arising from the beef, mutton, and wool, obtained, avoided, while the soil receives a stimulus which subject to little variation from the nature of the ensures an abundant crop. Where paring and seasons. The stock maintained per acre on the burning, from any circumstance, cannot take best grazing lands surpasses what could be fed place, the land may be trenched or doubleby any arable produce; it being not uncommon ploughed. This is effected by means of two to feed at the rate of from six to seven sheep in ploughs following each other, the first plough summer, and two sheep in winter. The sheep, taking off a thin surface of about three inches, when put on the grass, may weigh from 18 lbs. and the second going deeper in the same place, to 20 lbs. per quarter, and the increase of weight covering the surface-sod with fine mould; both furrows not exceeding the thickness of the vege- soils are, 1. Rape or potatoes ; 2. Oats; 3. Turtable mould or other good soil. If the land is nips; 4. Oats or wheat; and, 5, Clover, or grassploughed with one furrow, the operation ought seeds. A liberal application of lime, where it to be performed before winter, that it may re- can be obtained, is of the greatest service in enceive the benefit of the succeeding frosts, by abling such soils to bring corn to its full perfecwhich the success of the future operations will tion. In the fens of Thorney, the following not only be promoted, but most of the insects course was recommended :- 1. Paring and burnlodged in the soil will be destroyed. When one ing for rape ; 2. Oats; and, 3. Wheat with grassfurrow alone is taken, the best size is four inches seeds; if the land was safe from water, the Lamand a half deep by eight or ninę broad. The mas sort, if not spring wheat. This short course, strain on horses in ploughing ley land is mostly it is contended, preserves the land in heart; and from the depth.
it afterwards produces abundant crops of grass. 3. The rotation of crops to be adopted, when But long courses, in such a soil, run the lands grass lands are broken up, must partly depend to weeds and straw, without quality in the grain. upon the soil, and partly on the manner in Loam: The courses of crops applicable to this which it is prepared for cultivation. As a gene- soil are too numerous to be here inserted. If the ral principle, however, it may be laid down, sward be friable, the following rotation may be that unless by the course of cropping to be pur- adopted :-1, Oats; 2. Turnips; 3. Wheat or sued the bad grasses and other plants indigenous barley; 4. Beans ; 5. Wheat; 6. Fallow or turin the soil are extirpated, they will, when the nips; 7. Wheat or barley, and grass-seeds. If land is again laid down to grass, increase and the sward be very tough and coarse, instead of prevail with more rapidity and effect than seeds taking oats, it may be pared and burnt for turchosen by the farmer; and the consequence nips. Sand: On rich and deep sandy soils, must be, a heavy disappointment to the future the most valuable crop that can be raised is carcrops of grass, perhaps solely, or at least prin- rots. For inferior sands, turnips, to be eaten on cipally, attributable to a previous defective ma- the ground, then to be laid down with barley and nagement. It is necessary, therefore, to enter grass-seeds. into details upon this subject. The process of 4. According to the improved system of layconversion in clayey soils should be commenced ing down lands to grass, they ought to be prewith paring and burning, especially where the viously made as clean and fertile as possible. grub is suspected. The following course may With that view, all the green crops raised ought then be adopted :-1. Rape fed with sheep; 2. to be consumed upon the ground; fa!low or Beans; 3. Wheat; 4. Beans; 5. Wheat; 6. Fal- fallow crops ought not to be neglected; and the low; 7. Wheat, sown with grass-seeds. This whole straw of the corn crops should be conmay seem severe cropping, but is justified by verted into manure, and applied to the soil that experience when old grass clay land is broken produced it. Above all, the mixing of calcareous up. If the land has not been pared and burnt, matter with the soil, either previous to, or during the first crop ought to be either oats or dibbled the course of cropping, is essential; and nothing beans. To do justice to the plan of restoring generally improves meadows or pastures more the land to grass, there ought to be, in all cases, than lime or marl. according to the soil, either a naked or turnip 5. It is disputed whether grass-seeds should fallow, before the sowing of grass-seeds be at- be sown with or without corn. In favor of the tempted. But on mellow loamy clay land, con- first practice, that of uniting the two crops, it sisting of fine old grass pasture, where it is is maintained that, where equal pains are taken, thought necessary or advisable to break up such the future crop of grass will succeed equally land, it should be done in detached pieces, so as to well as if they had been sown separately, while the suit the convenience of the occupier, and the same tilth answers for both. On the other hand following course should be adopted :-1. Au- it is observed, that as the land must, in that tumnal ploughing for oats in spring; 2. Fallow case, be put into the best possible order, there for rape, to be eaten with sheep; 3. Beans; 4. is a risk that the corn crop will grow so luxuWheat, sown with clover; 5. Clover; 6. Clover; riantly, as to overpower the grass-seeds, and, at 7. Wheat; 8. Rape, to be partially eaten, and any rate, will exclude them from the benefit of hoed in spring, and to stand for seed; and, 9. the air and the dews. If the season also be wet, Wheat with grass-seeds. This is a very profit- a corn-crop is apt to lodge, and the grass will, in able rotation, and applicable to the best grazing a great measure, be destroyed. On soils modeland in Lincolnshire. As to chalk : Paring and rately fertile, the grasses have a better chance of burning is considered in this case to be indis- succeeding; but then, it is said, that the land is pensable as a preparation for turnips, which so much exhausted by producing the corn-crops, ought, where manure can be got, to be raised that it seldom proves good grass land afterwards. two years in succession; then barley, clover, In answer to these objections, it has been urged wheat; and, after one or two additional crops of that where, from the richness of the soil, there is turnips, the land may be laid down with sain- any risk of sowing a full crop of corn, less seed foin to great advantage. Peat : On this soil is used, even as low as one-third of the usual paring and burning are essentially necessary. quantity; and that a moderate crop of grain Under a judicious system, the greatest and nurses the young plants of grass, and protects quickest profit is thus secured to the farmer, them from the rays of a hot sun, without prowith advantage to the public, and without in- ducing any material injury. Where the two jury to the landlord. Draining also must not crops are united, barley is the preferable grain, te neglected. The crops to be grown on peat except on peat. Barley has a tendency to loosen
the texture of the ground in which it grows, A deep, fat, sandy loam is perhaps the only which is favorable to the vegetation of grass- soil on which it can be cultivated with advanseeds. In the choice of barley, that sort should tage. If sown upon old corn land, it ought to be preferred which runs least to straw, and which be well cleaned from weeds, and rendered peris the soonest ripe. On peat, a crop of oats is fectly friable by a summer fallow. Manure is to be preferred. The manner of sowing the seldom or ever set on for a line crop; and the grass-seeds requires to be particularly attended soil process consists generally of a single ploughto. Machines have been invented for that pur. ing. The seed time is May, but much depends pose, which answer well, but they are unfortu- on the state of the soil at the time of sowing. nately too expensive for the generality of farmers. It should neither be wet nor dry; and the surIt is said to be a bad system to mix seeds of face ought to be made as fine as that of a gardendifferent plants before sowing them, in order to bed. Not a clod of the size of an egg should have the fewer casts. It is better to sow each remain unbroken. Two bushels of seed are sort separately, for the expence of going several usually sown upon an acre; the surface, after times over the ground is nothing, compared to being harrowed, is sometimes raked with garden the benefit of having each sort equally distri- or hay-rakes; and the operation would be still buted. The seeds of grasses, being so light, more complete if the clods and other obstructions, ought never to be sown in a windy day, except which cannot be easily removed, were drawn into by machinery, an equal delivery being a point the interfurrows. A light hand-roller used beof great consequence. Wet weather ought like- tween the final raking and harrowing would wise to be avoided, as the least degree of poach- much assist this operation. The chief requisite ing is injurious. Grass-seeds ought to be well during the time of vegetation is weeding, which harrowed, according to the nature of the soil. ought to be performed with the utmost care ; and
6. When the corn is carried off, the young for this reason it is particularly requisite that the crop of grass should be but little fed during au- ground should be previously cleansed as well as tumn, and that only in dry weather ; but heavily possible, otherwise the expense of weeding berolled in the following spring, in order to press comes too great to be borne, or the crop must the soil home to the roots. It is then to be be considerably injured. It is an irreparable treated as permanent pasture. By attention to injury, if, through a dry season, the plants come these particulars, the far greater proportion of up in two crops; or if by accident or mismathe meadows and pastures in the kingdom, of nagement they be too thin. The goodness of the an inferior, or even mcdium quality, may be crop depends on its running up with a single broken up, not only with safety, but, as we are stalk without branches; for wherever it ramifies told, with great profit.
there the length of the line terminates; and this
ramification is the consequence of its having too PART IV.
much room at the root, or getting above the
plants which surround it. The branches are neOF THE CULTIVATION OF PLANTS THAT ARE ARTICLES OF COMMERCE.
ver of any use, being unavoidably worked off in
dressing; and the stem itself, unless it bear a These in general are such as cannot be used due proportion to the length of the crop, is likefor food; and are principally flax, hemp, rape, wise worked off among the refuse. The ramifihops, and timber of various kinds.
cation of the flax will readily be occasioned by Of flar und hemp.-Flax is cultivated not only clods on the ground when sown. A second crop with a view to the common purposes of making is very seldom attended with any profit ; for, belinen, but for the sake of its seed also; and thus ing overgrown with the spreading plants of the forms a most extensive article of commerce, all first crop, it remains weak and short, and at pullthe oil used by painters, at least for common ing time is left to rot upon the land. purposes, being extracted from this seed. See Flax is injured not only by drought, but by Flax, FLAX-DRESSING, and Linum. The cake frost, and is sometimes attacked, even when got which remains after the extraction of the oil is five or six inches high, by a small white slug, in some places used as a manure, and in others which strips off the leaves to the top, and the sold for fattening of cattle. In the vale of Glou- stalks bending with their weight are thus somecester, Mr. Marshal informs us that it is, next times drawn into the ground. Hence, if the to hay, a main article of stall fatting; though crop does not promise fair at weeding time, our the price is often great. Hence some indivi- author advises not to bestow further labor and duals have been induced to try the effect of lint- expense upon it. A crop of turnips or rape will seed itself boiled to a jelly, and mixed with flour, generally pay much better than such a crop of bran, or chaff, with good success; and even the fax. The time of flax harvest in Yorkshire is oil itself has been tried for the same purpose in generally in the latter end of July, or beginning Herefordshire. Though this plant is in universal of August. On the whole, our author remarks, culture over the whole kingdom, yet it appears, that the goodness of the crop depends in some by the vast quantity imported, that by far too measure upon its length; and this upon its little ground is employed in that way; as Mr. evenness and closeness upon the ground. Three Marshal takes notice of its culture only in York- feet high is a good length, and the thickness of snire, and here, he tells us, its cultivation is con- a crow's quill a good thickness. A fine stalk fined to a few districts. The kind cultivated is affords more fine and fewer shivers than a thick that called • blea-line,' or the blue or lead co- one. A tall thick set crop is therefore desirable. lored flax, and this requires a rich dry soil for But, unless the land be good, a thick crop cannot its cultivation.
attain a sufficient length of stem. Hence the folly of sowing flax on land which is unfit for it. holders and the public at large. The vast quan. Nevertheless, with a suitable soil, a sufficiency tities of hemp and flax,' says he, 'which have of seed evenly distributed, and a favorable sea- been raised on lands of the same kind in Linson, flax may turn out a very profitable crop. colnshire marshes, and the fens of the Isle of The flax crop, however, has its disadvantages ; Ely and Huntingdonshire, are a full proof of it interferes with harvest, and is generally be the truth of my assertion. Many hundreds of lieved to be a great exhauster of the soil, espe- acres in the above mentioned places, which for cially when its seed is suffered to ripen. Its pasturage or grazing were not worth more than cultivation ought therefore to be confined to rich 20s. or 25s. per acre, have been readily let at grass-land districts, where harvest is a secondary from £2 tu £4. object, and where its exhaustion may he rather Choice of the soil, and preparing the ground. favorable than hurtful to succeeding arable crops, -A skilful flax-raiser always prefers in Scotland, by checking the too great rankness of rich fresh we are told, a free open deep loam, and all grounds broken ground.
that produced the preceding year a good crop of In vol. ii. of Bath Papers, a Dorsetshire gen- turnips, cabbages, potatoes, barley, or broad tleman, who writes on the culture of hemp and clover, or have been formerly laid down rich, flax, gives an account somewhat different from and kept for some years in pasture. A clay soil, that of Mr. Marshal. Instead of exhausting the second or third crop after being limed, will crops, he maintains that they are both amelio- answer well for dax; provided, if the ground be rating crops if cut without seeding; and, as the still stiff, that it be brought to a proper mould, best crops of both are raised from foreign seed, by tilling after harvest to expose it to winter he is of opinion that there is little occasion for frosts. All new grounds produce a strong crop raising it in this country. A crop of hemp, he of flax, and pretty free of weeds. When many insists, prepares the land for flax, and is there- mole-hills appear upon new ground, it answers fore clear gain to the farmer. "That these plants the better for flax after one tilling. The seed impoverish the soil,' he repeats, 'is a mere vulgar ought never to be sown on grounds that are either notion, devoid of all truth. The best historical too wet or dry, but on such as retain a natural relations, and the verbal accounts of honest in- moisture; and such grounds as are inclined to genious planters, concur in declaring it to be a weeds ought to be avoided, unless prepared by vain prejudice, unsupported by any authority; a careful summer fallow. If the linseed be and that these crops really meliorate and improve sown early, and the flax not allowed to stand for the soil.' He is likewise of opinion that the seed, a crop of turnip may be got after the flax growth of hemp and flax is not necessarily con- that very year; the second year a crop of rye or fined to rich soils, but that they may be culti- barley may be taken; and the third year grass vated with profit also upon poor sandy ground, seeds are sometimes sown along with the lintif a liule expense be laid out in manuring it. seed. This is the method mostly practised in • Spalding Moor in Lincolnshire is a barren and about the counties of Lincoln and Somersand; and yet with proper care and culture it set, where great quantities of flax and hemp are produces the best hemp in England, and in large every year raised, and where these crops have quantities. In the Isle of Axholme, in the same long been capital articles. There old plougbed county, equal quantities are produced; for the grounds are never sown with linseed, unless the culture and management of it is the principal soil be very rich and clean. A certain worm, employ of the inhabitants; and, according to called in Scotland the coup worm, abounds in Leland, it was so in the reign of Henry VIII. new ploughed grounds, which greatly hurts every In Marshland the soil is a clay or strong warp, crop but fax. In small enclosures, surrounded thrown up by the river Ouze, and of such a qua- with trees or high hedges, the flax, for want of lity that it cracks with the heat of the sun, till a free air, is subject to fall before it is ripe, and hand may be put into chinks; yet, if it be once the droppings of rain and dew from the trees covered with the hemp or flax before the heats prevent the flax within the reach of the trees come on, the ground will not crack that summer, from growing to any perfection. Of preceding When the land is sandy, they first sow it with crops, potatoes and hemp are the best preparabarley, and the following spring they manure the tion for flax. In the fens of Lincoln, upon prostubble with horse or cow dung, and plough it per ground of old tillage they sow hemp, dungunder. Then they sow their hemp or fax, and ing well the first year, the second year hemp harrow it in with a light harrow, having short without dung; the third year flax without dung: teeth. A good crop destroys all the weeds, and and that same year a crop of turnip eat on the makes it a fine fallow for flax in the spring. As ground by sheep; the fourth year hemp with a soon as the flax is pulled, they prepare the large coat of dung; and so on successively. If ground for wheat. Lime, marl, and the mud of the ground be free and open, it should be but ponds, is an excellent compost for hemp lands.' once ploughed, and that as shallow as possible, Our author takes notice of the vast quantity of not deeper than two inches and a half. It flax and hemp, not less than 11,000 tons, im- should be laid fiat, reduced to a fine garden ported formerly into Britain ; and complains mould by good harrowing, and all stones and that it is not all raised in the island. He ob- sods should be carried off. Except a little piserves that the greater part of those marshy geon's dung for cold or sour grouud, no other lands lying to the west of Mendip hills are very dung should be used preparatory for flax; beproper for the cultivation of hemp and flax; cause it produces too many weeds, and throws and if laid out in this manner could not fail of up the flax thin and poor upon the stalk. Beturning out highly advantageous both to the land- fore sowing, the bulky clods should be broken,
or carried off the ground; and stones, quicken- are got out, they ought to be carried off the field, ings, and every other thing that may hinder the instead of being laid in the furrow, where they growth of the flax, should be carefully taken often take root again, and at any rate obstruct away.
the growth of the flax in the furrows. Choice of seed.--The brighter in color, and for the cultivation, natural bistory, dressing, heavier the seed is, so much the better; that importation, uses, &c., of hemp, see CANNABIS which, when bruised, appears of a light or yel- and HEMP. lowish green, and fresh in the heart, oily, and not W e may subjoin in this place a few practical dry, and smells and tastes sweet, and not fusty, remarks on rape or cole seed. This, as well as may be depended upon. Dutch seed of the lintseed, is cultivated for the purpose of making preceding year's growth for the most part an- oil, and will grow almost any where. Mr. Haswers best; but it seldom succeeds if kept ano- zard says that in the north of England the ther year. It ripens sooner than any other fo- farmers pare and burn their pasture lands, and reign seed, Philadelphia seed produces fine then sow them with rape after one ploughing; lint and few bolls, because sown thick, and an- the crop commonly standing for seed. Poor swers best in wet cold soils. Riga seed pro- clay, or stone brash land, will often produce duces coarser lint, and the greatest quantity of from twelve to sixteen or eighteen bushels per seed. Scotch seed, when well winned and kept acre, and almost any fresh or virgin earth will and changed from one kind of soil to another, yield one plentiful crop; so that many in the sometimes answers pretty well; but should be northern counties have been raised, by cultisown thick, as many of its grains are bad, and vating this seed, from poverty to affluence. The fail. It springs well, and its flax is sooner ripe seed is ripe in July, or the beginning of August; than any other; but its produce afterwards is and the threshing of it out is conducted with the generally inferior to that from foreign seed. A greatest mirth and jollity. The rape, being fully kind has been lately imported, called Memel ripe, is first cut with sickles, and then laid thin seed; which looks well, is short and plump, but upon the ground to dry; and, when in proper seldom grows above eight inches, and on that ac- condition for threshing, the neighbours are incount ought not to be sown.
vited, who readily contribute their assistance. Method of sowing.--The quantity of lintseed The threshing is performed on a large cloth in sown should be proportioned to the condition the middle of the field, and the seed put into of the soil; for if the ground be in good heart, sacks and carried home. It does not admit of and the seed sown thick, the crop will be in being carried from the field in the pod, to be danger of falling before it is ready for pulling. threshed at home, and therefore the operation is In Scotland, from eleven to twelve pecks, Lin- always performed in the field; and, by the numlithgow measure, of Dutch or Riga seed, is ge- ber of assistants procured on this occasion, a nerally thought sufficient for one acre; and about field of twenty acres is frequently threshed out ten pecks of Philadelphia seed, which, being the in one day. The straw is burnt for the sake of smallest grained, goes farthest. Riga lintseed, its alkali, the ashes being said to equal the best and the next year's produce of it, is preferred in kind of those imported from abroad. The proLincolnshire. The time for sowing lintseed is per time for sowing rape is June; and the land from the middle of March to the end of April, should, previously to the sowing, be twice well as the ground and season answer; but the earlier ploughed. About two pounds of seed are suffithe seed is sown, the less the crop interferes with cient for an acre; and, according to our author, the corn-harvest. Late sown lintseed may grow it should be cast upon the ground with only the long, but the flax upon the stalk will be thin thumb and two fore-fingers; for, if it be cast wita and poor. After sowing, the ground ought to all the fingers, it will come up in patches. If be harrowed till the seed is well covered, and the plants come up too thick, a pair of light harthen (supposing the soil, as before mentioned, to rows should be drawn along the field length-ways be free, and reduced to a fine mould) it ought to and cross-ways, by which means the plants will be rolled. When a farmer sows a large quan- be equally thinned ; and, when the plants which tity of lintseed, he may find it proper to sow a the harrows have pulled up are withered, the part earlier and part later, that in the future ope- ground should be rolled. A few days after, the rations of weeding, pulling, watering, and grass- plants may be set out with a hoe, allowing sixing, the work may be the easier and more conve- teen or eighteen inches distance betwixt every niently gone about. It ought always to be sown two plants. on a dry bed.
Mr. Hazard strongly recommends the transWeeding.–Flax ought to be weeded when planting of rape, having experienced the good the crop is about four inches long. If longer effects of it himself. A rood of ground, sown deferred, the weeders will so much break and in June, will produce as many plants as are sufbend the stalks that they will never perhaps re- ficient for ten acres; which may be planted out cover their straightness again; and, when the upon ground that has previously borne a crop of flax grows crooked, it is more liable to be hurt wheat, provided the wheat be harvested by the in the rippling and swingling. Quicken-grass middle of August. One ploughing will be suffishould not be taken up; for, being strongly cient for these plants; the best of which should rooted, the pulling of it always loosens a deal be selected from the seed-plot, and planted in of the lint. If there is an appearance of a set- rows two feet asunder, and sixteen inches apart tled drought, it is better to defer the weeding, in the rows. As rape is an excellent food for than by that operation to expose the tender roots sheep, they may be allowed to feed upon it in of the flax to the drought. So soon as the weeds the spring; or the leaves might be gathered, and