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sand is that washed down by rains on gravelly various trials, it is found that taking only one soils. Those which are dry and light are the crop in a year, and feeding the after-growth, is worst. Small gritty gravel has also been recom- better than to mow it twice. Cut it as soon as it mended by the best writers on agriculture, for is in full bloom, if the weather will permit The these soils; and in many instances they have hay will be the sweeter, and the strength of the answered the purpose. Shells, marle, ashes, and plants less impaired, than if it stands till the seed all animal and vegetable substances, are very is formed. good manures for clay; but they have seen found iv. Light rich land, being the most easy to most beneficial when sand is mixed with thom. cultivate to advantage, and capable of bearing Lime has been often used, but eininent agri- most kinds of grain, pulse, and herbage, little culturists have found no advantage from it need be said upon it. Such lands are the best singly, when applied to clays. The crops most adapted to the drill husbandry, especially where suitable for such lands are, wheat, beans, cab- machines are used, which require shallow forbages, and rye-grass. Clover seldom succeeds, rows to be made for the seed. This, if no: nor indeed any plants whose roots require depth, prone to couch-grass, is the best of all soits and a wide spread in the earth.

for lucerne; which, if sown in two feet drills, ii. Chalk. -Chalky soils are generally dry and kept clean, will yield an astonishing quantity and warm, and, if there be a tolerable depth of of the most excellent herbage. But lucerne will mould, fruitful; producing great crops of barley, never be cultivated to advantage where couchrye, peas, vetches, clover, trefoil, burnet, and grass and weeds abound; nor in the broad-cast particularly sainfoin. The latter plant flourishes method, even where they do not; because horsein a chalky soil better than any other. But, if hoeing is essential to the vigorous growth of this the surface of mould be very thin, this soil re- plant. quires good manuring with clay, marl, loam, or v . Coarse rough land.-Plough deep in audung. As these lands are dry, they may be sown tumn; when it has lain two weeks, cross plougn than others. When barley is three inches it, and let it lie rough through the winter. In high, throw in 10 lbs. of clover, 15 lbs. of trefoil, March give it another good ploughing; drag, and roll it well. The next summer mow the rake, and harrow it well to get out the rubbish, crop for lay; feed off the aftermath with sheep; and sow four bushels of black oats per acre if and in winter give it a top-dressing of dung. the soil be wet, and white oats if dry. When This will produce a crop the second spring, about four inches high, roll them well after a which should be cut for hay. As soon as this shower; this will break the clods; and the fine crop is carried off plough up the land, and in mould, falling among the roots of the plants, will the beginning of September sow three bushels of promote their growth greatly. Some sow cloret rye per acre, either to feed off with sheep in the and rye grass among the oats, but this is bad spring or to stand for harvest. If you feed it off, husbandry. If designed for clover, sow it singly, sow winter vetches in August or September, and let a coat of dung be laid on it in Decemand make them into hay the following summer. ber. The snow and rain will then dilute its salts Then get the land into as fine tilth as possible, and oil, and carry them down among the roots of and sow it with sainfoin, which, with a little ma- the plants. This is better than mixing the crops nure once in two or three years, wi remain and on such land; for the oats will exhaust the soil produce good crops for twenty yea's together. So much that the clover will be impoverished.

ii. Light poor land seldom produces good. The following summer you will have a good crop crops of any thing, till well manured. After it of clover, which cut once, and feed the afteris well ploughed, sow three bushels of buck growth. In the winter plough it in, and let it wheat per acre, in April or May, When in lie till February; then plough and harrow it bloom, let the cattle in a few days eat off the best, well; and in March, if the soil be moist, plant and tread the other down; this done, plough in beans in drills of three feet, to admit the horse what reinains immediately. This will soon fer- hoe freely. When you horse-hoe them a second ment and rot; then lay it fine, and sow three time, sow a row of turnips in each interval, and bushels of rye per acre. If this can be got off they will succeed well. But, if the land be early enough, sow turnips, if not, winter vetches strong enough for sowing wheat as soon as the to cut for hay. Then get it in good tilth and beans are off, the turnips may be omitted. sow turnip-rooted cabbages, in rows three feet 4. Of ploughing.-No operation of agricolapart. This plant seldom fails, if it has sufficient ture is of more importance than ploughing: room, and the intervals are well horse-hoed; and and, as the Essex Report on Agriculture here it is the best spring feed for sheep when turnips observes, there is scarcely a circumstance in are over. The horse-hoeing will clean and pre- agriculture more surprising, after so general alpare the land for sainfoin, for the sowing of tention has been paid to it, than the extreme which April is the best season. The usual way uncertainty in which the true structure of the is to sow it broad-cast, four bushels to an acre; plough yet remains. That variations for differbut experienced husbandmen prefer sowing it in ent soils and circumstances must and ought to drills two feet asunder; for then it may be horse- occur is admitted; but one plough for one spe hoed, and half the seed will be sufficient. The cific object might have been produced, its supe horse-hoeing will also earth up the plants, and riority to others ascertained, and the principles render them more luxuriant and lasting. If you in its construction, on which such merit desow it broad-cast, give it a top-dressing in De- pended, fully developed, and laid down in accember or January of rotten dung or ashes, or curate drawings; yet this has not been done: rather of both mixed up in compost. From the only approximation to it is, it is contended, s a' paper by the late Mr. Arbuthnot, which the apart, so as to see forward between them; and writer published nearly forty years ago in his next to fix the eye on some object or objects • Eastern Tour.' Farming mechanics, it is sup- over the land, and keep these objects and the posed, look to the Board of Agriculture for sup- coulter or muzzle of the plough in one line. By plying this great deficiency, which can be sup- far the best practical directions for ploughing, plied only by a series of experiments, demanding as Mr. Loudon thinks, are thus given in the Supa considerable expense, and more attention. plement to the Encyclopædia Britannica, by Mr. But more of the construction of particular Cleghorn. ploughs hereafter. We only need add here that. Three different points require particular atwheels added to ploughs have, in the estimation tention in ploughing: 1. The breadth of the of many good farmers, been only an apology for slice to be cut; 2. its depth ; and 3. the degree want of skill in the ploughman. Yet they often in which it is to be turned over ;—which last afford much assistance, by enabling him to exe- circumstance depends both upon the construccute the work with greater regularity in the tion of the plough, particularly the mould-board, depth, and more evenness in the surface. From and the care of the ploughman. the nature of the machinery with which they are The breadth and depth of the furrow-slice loaded, however, they are evidently more expen- are regulated by judiciously placing the draught sive in their construction, more liable to be put on the nozzle or bridle of the plough; setting it out of order, and from the friction that is thus so as to go more or less deep, and to take more produced require more strength in the teams or less land or breadth of slice, according as that are employed in drawing them. Besides, may be desired. In general, the plough is so they have the disadvantage of being more apt to regulated that, if left to itself, and merely kept be put out of order in their course, by the occur- from falling over, it would cut a little broader rence of stones, clods, and other surface ine- and a little deeper than is required. The coulqualities, than those of the common kind. A ter is also placed with some inclination towards further inconvenience attending these ploughs is the left or land side, and the point of the sock noticed by lord Somerville in the Communica. or share has a slight tendency downwards. The tions to the Board of Agriculture, which is, that degree to which the furrow-slice turns over is with wheel-ploughs workmen are apt to set the in a great measure determined by the propoints of their shares too low, so as by their in- portion between its breadth and depth, which clined direction to occasion a heavy pressure on for general purposes is usually as three is to the wheel, which must proceed horizontally. He two; or, when the furrow is nine inches broad, conceives the effect of this struggle to be an in- it ought to be six inches in depth. When the creased weight of draught ipfinitely beyond what slice is cut in this proportion, it will be nearly could be imagined, on which account he thinks half turned over, or recline at an angle of forty that the wheel is to be considered as of no con- or forty-five degrees; and a field so ploughed sequence in setting a plough for work; but that will have its ridges longitudinally ribbed into passing lightly over the surface it will be of angular drills or ridgelets. But if the slice is material use in breaking old lays, or lands where much broader, in proportion to its depth, it flints, rocks, or the roots of trees are present, will be almost completely overturned, or left and in correcting the depression of the share nearly flat with its original surface downwards; from any sudden obstruction, as also in bringing and each successive slice will be somewhat overit quickly into work again, when thrown out lapped by that which was turned over before it. towards the surface. It is however believed on And, finally, when the depth materially exceeds the whole, by the writer of the Middlesex Re- the width, each furrow-slice will fall over on its port, that in comparing two extensive districts, side, leaving all the original surface hare, and one of which is managed with wheel-ploughs, only laid somewhat obliquely to the horizon. and the other with those of the swing kind, Ploughing with the breadth and depth nearly taking ever description of ploughmen that are in the proportion of three to two is best adapted met with in them, the wheel-ploughs will be for laying up stubble land after harvest, when found to have the advantage in point of neat- it is to remain during winter exposed to the melness of work.

lowing influence of frost, preparatory to fallow But the great weight of the carriage parts for or turnips. The shallow furrow of considerable the wheels, and the time and trouble which they width, as five inches in depth by eight or nine require in adjusting and fixing them, are great wide, is understood to answer best for breaking objections to the use of this sort of plough in up old leys; because it covers up the grass turf, most cases, and particularly for the general pur- and does not bury the manured soil. Ploughing poses of husbandry. Therefore, in the forming with the depth of the furrow considerably exof all sorts of ploughs, the less they are encum- ceeding the width is a most unprofitable and bered with machinery of the wheel or other uselessly slow operation, which ought seldom or kinds, the more useful they will probably be never to be adopted. The most generally useful found.

breadth of a furrow-slice is from eight to ten Holding the plough in a proper position, and inches, and the depth, which ought to be seldom properly directing the horses or cattle which less than four inches, cannot often exceed six or draw it, are only to be acquired by experience: eight inches, except in soils uncommonly thick it scarcely need be added, that the art of draw- and fertile. When it is necessary to go deeper, ing a straight furrow with a plough in which as for carrots and some other deep-rooted plants the horses are yoked in pairs, consists in a trench ploughing may be given by means of a keeping each of the horses a small distance second plough following in the same furrow. Shallow ploughing ought always to be adopted be gathered, or one breadth and a half if to be after turnips are eaten on the ground, that the ploughed flat; and there the ploughman sets up manure may not be buried too deep; and also a pole as a direction for the plough to enter. in covering lime, especially if the ground has On a line with this, and at some distance, he been pulverised by fallowing, because it natu- plants a second pole, and then in the same manrally tends to sink in the soil. In ploughing ner a third, fourth, &c., as the irregularity of down farm-yard dung, it is commonly necessary the surface may render necessary, though three to go rather deep, that no part of the manure must always be employed, the last of them at may be left exposed to the atmosphere. In the the end of the intended ridge, and the whole in first ploughing, for fallows or green crops, it is one straight line. He then enters the plough at advisable to work as deep as possible, and no the first pole, keeping the line of poles exactly great danger is to be apprehended, though a between his horses, and ploughs down all the small portion of the subsoil be at that time poles successively; halting his horses at each, brought to the surface. The furrow-slices are and replacing it at so many feet distant as the generally distributed into beds varying in breadth ridges are to be broad; so that, when he reaches according to circumstances; these are called the end of the ridge, all his poles are again set ridges or lands, and are divided from one ano- up in a new line parallel to the first. He rether by gutters or open furrows. These last turns, however, along his former track, correctserve as guides to the hand and eye of the sowering any deviations, and throwing a shallow furto the reapers, and also for the application of row on the side opposite to his former one. manures in a regular manner. In soils of a These furrows, when reversed, form the crown strong or retentive nature, or which have wet of the ridge, and direct the ploughmen who are close subsoils, these furrows serve likewise as to follow. The same operations are carried on drains for carrying off the surface water, and until the whole field is marked out. This is being cleared out, after the land is sown and called feiring in Scotland, and striking the furharrowed, have the name of water furrows. rows in England. It is surprising with what

Ridges are not only different in breadth, but accuracy these lines are drawn by skilful ploughare raised more or less in the middle, on different men. Another method has been adopted for the soils. On clayey retentive soils, the great point same purpose, which promises to be useful to be attended to is the discharge of superflu- with less experienced workmen. A stout lath ous water. But narrow ridges or stitches, of or pole, exactly equal in length to the breadth of from three to five feet, are not approved of the intended ridge, is fixed to the plough at right in some of the best cultivated counties. In angles to the line of the draught, one end of which these a breadth of fifteen or eighteen feet, the is placed across the handles exactly opposite the land raised by two gatherings of the plough, is coulter, while the other end projects towards most commonly adopted for such soils; such the left hand of the ploughman, and is preserved ridges being thought more convenient for ma. in its place by a rope passing from it to the colnuring, sowing, harrowing, and reaping than lar of the near-side horse. At the outer end of narrower ones; and the water is drained off quite the lath a coulter or harrow tine is fixed perpenas effectually. Ridges on dry porous turnip soils dicularly, which makes a trace or mark on the may be formed much broader; and, were it not ground, as the plough moves onwards, exactly for their use in directing the laborers, may be, parallel to the line of draught. By this device, and sometimes are, dispensed with altogether. when the plough is feiring the crown of one They are often thirty, or thirty-six feet broad, ridge, the marker traces the line on which the which in Scotland are called band-win ridges, next ridge is to be feired.-General Report of because reaped by a band of shearers, commonly Scotland, vol. i. p. 354. six, served by one binder. If it be wished to The direction and length of ridges are points obliterate the intermediate furrows, this may be which must evidently be regulated by the nature done by casting up a narrow ridglet or single of the surface, and the size of the field. Short bout-drill between the broad ridges, which is angular ridges, called butts, which are often deafterwards ievelled by the harrows.

cessary in a field with irregular boundaries, are The mode of forming ridges straight and of always attended with a considerable loss of time, uniform breadth is as follows :-Let us suppose and ought to be avoided as much as possible. a field perfectly level that is intended to be laid In ploughing steep land it is thought advisable off into ridges of any determinate breadth. The to give the ridges an inclination towards the best ploughman belonging to the farm conducts right hand at the top, by which, in going up the the operation, with the aid of three or more acclivity, the furrow falls more readily from the poles shod with iron, in the following manner :- plough, and with less fatigue to the horses. The first thing is to mark off the head ridges, on Another advantage of forming ridges in a slantwhich the horses turn in ploughing, which ing direction, on such lands, is that the soil is should in general be of an equal breadth from not so apt to be washed down from the higher the bounding lines of the field, if these lines' ground, as if the ridges were laid at right angles. are not very crooked or irregular. The next Wherever circumstances will permit, the best operation, assuming one straight side of the direction, however, is due north and south, by field, or a line that has been made straight, as which the grain on both sides of the ridge enthe proper direction of the ridges, is to measure joys nearly equal advantages from the influence off from it with one of the poles (all of them of of the sun. a certain length, or expressing specific measures), Land thus formed into ridges,' says Mr. half the intended breadth of the ridge, if it is to Loudon, is afterwards cultivated without mark

ing out the ridges anew, until the inter-furrows fallows or light free soils. Their operation differs
have been obliterated by a fallow or fallow crop. from that of the plough in not reversing the
This is done by one or other of the following surface, and therefore they can never, as some
modes of ploughing. 1. If the soil be dry, and suppose, become a substitute for that implement.
the land has been ploughed flat, the ridges are still the grubber is recommended by good
split out in such a way that the space which the judges as a valuable implement. Lester of
crown of the old ridge occupied is now allotted Northampton, who is said first to have invented
to the open furrow between the new ones. This an implement of this kind, declares himself
is technically called crown and furrow plough- confident that one man, a boy, and six horses,
ing. 2. When the soil is naturally rather wet, will move as much land in a day, and as effectu-
or, if the ridges have been raised a little by ally, as six ploughs : meaning land in a fallow
former ploughings, the form of the old ridges, state that has been previously ploughed. And
and the situation of the inter-furrows, are pre- this may allow us to introduce the important
served by what is called casting, that is, the question
furrows of each ridge are all laid in one direc- 5. Of Fallowing.--The vague ancient opi-
tion, while those of the next adjoining ridges nion of the use of nitre, and of nitrous salts in
are turned the contrary way; two ridges being vegetation,' says Sir Humphrey Davy, 'seems to
always ploughed together. 3. It is commonly have been one of the principal speculative rea-
necessary to raise the ridges, on soils very tena- sons for the defence of summer fallows. Ni-
cious of moisture, by what is called gathering, trous salts are produced during the exposure of
which is done by the plough going round the soils containing vegetable and animal remains,
ridge, beginning at the crown, and raising all the and in greatest abundance in hot weather ; but it
furrow slices inwards. 4. This last operation, is probably by the combination of the azote
when it is wished to give the land a level sur- from these remains with oxygen in the atmo-
face, as in fallowing, is reversed by turning all sphere that the acid is formed; and at the ex-
the furrow-slices outwards ; beginning at the pense of an element which otherwise would
inter-furrows, and leaving an open furrow on the have formed ammonia; the compounds of which
crown of each ridge. In order to bring the land are much more efficacious than the nitrous com-
into as level a state as possible, the same mode pounds in assisting vegetation. Mr. Loudon
of ploughing, or cleaning, as it is called, may observes that this reason is, however, more
be repeated as often as necessary. With respect speculative than experimental, and seems influ-
to ploughing relatively to time, in the strongest enced by the opinion adopted by the author,
lands, a pair of good horses ought to plough that fallows are of little use in husbandry. One
three-quarters of an acre in nine liours; but upon obvious advantage of aeration in summer, or a
the same land, after the first ploughing, on fria- summer fallow,' he says, 'is, that the soil may
ble soils, one acre or an acre and a quarter is a thus be heated by the sun to a degree which it
common day's work. Throughout the year, an never could be, if partially covered with the
acre a day may be considered as a full average foliage of even the widest drilled crops. For
on soils of a medium consistency. The whole this purpose, if the soil is laid up in large
series of furrows on an English statute acre, lumps, it is evident it will receive more heat by
supposing each to be nine inches broad, would exposing a greater surface to the atmosphere,
extend to 19,360 yards; and adding twelve yards and it will retain this heat longer than can be
to every 220, for the ground travelled over in expected, from the circumstance of the lumps
turning, the whole work of one acre may be reflecting back the rays of heat radiated by each
estimated as extending to 20,416 yards, or eleven other.' A clayey soil in this way (Farmer's
miles and nearly five furlongs.

Magazine, 1815) may be heated to 120°, which
"In ploughing relatively to season, it is well may in some degree alter its absorbent powers
known that clayey or tenacious soils should as to water, and contribute materially to the
never be ploughed when wet; and that it is destruction of vegetable fibre, insects, and their
almost equally improper to allow them to become eggs. By the aeration of lands, in winter, mi-
too dry, especially if a crop is to be sown with nute mechanical division is obtained by the
out a second ploughing. The state in which freezing of the water in the soil ; for, as water
such lands should be ploughed is that which is in the solid state occupies more space than
commonly indicated by the phrase, between when fluid, the particles of earthy matters and of
the wet and the dry, -while the ground is decomposing stones are thus rent asunder, and
slightly moist, mellow, and the least cohesive. crumble down in a fine mould. Rough stony
The season best for ploughing the first time, for soils will thus receive an accession to their finer
fallow or green crops, is immediately after har- soil every winter.
vest, or after wheat sowing is finished; and, Agricultural experience,' adds our author,
when this land has been gone over, the old tough has fully proved that fallows are the only
swards, if there be any, are next turned up. means by which stiff clays. in moist climates
The reasons for ploughing so early are sufficiently can be effectually cleared of weeds. Supposing
obvious; as the frosts of winter render the soil therefore that no other advantage whatever was
more friable for the spring operations, and assist obtained, that no nutritive matter was imbibed
in destroying the weed roots. In some places, from the atmosphere, and the soil was neither
however, the first ploughing for fallow is still chemically nor mechanically benefited by aera-
delayed till after the spring seed-time.'

tion, this benefit alone, the effectual eradication The cultivator, grubber, scuffler, scarifier, &c., of weeds, is sufficient to justify the use of fallows are used to lessen the number of ploughings in on such soils. Many of the objections to fal


lows have arisen in consequence of the parties ensuing fallow process, by detaching them comnot previously agreeing as to what a summer pletely from any connexion with the fast subfallow is. In England generally, or at least soil. This autumnal ploughing, usually called formerly, a fallow was a portion of land left a the winter furrow, promotes the rotting of stubyear without culture or cropping: unless being ble and weeds; and, if not accomplished toonce or twice ploughed can be denominated the wards the end of harvest, must be given in the former, and an abur dant growth of coarse winter months, or as early in the spring as posgrasses and weeds can constitute the latter. sible. In giving this first ploughing, the old The jacheres of the French are the same thing. ridges should be gathered up, if practicable, as In Scotland and the best cultivated districts a in that state they are kept dry during the winter summer fallow is a portion of land which is months; but it is not uncommon to split them begun to be cultivated after the crop is removed out or divide them, especially if the land had in autumn, and is frequently, as need requires, been previously highly gathered, so that each ploughed, harrowed, and otherwise comminuted, original ridge of land is divided into two half and freed from stones, weeds, inequalities, &c., ridges. Sometimes, when the land is easily laid till the autumnal seed-time of the following dry, the furrows of the old ridges are made the year : it is thus for twelve months in a state of crowns of the new ones, or the land is ploughed constant tillage and movement. The result is in the way technically called crown-and-fur. that the land is thoroughly freed from roots of In other instances two ridges are ploughed togeweeds; from many seeds of weeds, which are ther, by what is called casting, which has been thus made to germinate and are then destroyed; already described. After the field is ploughed, and from many eggs of insects which are thus all the inter-furrows, and those of the headhatched, but, being without plants to nourish lands, are carefully opened up by the plough, them in their larva state, speedily die. The and are afterwards gone over effectually by a land is also thoroughly pulverised, and the top, laborer with a spade, to remove all obstructions, bottom, and middle, mixed together; stones are and to open up the water furrows into the fence picked out; inequalities unfavorable to surface ditches, wherever that seems necessary, that all drainage removed or lessened, and various other moisture may have a ready exit. In every place useful objects attained. Such a fallow can no where water is expected to lodge, such as ditches more be compared with what usually passes or hollow places in the field, cross or oblique under that name than the plough of Virgil with furrows are drawn by the plough, and their inthat of Small.'

tersections carefully opened into each other by East Lothian stands, we believe, at the head the spade. Wherever it appears necessary, of the Scottish counties for excellent farming: cross cuts are also made through the head ridges and here fallowing, introduced at the beginning into the ditches with a spade, and every possible of the last century, seems to be practised in its attention is exerted, that no water may stagnate greatest perfection. The sixth earl of Hadding- in any part of the field. . ton, we are told, was the first proprietor, and "As soon as the spring seed-time is over the John Walker, of Beanston, near Dunbar, the fallow land is again ploughed end-long. If forfirst farmer upon this principle. He took the merly split, it is now ridged up; if formerly hint from some English travellers, while they laid up in gathered ridges, it is split or cloven spent a night at his house, and with whom he down. It is then cross-ploughed; and, after had conversation upon the subject, so much to lying till sufficiently dry to admit the harrows, his satisfaction that he made an experiment it is harrowed and rolled repeatedly, and every upon six acres the following summer, which he particle of the vivacious roots of weeds brought carried through in spite of the animadversions of up to view, carefully gathered by hand into his neighbours, who were divided in their opi- heaps, and either burnt on the field or carted off nions as to the sanity of his mind, or the sta- to the compost midden. The fallow is then bility of his circumstances. The result of the ridged up, which places it in a safe condition in experiment gave them a better opinion of both, the event of bad weather, and exposes a new and the return was so abundant as to induce surface to the harrows and roller, after which him to extend his next year's fallow break to the weeds are again gathered by hand, but a pretwenty acres; soon after which the practice began vious harrowing is necessary. It is afterwards to spread, and, so early as the year 1724, fallow- ploughed, harrowed, rolled, and gathered as ing upon all the deep strong soils was common often as may be necessary to reduce it into fine throughout the county, and has continued to be tilth, and completely to eradicate all root weeds. so ever since. The practice of the county is Between these successive operations, repeated thus described in the General Report of Scot- crops of seedling weeds are brought into vegeland, vol. i. p. 419.

tation and destroyed. The larvæ likewise of • Invariably, after harvest, the land intended various insects, together with an infinite variety for being summer fallowed in the ensuing year of the seeds of weeds, are exposed to be de gets an end-long ploughing, which ought to be roured by birds, which are then the farmer's best as deep as the soil will admit, even though a friends, though often proscribed as his bitterest little of the till or subsoil is brought up. This enemies. Some writers on husbandry have conboth tends to deepen the cultivated or manured demned the use of the harrow and roller in the soil, as the fresh accession of hitherto unculti- fallow process, alleging that frequent ploughing vated earth becomes afterwards incorporated with is all that is necessary to destroy root-weeds, by the former manured soil, and greatly facilitates the baking or drying of the clods in the sun and the separation of the roots of weeds during the wind; but experience has ascertained that fre

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