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them, and the person who performs this business the land, which should be once ploughed pre should never tread upon the plant, or the hillock vious thereto; and, when ploughed a second that is raised round it; as, the lighter the earth time, the potatoe plants should be dropped be is, the more room the potatoe will have to ex- fore the plough in every third furrow, about pand. From a single root thus planted, very eight or ten inches apart. Plants that are cu: nearly forty pounds of large potatoes were ob- with two eyes are best for this purpose. The tained, and from almost every other root upon the reason for planting them at so great a distance same plot, from fifteen to twenty pounds; and, as every third furrow, is, that when the shoots unless the soil be stony or gravelly, ten pound, appear, a horse hoe may go upon the two vacant or half a peck of potatoes may almost always be furrows to keep them clean; and, after they are obtained from each root, by pursuing the above thus hoed, they should be moulded up in ridges; method. But cuttings or small sets will not do and, if this crop be taken up about October er for this purpose.
November, the land will be in excellent condThe second method will suit those who have tion to receive a crop of wheat. Lands that are not time to dig their ground. Where weeds full of twitch or couch grass, may be made clean much abound, and have not been cleared in the by this method, as the borse-hoeing is as good as winter, a trench may be opened in a straight a summer fallow; and if, when the potatoes are line the whole length of the ground, and about taken up, women and children were to pick er: six inches deep; in this trench the potatoes such filth, no traces of it would remain ; and by should be planted about ten inches apart; cut- burning it a quantity of manure would be pri tings or small potatoes will do for this method. cured. After ploughing, none should ever dbWhen they are laid in the trench, the weeds that ble in potatoes, for treading the ground, are on the surface may be pared off on each side Vacant places in hedge rows might be grubb about ten inches from it, and be turned upon the ed and planted with potatoes, and a good com plants; another trench should then be dug, and might be expected, as the leaves of trees, therus. the mould that comes out of it turned on the &c., are a good manure, and will surprisingly weeds. Each trench should be regularly dug, encourage their growth, and gratify the wishes of that all the potatoes may be ten or twelve inches the planter; who, by cultivating such places, from each other. This method will raise more then make the most of his ground, and it wak potatoes than can be produced by digging the in fine order to receive a crop of corn the filsground twice, and dibbling in the plants; as the ing year. weeds lighten the soil, and give the roots room The best method of taking up potatoes : 1 to expand. They should be twice boed, and plough once round every row at the distance & earthed up in rows. If cut potatoes are to be four inches, removing the earth from the plants planted, every cutting should have two eyes, for, and gathering up with the hand all the potatoes though fewer sets will be obtained, there will be that appear. This distance is proper' to prevent a greater certainty of a crop, as one eye often cutting the roots. When the ground is the fails. Where a crop of potatoes fails in part, cleared by the plough, raise the potatoes with a cmends may still be made by laying a little dung fork having three broad toes. The potalte upon the knots of the straw or baulm of those must then be gathered with the hand. potatoes that do appear, and covering them with It is of importance to have potatoes all inould; each knot or joint thus ordered, will, if year round. For a long time they were in Sest the weather prove wet afterwards, produce more land confined to the kitchen garden ; and, 23 potatoes than the original roots. From the they were planted in the field, it was not supposes smallest potatoes plauted whole, from four to six at first that they could be used after December pound at a root were obtained, and some of the Of late they have been kept good till Apr single potatoes weighed nearly two pound. But it is easy to preserve them till the next crop These were dug in, in trenches where the ground when taken out of the ground, lay in a comme was covered with weeds, and the soil was a stiff of a barn a quantity that may serre till or loamy clay.
spring covered with dry straw pressed dow: A good crop may be obtained by laying pota. bury the remainder in a hole dug in dry groete toes upon turf at about twelve or fourteen inches mixed with the husks of dried oats, sand, or the apart, and upon beds of about six feet wide; on dry leaves of trees, over which build a stack & each side of which a trench should be opened hay or corn. When the pit is opened for takia about three feet wide, and the turf that comes out the potatoes, the eyes of what have tendence thence should be laid with the grassy side down- to push must be cut out; and this cargo F. wards upon the potatoes ; a spot of mould should serve till the end of June. To be certain next be taken from the trenches, and be spread making the old crop meet the new, the setting over the turf; and in like manner the whole plot a small quantity may be delayed till June, te of ground that is to be planted must be treated. taken up at the ordinary time before frost. When the young shoots appear, another spot of cargo, having not arrived to full growth, will pe mould from the trenches should be strewed over be so ready to push as what are set in April. the beds, to cover the shoots; this will prevent the old crop be exhausted before the new crop the frost from injuring them, encourage them to ready, the interval may be supplied by the po expand, and totally destroy the young weeds. tatoes of the new crop that lie next the surface, When the potatoes are taken up in the autumn, to be picked up with the hand; which, far fros. turn the earth again into the trenches, so as to hurting the crop, will rather improve it. make the surface level.
Einhoff found mealy potatoes to contain For field planting, a good method is to dung ty-four per cent. of their weight of nutritive fact ter, and rye seventy parts. Consequently sixty-, expensive. They are also given raw to stock of. four and a half measures of potatoes afford the every description, to horses and hogs washed, same nourishment as twenty-four measures of rye. but not washed to cows or oxen. Washing was 1000 parts of potatoe yielded to Sir H. Dary, formerly a disagreeable and tedious business, from 200 to 360 parts of nutritive matter, of but is now rendered an easy matter, whether on which from 155 to 200 were mucilage or starch,, a large or small scale, by the use of the washing fifteen to twenty sugar, and thirty to forty gluten. machine. Now, supposing an acre of potatoes to weigh, 3. Carrots and PARSNIPS.-Of all roots a nine tons, and one of wheat one ton, which is carrot requires the deepest soil. It ought at about the usual proportion, then as 1000 parts least to be a foot deep, all equally good from top of wheat afford 950 nutritive parts, and 1000 of to bottom. If such a soil be not in the farm, it potatoe say 230, the quantity of nutritive matter may be made artificially by trench ploughing, afforded by an acre of wheat and potatoes will which brings to the surface what never had any be nearly as nine to four; so that an acre of po- communication with the sun or air. When this tatoes will supply more than double the quantity new soil is sufficiently improved by a crop or of human food afforded by an acre of wheat. two with dung, it is fit for bearing carrots. Beware The potatoe is perhaps the only root grown in of dupging the year when the carrots are sown; Britain which may be eaten every day in the for with fresh dung they seldom escape rotten year without satiating the palate, and the same scabs. The only soils proper for carrrots are thing can only be said of the West Indian yam, loam and sand. The ground must be prepared and bread fruit. They are, therefore, the only by the deepest furrow that can be taken, the substitute that can be used for bread with any sooner after harvest the better; immediately upon degree of success, and indeed they often enter the back of which, a ribbing ought to succeed, as largely into the composition of the best loaf directed for barley. At the end of March, or beginbread without at all injuring either its nutritive ning of April, which is the time of sowing the qualities or flavor. In the answer by Dr. Tissot seed, the ground must be smoothed with a brake. to M. Linquet, the former objects to the constant Sow the seed in drills, with intervals of a foot use of potatoes as food, not because they are per- for hand-hoeing, where the crop is an acre or nicious to the body, but because they hurt the two: but if the quantity of ground be greater, the faculties of the mind. He owns that those who intervals ought to be three feet for horse-hoeing. eat maize, potatoes, or even millet may grow tall In flat ground without ridges, it is proper to make and acquire a large size ; but doubts if any such parallel furrows with the plough, ten feet asunever produced a literary work of merit.' Pota- der to carry off redundant moisture. The fartoe meal may be preserved for years closely mer will often find carrots a very advantageous packed in barrels, or unground in the form of crop; instances are given of their excellence as slices; these slices having been previously cook- food for horses, cattle, and hogs. ed or dried by steam, as originally suggested by The culture of PARSNIPS is much the same Forsyth of Edinburgh. Some German philoso- with that of carrots. phers have also proposed to freeze the potatoe, by which the feculous matter is separated from
Sect. III.-PLANTS CULTIVATED FOR LEAVES,
s the starch, and the latter, being then dried and
OR FOR LEAVES AND Roots. compressed, may be preserved for any length of The plants proper for the field of these kinds time, or exported with ease to any distance. are cabbage 'red and white, colewort plain and (Annalen des Ackerbaues, vol. iii. s. 389). curled, turnip-rooted cabbage, and the root of
Potatoes as food for live stock are often joined scarcity. with hay, straw, chaff, and other similar matters, 1. CABBAGE is an interesting article in husand have been found useful in many cases, es- bandry. It is easily raised, is subject to few dispecially in the later winter months, for horses, eases, resists frost more than turnips, is palatable cows, &c. With these substances, as well as in to cattle, and sooner fills them than turnips, cara combination with other materials, as bean or rots, or potatoes. The season for setting cabbage barley-meal and pollard, they are also used in depends on the use it is intended for. If intend-, the fattening of neat cattle, sheep, and hogs. ed' for feeding in November, December, and Potatoes are much more nutritive when boiled; January, plants procured from seed sown the they were formerly cooked in this way, but are end of July the preceding year must be set in now very generally steamed, especially in the March or April. If intended for feeding in north. The practice has been carried to the March, April, and May, the plants must be set greatest extent by Curwen in feeding horses. the first week of the preceding July, from seed He gives to each horse, daily, one and a half sown in the end of February or beginning of stone of potatoes mixed with a tenth of cut straw: March the same year. The late setting of the 120 stones of potatoes require two and a quarter plants retards their growth; by which means they bushels of coals to steam them. An acre of have a vigorous growth the following spring. potatoes, be considers, goes as far in this way as And this crop makes an important link in the four of hay. Von Thaer found them, when given chain that connects winter and summer green to live-stock, produce more manure than any food. Where cabbage for spring food is neglected, other food : 100 lbs. of potatoes producing sixty- a few acres of rye sown at Michaelmas will supsix pounds of manure of the very best descrip- ply the want. After the rye is consumed there is tion. The baking of potatoes in an oven has time sufficient to prepare the ground for turnips. also been tried with success (Comm. Board of Where cabbage plants are to be set in March, Agriculture, vol. iv.); but the process seems too the field must be made up after harvest in ridges,
4. Si lo that form let it lie all winter two acres kept me twenty-four small bullocks
wed with air and frost. In March and 110 sheep four weeks, not reckoning the vusse, first opportunity, between wet and dry, overplus day of keeping the lean sheep; the to lay dumy in the furrows. Cover the dung value, at the rate of keeping at that season, car",", a plough, which will convert the furrow into not be estimated in any common year at less than a front, and the crown into a furrow. Set the 4d. a week for each sheep, and 1s. 6d. per week plants upon the dung, three feet from each other. for each bullock, which would amount together Plasit them so as to make a straight line cross to the sum of £14 10s. 8d. for the two acres. the ridges, and along the furrows, to which a You will observe that, in the valuation of gardener's line stretched perpendicularly cross the crop above mentioned, I have claimed no the surrows will be requisite. This will set each allowance for the great benefit the farmer receives plant at the distance precisely of three feet from by being enabled to suffer his grass to get into 1 the plants that surround it. The purpose of this forward growth, nor for the superior quality of is to give opportunity for ploughing, not only these turnips in fattening his stock ; both wbich along the ridges, but across them. This mode circumstances must stamp a new and a great saves hand-hoeing, is a more complete dressing additional value upon them. But, as their conto the soil, and lays earth neatly round every tinuance on the land may seem to be injorou plant. If the soil be deep and composed of to the succeeding crop, to supply that loss I have good earth, a trench ploughing after the pre- always sown buck-wheat on the first earth upon ceding crop will be proper; in which case the the land from which the turnips were thus fed time for dividing the held into three feet ridges off'; allowing one bushel of seed per acre, for ought immediately to precede the dunging for which I commonly receive from five to six quathe plants. If weeds rise so close to the plants ters per acre in return. Thus you see that, in as not to be reached by the plough, destroy them providing a most incomparable vegetable food with a hand-hoe. Unless the soil be much in- for cattle, in that season of the year in which the fested with annual weeds, twice ploughing after farmer is generally most distressed, and his cathe the plants are set will be a sufficient dressing. almost starved, a considerable profit may like The first removes the earth from the plants; the wise be obtained, much beyond what is usually next, at the distance of a month or so, lays it derived from his former practice, by the great back.
produce and price of a crop raised at so easy Where the plants are to be set in July, the an expense as that of the buck-wheat, which field must be ribbed as directed for barley. It with us sells commonly at the same price is ought to have a slight ploughing in June before barley, oftentimes more, but very rarely for les the planting, to loosen the soil, but not so as to The land on which I have usually sown tum bury the surface earth; after which the three rooted cabbages is a dry mixed soil, worth 1.. feet ridges must be formed, and the other parti- per acre.' culars carried on as directed above with respect To the preceding account the Society hare to plants set in March.
subjoined the following note:- Whether 182 2. As to the turnip-rooted cabbages, in the Bath regard the importance of the subject, or the clear Society Papers we have the following account of and practical information which the foregolare Sir Thomas Beevor's method of cultivating them, letter conveys, it may be considered as truly inwhich he found to be cheaper and better than teresting as any we have ever been favored with: any other :- In the first or second week in and therefore it is recommended in the strongest June | sow the same quantity of seed, hoe the manner to farmers in general, that they adopt 2 plants at the same size, leave them at the same mode of practice so decisively ascertained to be distance from each other, and treat them in all in a high degree judicious and profitable.' respects like the common turnip. In this method To raise the tumip-rooted cabbage for trausI have always obtained a plentiful crop of them; planting, the best method yet discovered is to to ascertain the value of which I need only in breast-plough and burn as much old pasture 3 form you that, on the 23d of April last, having may be judged necessary for the seed-bed: two then two acres left of my crop, sound, and in perches well stocked with plants will be suitgood perfection, I divided them by fold burdles cient to plant an acre. The land should be dur into three parts of nearly equal dimensions. Into as shallow as possible, turning the ashes in; and the first part I put twenty-four small bullocks of the seed should be sown the beginning of April about thirty stone weight each (fourteen pounds The land to be cultivated and dunged as the to the stone), and thirty middle-sized fat wed- common turnip. About midsummer will be a ders, which, at the end of the first week, after proper uime for planting, which is best done as they had eaten down the greater part of the follows : -The land to be thrown into one-bout leaves, and some part of the roots, I shifted into ridges, upon the tops of which the plants are te the second division, and then put seventy lean be set, about eighteen inches from each other. sheep into what was left of the first; these fed As soon as the ireeds rise give a hand-boeing of the remainder of the turnips left by the fat afterwards run the ploughs in the intervals, and stock; and so they were shifted through the three fetch a furrow from each ridge, which, after lying davisions, the lean stock following the fat as they two or three weeks, is again thrown back to kranted food, until the whole was consumed ridges; if the weeds rise again give them ar The twenty-four bullocks and the thirty fat wed- ther hand-hoeing. If the young plants in ders watinued in the turnips until the 21st of seed-bed be attacked by the fiy, sow wood-eshe Vay. and the seventy lean sheep until the nih, over them wben the dew is on which will pre which a one day ort'fur weils; so that the rent their rarasts
3. The racinc de disette, or Root of SCARCITY, very considerable. The waste, however, in this beta cicla (see Beta), delights in a rich loamy way, even though the sheep be confined in hur. land well dunged. It is directed to be sown in dles, is great : and still greater when consumed rows, or broad-cast, and as soon as the plants by horses or cattle. But if the plants ,be cut are of the size of a goose-quill, to be transplanted green, and given to stock either on the field or in in rows of eighteen inches distance, and eighteen the fold-yards, there is perhaps no green crop inches apart, one plant from the other : care of greater value. must be taken in the sowing to sow very thin, A little rye sown with winter tares, and a few and to cover the seed, which lies in the ground oats with the spring sort, serve to support their · about a month, an inch only. In transplanting weak stems, and add to the bulk of the crop. the root is not to be shortened, but the leaves There is little difference in the culture of tares cut at the top; the plant is then to be planted and peas; they are often sown broad-cast, but with a setting stick, so that the upper part of the sometimes in rows, with intervals to admit of root shall appear about half an inch out of the hånd-hoeing. The land ought to be rolled as a ground; this last precaution is necessary to be at preparation; and they should always be cut with tended to. These plants will strike root in twenty- the scythe, rather than a sickle. When thus cut four hours, and a man will plant with ease 1800 with the scythe, even an early spring sown crop or 2000 a day. In the seed-bed the plants, like sometimes yields a weighty after crop. In those all others, must be kept clear of weeds : when districts where winter sown tares are found to planted out, after once hoeing, they will suffocate succeed, the ground may be cleared in time for every kind of weed near them.
being sown with turnips, or dressed like a fallow The best time to sow the seed is from the be- for wheat. ginning of March to the middle of April : but 5. OF RAPE-SEED.-Rape is cultivated to a some continue sowing every month until the be- large extent in Great Britain, not only for the ginning of July, to have a succession of plants. sake of the oil, but also for feeding sheep. The late Both leaves and roots have been extolled as ex- Mr. Culley of Northumberland gives the following cellent both for man and beast. This plant is account of its culture, founded on his own pracsaid not to be liable, like the turnip, to be tice :destroyed by insects; for no insect touches it, “Rape may be sown from the 24th of May to nor is it affected by excessive drought, or the the 8th of June : but comes to the greatest changes of seasons. Horned cattle, horses, pigs, growth if sown in May. If sown earlier it is and poultry, are exceedingly fond of it when apt to run to seed. From two to three pounds cut small. The leaves may be gathered every of seed is required per acre, sown by a common twelve or fifteen days; they are from thirty to turnip-seed drill. But, as rape-seed is so much forty inches long, by twenty-two to twenty-five larger than turnip-seed, the drill should be inches broad. This plant is excellent for milch wider. When hoed the rape should be set out cows, when given to them in proper proportions, at the same distance as turnip plants. The drills as it adds much to the quality as well as quantity should be from twenty-six to twenty-eight or of their tilk; but care must be taken to propor thirty inches, according to the quantity of dung tion the leaves with other green food, otherwise given. As many ploughings, harrowings, and it would abate the milk, and fatten them too rollings, &c., should be given, as may be necesinuch, they being of so exceedingly fattening a sary to make that kind of poor soil as fine as quality.
possible, and cleared of twitch, &c. : the pro4. OFTARES.- The common tare is distinguished duce will be from twenty-five to even fifty tons into the winter and spring tare, probably the per acre, or upwards. But it is not so much the same original plant; but a material difference value of the green crop (though the better the has been superinduced by cultivation. (Annals of green crop, the better will the wheat be) as the Agriculture, vol. ii). The winter tare escapes in- great certainty of a valuable crop of wheat, that jury from frosts, which destroy the spring variety: merits attention. The sheep are put on from the the difference in the seeds is, however, so incon- beginning to the middle of August; they must siderable, as to be scarcely distinguished; but have the rape consumed by the middle, or at
the winter-tare vegetates with a seed leaf of a latest by the end of September, so that the wheat fresh green color, whereas the spring tare comes may be got sown, on such poor damp soils, beup with a grassy spear of a brown dusky hue.'- fore the autumnal rains take place. The number Dickson's Practical Agriculture.
of sheep must depend on the goodness or badThe winter variety is sown in September and ness of the crop. But as many sheep must be October, and the first sowing in spring ought to employed as to eat the rape by the middle of be early. If they are to be cut green for soiliny September, or end of that month at the latest, throughout the summer and autumy, which is for the reasons formerly given. The Burwell the most advantageous method of consuining red wheat (so called from a village in Cambridgethem, successive sowings should follow till the shire) is always preferred. Poor clays will not end of May. The quantity of seed to an acre allow deep ploughing, consequently that operais from two bushels and a half to three bushels tion must be governed by the depth of the soil. and a half, according to the time of sowing, and The land must be made as clean as any naked as they are to be consumed green or left to stand fallow. There is scarcely an instance known of
a crop of wheat sown after rape, and eat off Tares are in some places eaten on the ground, with sheep, being mildewed, and the grain is particularly by sheep: and, as the winter sown generally well perfected. Mr. Culley has known variety comes early, the value of ibis food is then a crop of wheat after rape, upon a poor moorish
for a crop.
hin clay soil, worth much more than the fee-simple and cows will thrive upon; sheep are particuof the land that produced it. He has frequently larly fond of some kinds, and refuse others. The known land, both after rape and after naked fal. darnel-grass, if not cut before several of the other low, in the same field; and invariably the rape- kinds are ripe, becomes so hard and wiry in the wheat was better in every respect than that after stalks, that few cattle eat it. Such as wish for a naked fallow.'-Husbandry of Scotland, vol. ii. particular account of the above-mentioned appendix, p. 45.
grasses, will be amply gratified in consulting Mr.
Stillingfleet on this subject, who has treated it OF THE CULTURE OF Grasses.
with great judgment and accuracy. The subThe end of August or the beginning of Sep- stance of his observations is given in our article tember is the best season for sowing grass-seeds, GRASS. as there is time for the roots of the young plants. The grasses commonly sown for pasture, for to fix themselves before the sharp frosts set in. hay, or to be cut green for cattle, are red clover, Moist weather is best for sowing; the earth being white clover, yellow clover, rye-grass, narrowthen warm, the seeds vegetate immediately; but leaved plantain called ribwort, saintfoin and luif this season proves unfavorable, they will do cerne. Red clover is of all the most proper to be very well in the middle of March.
cut green for summer food. It is a biennial plant Never sow on foul land; plough it well, and when suffered to perfect its seed; but, when cut clear it from the roots of couch-grass, rest-har- green, it will last three years, and in a dry soil row, fern, broom, and all other noxious weeds. longer. At the same time the safest course is to If these are suffered to remain they will soon let it stand but a single year; if the second year's destroy the young grass. Rake these up in crop happen to be scanty, it proves, like a bad heaps, burn them on the land, and spread the crop of pease, a great encourager of weeds by ashes as a manure. Repeat the ploughings and the shelter it affords them. Here, as in all other harrowings in dry weather. If the soil be clayey crops, the goodness of seed is of importance. and wet make some drains to carry off the water. Choose plump seed of a purple color, because it Before sowing lay the land as level as possible. takes on that color when ripe. It is red when If the grass seeds are clean, three bushels will hurt in the drying, and of a faint color when 11be sufficient per acre. When sown, harrow it in ripe. gently, and roll it in with a wooden roller. When Red clover is luxuriant upon a rich soil, wheit comes up, fill up all the bare spots with fresh ther clay, loam, or gravel : it will grow eren seed, which, if rolled to fix it, will soon come upon a moor, when properly cultivated. A wet up and overtake the rest. In Norfolk they sow soil is its only bane. To have red clover in clover with their grasses, particularly with rye- perfection, weeds must be extirpated, and stones grass; but this should not be done except when taken off. The mould ought to be made as five the land is designed for grass only three or four as a harrowing can make it; and the surface years, because neither of these kinds will last smoothed with a light roller. This gives an oplong in the lands. Where you intend it for a portunity for distributing the seed evenly; which continuance it is better to mix only sınall white must be covered by a small harrow with teeth not Dutch clover, or marl grass with other grass seed, larger than that of a garden rake. In harrowing, and not above eight pounds to an acre. These the man should walk behind with a rope in his are abiding plants, spread close on the surface, hand fixed to the back part of the harrow, ready and make the sweetest feeding for cattle. In to disentangle it from stones, clods, turnip or cabspring root up thistles, hemlock, or any large bage roots, which would trail the seed, and disweeds that appear. The doing this while the place it. ground is soft enough to permit drawing by the No precise depth is necessary for the seed roots, and before they seed, will save a vast deal of red clover. It will grow vigorously from two of trouble afterwards.
inches deep, and it will grow when barely coA common method of laying down fields to vered. Half an inch may be reckoned the most grass is extremely injudicious. Some sow barley advantageous position in a clay soil, a whole inch with the grasses, which they suppose to be use. in what is light or loose. It is a vulga ful in shading them, without considering how error that small seed ought to be spariosły much the corn draws away the nourishment. covered. Misled by it, farmers cover their Others take their seeds from a foul hay-rick; by clover seed with a bushy branch of thorn, which means, besides filling the land with rubbish which not only covers it unequally, but leaves and weeds, wbat they intend for dry soils may part on the surface to wither in the air. The have come from moist, where it grew naturally, proper season for sowing red clover is from the and vice versa. The consequence is that the middle of April to the middle of May. It will ground, instead of being covered with a good spring from the first of March to the end of APthick sward, is filled with plants unnatural to it. gust; but such liberty ought not to be taken. The kinds of grass most eligible for pasture lands There cannot be a greater blunder in husband are, the annual meadow, creeping, and fine bent, than to be sparing of seed. Some writers talk the fox-tail, and crested dog's tail, the poas, the of sowing an acre with four pounds. That fescues, the vernal, oat-grass, and the rye-grass. quantity of seed, say they, will fill an acre with We do not, however, approve of sowing all these plants as thick as they ought to stand. This rele kinds together; for besides their ripening at dif- may be admitted as to grain, but will not answer ferent times, by which we can never cut them all with respect to grass. Grass seed cannot be in perfection and full vigor, no cattle are fond of sown too thick: the plants shelter one another; all alike. Hona will scarcely eat hay which oxen they retair all the dew; and they must push for