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The Seventh Book of the Aeneid introduces us to the second half of the poem, the Iliad of war which succeeds the Odyssey of travel. Its subject is the landing of the Trojans in Latium, and the causes of the native rising which threatened to exterminate the new settlers.

As in other cases, we know that there were other versions of the story, substantially agreeing with Virgil's while circumstantially differing from it: as in other ses, we have no means of judging how far the differences in Virgil's account are attributable to his own fancy, how far to bis having followed yet other accounts, now lost. The first event after the landing, the casual fulfilment of the prophecy that the Trojans should eat their tables, seems in one forın or other to have been a prominent part of the legend. Ancient authors related it variously, even Virgil's own account of the prophecy as given here being inconsistent with that given in the Third Book : modern critics have seen a philosophical meaning in it, of which Virgil may safely be pronounced never to have dreamed, and with which therefore a commentator on Virgil has no occasion to trouble himself. The interview of Ilioneus with Latinus perhaps reminds us too much of his interview with Dido in the First Book : but the effect on Latinus' own mind, prepared as it had been by omens and predictions, is well and forcibly portrayed. The interposition of Juno and the introduction of Allecto are apparently original, and quite in the style of epic poetry. It is not impossible that Virgil's whole account of the relations between Aeneas and Latinus may be the result of his desire to harmonize the stories which he found current into a consistent poetical narrative. As we learn from Livy and others, one version spoke of the settlement of the Trojans as effected by conquest, another as brought about by agreement: Virgil may have imagined that the conception of an old king, swayed one way by the voice of oracles and by hospitable feeling, another by regard for his wife and his kinsman, and his subjects, presented a solution of the discrepancy.

No attempt has been made to estimate the historical value of the catalogue with which Virgil, in imitation of Homer, introduces the story of the war. An annotator on a poet is not obliged to be an historical critic: an annotator on the Aeneid may be pardoned for suspecting that when Virgil invokes the Muses to supplement the defects of human tradition, he simply asserts a poet's licence to deal with his materials in the way which he judges to be most poetically effective.



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Tu quoque litoribus nostris, Aeneia nutrix,
Aeternam moriens famam, Caieta, dedisti;
Et nunc servat honos sedem tuus, ossaque nomen
Hesperia in magna, si qua est ea gloria, signat.
At pius exsequiis Aeneas rite solutis,
Aggere conposito tumuli, postquam alta quierunt
Aequora, tendit iter velis, portumque relinquit.
Adspirant aurae in noctem, nec candida cursus
Luna negat, splendet tremulo sub lumine pontus.


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1–24.] ‘Aeneas' nurse too dies and is riam.” Wagn. seems right in his former buried in a place called after her Caieta. explanation of the words the name of a city Aeneas sails thence, coasting along the and promontory in Italy is your epitaph,' land of Circe.'

• Hesperia in magna' going rather closely 1.] «Tu quoque,' i. e. besides Misenus with “nomen.' Comp. 6. 776, “Haec and Palinurus. Cerda comp. the opening tum nomina erunt.” “Hesperia in magna' of G. 3, “ Te quoque, magna Pales.” 1. 569. “Si qua est ea gloria’ as equivaHeyne (Excursus 1) remarks that the lent to “

quae magna est gloria,” just as nurse was a personage of great consequence we might say “if the glory of sepulture in in an ancient family, as appears in the a great country be more than a dream.' tragedians. Comp. 5. 645. The town Serv. and Don. think there is a reference and promontory of Caieta were on the to the insensibility of the dead, which is confines of Latium_and Campania, near not improbable, on comparison of 10. 828. Formiae ; and at Formiae, according to 5.] Med. (originally) and Rom. have Livy 40. 2, there was a temple of Apollo Aeneas exsequiis,' just as in v. 2 Pal. and and Caieta. For the legend and ety- Gud. originally had “ famam moriens.” mology of the name see Heyne, Exc. 1, 6.] “ Aggere tumuli” 5. 44. Comp. 3. Lewis vol. 1. pp. 326 foll. · Litoribus 63 Aggeritur tumulo tellus.” For nostris' is a vague or exaggerated ex- quierunt Serv. mentions a variant quipression. Caieta may be said to have erant, supported by a grammarian whose conferred fame on a single spot on the name is variously given as Hebrus and Italian coast: the coast itself rather con- Acron Helenus. Quierant aequora ” 4. ferred fame on her. The poet speaks 523. The reference perhaps is, as Wagn. in his own person, as in 9. 446, though suggests, to the gales mentioned by Palithe feeling here is more national than nurus 6. 354 foll. personal. • Aencia nutrix' like “ Aeneia 7.] • Tendit iter velis' as "tendere iter

10. 156, “ Aeneia hospitia” ib. pennis” 6. 240. Comp. 5. 28, “Flecte 494. So the Homeric Bin 'Hpakanein. viam velis.” Probably Virg. also meant

3.] “And thy renown still broods over his readers to think of “tendere vela.” thy resting-place.' • Sedem’ like “sedi. Pal. and Gud. have ‘portus,' which is bus” 6. 328. Servat' seems to include perhaps the more usual expression in Virg., the notions of haunting (G. 4. 459), being found in various places where only a guarding (6. 575), observing and preserv- single harbour seems to be meant (below ing in memory. Perhaps the last is the v. 22., 5. 813., 6. 366 ; besides many most prominent in the parallel 6. 507, others where the reference is uncertain); “ Nomen et arma locum servant." Ov. but we have had “ Caietae portum” 6.900. M. 14. 443 gives Caieta's epitaph.

8.] A fair wind blows steadily into the 4.] Med., Pal., and Gud. a. m. p. have night (i. e. it does not fall at sunset and • signant,' which Heins. preferred and at other times, 3. 568), and the moon Wagn. now adopts. But though 'signare rising bright enables them to hold on their nomen’ might possibly mean to impress a course. At other times they put in for the name, (signat,' the reading of Rom. and night, 3. 508 foll. • In noctem' like most MSS., is far more natural, and the “Nilus in aestatem crescit” Lucr. 6. 712, confusion of sing, and pl, by transcribers “humor in lucem tremulo rarescit ab aestu" is common enough. "Signare' then will ib, 875, where it seems better to interpret mean to commemorate, as in 3. 287. Tac, the words “as summer comes on,' 'as day Germ. 28 has “ nomen signat loci memo- comes on,' than with Mr. Munro “aestate,''




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Proxuma Circaeae raduntur litora terrae,

Dives inaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos
Adsiduo resonat cantu, tectisque superbis
Urit odoratam nocturna in lumina cedrum,
Arguto tenuis percurrens pectine telas.
Hinc exaudiri gemitus iraeque leonum

Vincla recusantum et sera sub nocte rudentum,
Saetigerique sues atque in praesepibus ursi

Saevire, ac formae magnorum ululare luporum, “luce.” “Nec cursus negat' ="et sinit transferred to Circe. Circe is the daughter currere.” • Candida' and 'tremulo' seem of Helios and Perse, Od. 10. 138. to be froin Enn. Melan. fr. 4. Vahlen, 12.] *Resonat,' makes them ring; a “ Lumine sic tremulo terra et cava caerula use of resonare' for which no parallel is candent,” as Macrob. Sat. 6. 4 remarks. quoted, though it is imitated by Sil. 14. 30.

10.] •Proxuma' after leaving Caieta. Hom. says of Circe's song dámedov d'anav ‘Raduntur' by the ships in passing, 3. å uppéuvkev. • Adsiduo' expresses that she 700. Circaeae terrae, Circeii; which, is always plying her loom, so that the being on the mainland, is identified with Trojans see the light in her palace as they Homer's island of Circe (Od. 10. 135 foll.) pass it in the night. by supposing that the island had become 13.] Nocturna in lumina': see on G. 1. joined to the mainland, by alluvial de- 291., 2. 432. The parallel in Od. 5 is in posits or, as Varro ap. Serv. says, by the favour of supposing fire-light to be meant draining of marshes. Comp. Theophrast. here. “Nocturna ad lumina” occurs Lucr. Hist. Plant. 5. 9, Pliny 3. 5. 9 (quoted 6. 900, where again the reference is doubtby Heyne). Virg. himself calls it “ Aeaeae ful. Med. has “ nocturno in lumine.” insula Circae,” 3. 386, where Helenus 14.] Nearly repeated from G. 1. 294, predicts that Aeneas should visit it. West- which is itself from Od. 5. 62, lotov phal (Die Römische Kampagne p. 59) says étoixouévn xpvoeln kepkid' épaivev. that the promontory was certainly no island 15.] • Exaudiri,' reached the ears of the even long before Homer's time, but that it Trojans. In Hom. the lions and wolves looks like an island from the sea at a are tamed by Circe's sorceries, so that they moderate distance from the shore, where fawn upon comers, and are suffered to run the flat land of the marshes sinks below loose. The swine are men metamorphosed, the horizon. For the legends which con- and are kept in sties. There are no wild nected Ulysses with this part of Italy see boars or bears. “Hinc exaudiri gemitus Lewis pp. 327 foll. Telegonus, son of 6. 557. • Gemere' is used by the Roman Ulysses and Circe, is the mythical founder poets of the roaring of wild beasts, as by of Tusculum. The very name Caieta was Hor. Epod. 16. 51 of bears. Lucr. 3. 297 said by some to have been originally Aihtn has “leonum Pectora qui fremitu rum(comp. Caulon, Aulon, note on 3. 553), a punt plerumque gementes Nec capere name associated by Lycophron, v. 1273, irarum fluctus in pectore possunt, which with the mooring of the Argo there, but Virg. probably had in his mind, as he cermore probably having to do with the Aeaean tainly had when writing v. 466 below. Circe, the sister of Aeetes of Colchis. "Gemitus iraeque’ is thus êv dià duoîv, as

11.] • Dives' refers to the splendour of Serv. takes it, though Gossrau wishes to her palace (“tectis superbis'). Comp. Od. distinguish between the tones of grief and 10. 211, 348 foll. • Lucos. The palace of those of indignation. Circe in Homer is in a wood" (Od. 10. 210), 16.] *Rudere' is another word used which may be called “lucus,' as the abode loosely by Roman poets : see on G. 3. of a goddess. • Inaccessos,' unapproach- 374. On sera sub nocte' able, because dangerous on account of her with some imaginative feeling, “quasi sorceries. Circe is heard by the companions eo tempore quo naturali libertate uti conof Ulysses singing at her loom as they sueverunt.” Pal. has saeva' for sera.' approach her palace, Od. 10. 221. The 17.] ‘In praesepibus' (" caveis ” Serv.) same lines occur in Od. 5. 61 on Calypso, should be taken both with sues' and and it is her cave that is full of the scent of ursi.' Lucr. 5.969 has “saetigeris subus." burning cedar, an incident which Virg. has 18.] There seems no reason with Sturz

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Serv. says,

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Quos hominum ex facie dea saeva potentibus herbis
Induerat Circe in voltus ac terga ferarum.
Quae ne monstra pii paterentur talia Troes
Delati in portus, neu litora dira subirent,
Neptunus ventis implevit vela secundis,
Atque fugam dedit, et praeter vada fervida vexit.

Iamque rubescebat radiis mare, et aethere ab alto
Aurora in roseis fulgebat lutea bigis:
Cum venti posuere, omnisque repente resedit
Flatus, et in lento luctantur marmore tonsae.
Atque hic Aeneas ingentem ex aequore lucum


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ap. Wagn. to take saevire' as a special 24.] ‘Fugam' need only mean a swift
expression for the roaring of bears. It passage: but in the present context it may
implies, like 'gemitus iraeque,' that the be taken strictly. With fugam dare'
animals were confined. Ribbeck rather comp: cursus negare” above v. 8. • Vada
ingeniously suggests that saevire’ may fervida,' as Heyne remarks, is the breakers
have been corrupted by 'saetigeri,' having on the headland of Circeii. “Fervetque
been originally 'mugire.' Price on Ap- fretis spirantibus aequor” G. 1. 327.
puleius Met. 4. p. 76, approved by Wagn., 25 - 36.] •In the morning they come to
understands ‘formae' as denoting the size a river, sail up it, and land.
of the creatures : but it is more probably 25.] The poet of course purposely times
to be explained by what follows. They the voyage of Aeneas so as to bring him
were men in the form of wolves. Comp. the to the promised land at dawn and amidst
use of the word to denote unreal shapes 6. the pomp of sunrise.
289, 293. “Saevire' and ululare' are equi. 26.]. Lutea,” kpokórendos Il. 8. 1.
valent to “saevientes” and “ululantes ex- “Roseis quadrigis” 6. 535. There is of

course no difficulty in the juxtaposition of 19.] “Hominis facies” 3. 426. “Po the two colours : Ribbeck however reads tentibus herbis” 12. 402 (comp. ib. 396); variis' from vaseis,' the first reading of here with 'induerat,' not with 'saeva.' one of his cursives, and Schrader and BentIt is a translation of étel Kakà pápuar' ley wished to read 'croceis' from Ausonius' dwkev, Od. 10. 213.

Periocha of II. 8, where this line is repeated. 20.] “ Indue voltus” has occurred 1. Comp. Ov. F. 4. 714 “ Memnonis in roseis 684. “Induit in florem G. 1. 188. lutea mater equis.” Serv. says

• Multi The coustruction with 'ex' may remind iungunt 'inroseis,' i.e. non rubicundis.” exuere.”

« Voltus ac terga' ex- 27.] · Posuere,' sc. “se," ‘fell.' Comp. presses briefly Hom.'s oi ouw uèvěxov 10. 103, “tum Zephyri posuere.” It is κεφαλάς φωνήν τε τρίχας τε Και δέμας, possible that the expression may be nauOd. 10. 240.

tical. Lucan 3. 523 has “posito Borea.” 21.] That the Trojans might not un- 28.] ‘Lento, sluggish. Pliny 36. 26, dergo this dire transformation. So “mon- “lentus amnis.” The water, being quiet, stra perferimus” 3. 884 of suffering from seems to oppose a greater resistance, preternatural sounds. Pii' gives the though in 8. 89 the thought is just the reason of Neptune's solicitude. So Anchises contrary. *Luctantur tonsae.' It is of 3. 265 prays “ Di talem avertite casum Et course implied that the sails had been placidi servate pios," and Ilioneus, 1. struck. Tonsa' for an oar is as old as 526, calls the Trojans “pio generi.” Ve. Ennius, in three of whose fragments it nus had however engaged the favour of occurs, A. 7. frr. 6, 7, 8. Neptune for the Trojans, 5. 779 foll. 29.] “ Atque hic Aeneas” 6. 680. For

Quae' is followed by . talia' here and 10. atque' comp. 6. 2., 10. 219, for hic' 298 as “ haec” G. 4. 86 by “ tanta.” 1. 728. Prospiceres arce ex summa

22.] *Delati in portus’ 3.219. “Subire' 4. 410. •Lucum:' there is still a wood in of entering a haven 1.400., 3. 292. the Isola Sacra, and a great forest, Selva

23.] Toioi dYnuevov o ůpov let érdepyos di Ostia, extends south along the coast 'Απόλλων 11. 1. 479.

from the Stagno di Ostia.

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Prospicit. Hunc inter fluvio Tiberinus amoeno
Verticibus rapidis et multa flavus arena
In mare prorumpit. Variae circumque supraque
Adsuetae ripis volucres et fluminis alveo
Aethera mulcebant cantu, lucoque volabant.
Flectere iter sociis terraeque advertere proras
Inperat, et laetus fluvio succedit opaco.

Nunc age, qui reges, Erato, quae tempora rerum,
Quis Latio antiquo fuerit status, advena classem
Cum primum Ausoniis exercitus adpulit oris,



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30.] · Tiberinus' of the Tiber 6. 873, data moenia cernam ;” 5. 83, “Ausoniuin after Enn. A. 1. fr. 55, “ Teque, pater quicunque est, quaerere Thybrim.” “Flecte Tiberine, tuo cum flumine sancto." Here viam ” 5. 28, said by Aeneas to the pilot. and in 8. 31, where the words recur, Terris advertere proram ” G. 4. 117. “fluvio amoeno' seems to be abl. of cir- 37 – 45.] · A new part of my subject cumstance, or, which is the same thing, commences, the war in Latium and its a descriptive abl.

antecedent circumstances.' 31.] •Multa flavus arena' is a specific 37.] This invocation marks a great description of the Tiber, which is con- epoch in the poem, and the commencement stantly called 'flavus,' Hor. 1 Od. 2. 13., of a new class of characters and legends. 8. 8., 2. 3. 18. Comp. 9. 816. Gossrau The first words are from Apoll. R. 3. 1, remarks that Ον. F. 6. 502 mentions the Eί δ' άγε νύν, Ερατώ, παρά θ' ίστασο, και (vertices' at the mouth of the Tiber. Moi évione. But Erato, as the Muse of • Verticibus rapidis' may be either modal Love, more appropriately invoked to abl. or constructed with flavus. In any rehearse the loves of Jasou and Medea case the line seems to qualify 'prorumpit. than the present theme, though Germ.

32.] Ov. M. 14. 447, in lis brief narra- thinks that the war in Italy may be said tive of Aeneas' landing, nearly repeats to have been kindled by the love of LaVirg., “lucosque petunt ubi nubilus um- vinia's suitors, tanquam flabello.” Virg., bra In mare cụm Aava prorumpit Thybris by the help of the Muse, will describe the arena.” Lucr. 6. 436 has “prorumpitur posture of affairs (“tempora rerum') and in mare” of the wind. Variae volucres' the condition of Latiuin ( quis Latio antiG. 1. 383. Comp. Lucr. 2. 344 foll, Id. 1. quo fuerit status ') when Aeneas arrived, 589 and Munro's note. “Supra’is long else. and will trace the origin of the war bewhere in Virg. Stat. Theb. 9. 114 ends a tween Aeneas and the Latins (primae line similarly, “circumque supraque," revocabo exordia pugnae'). Qui reges though he also elsewhere, as Markland seems to be said generally, including observes, makes the first syll. long. Rib- Latinus and his ancestors, Turnus, and beck fancies the original reading may have perhaps the other Italian princes. With been circum superaque” in both pas- *tempora rerum' comp. the expression sages, an opinion in which few writers reipublicae tempus,” which occurs more of hexameters will agree with him. than once in Cic. (Off. 3. 24 &c.), though

34.] “ Aera mulcentes motu” Lucr. 'tempora’ here means 'times' rather than 4. 136. Wakef. would read aera’ here; 'emergencies. Virg. has said the times and so Ov. F.1. 155, “et tepidum volucres of affairs' where we should rather talk of concentibus aera mulcent.” But in Virg. 'the circumstances of the time.' Serv. ex. winged creatures fly in the aether, and plains the words philosophically, "quia, the aether is said to be filled with sound, securdum Lucretium, tempora nisi ex vv. 65, 395 below. “Luco,' about the grove. rebus colligantur, per se nulla sunt.”

35.] Aeneas had been warned by Creusa Peerlkamp connects ' rerum 'with 'status,' (2. 781) that his destination was Italy, very improbably “ubi Lydius arva Inter opima virum leni 38.] · Advena' adjectively, like “advena fluit agmine Thybris:" and he says himself possessor” E. 9. 2. 3. 500, “Si quando Thybrim vicinaque 39.] “Adpulit oris” 1. 377., 3. 338, Thybridos arva Intrarim gentique meae 715.


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