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§ 1. The first Oration against Philip:

pronounced in the Archonship of Arijlodemus, in the first year of the Hundred and Seventh Olympiad, and the ninth of Philip’s Reign.

E have feen Philip opposed in his

design of palling into Greece, through Thermopylæ; and obliged to retire. The danger they had thus escaped deeply affected the Athenians. So daring an attempt, which was, in effect, declaring his purposes, filled them with astonishment: and the view of a power, which every day received new accessions, drove them even to despair. Yet their averfion to public bufiness was still predominant. They forgot that Philip might renew his attempt; and thought they had provided fufficiently for their security, by posting a body of troops at the entrance of Attica, under the command of Menelaus, a foreigner. They then proceeded to convene an affembly of the people, in order to consider what ineasures were to be taken to check the progress of Philip. On which occafion Demosthenes, for the first time, appeared against that prince ; and displayed those abilities, which proved the greatest obstacle to his

designs. At Athens, the whole power and ma

nagement of affairs were placed in the people. It was their prerogative

to receive appeals from the courts of justice, to abrogate and enact laws, to make what alterations in the state they judged convenient; in short, all matters, public or private, foreign or domestic, civil, military, or religious,

were determined by them. Whenever there was occasion to deli.

berate, the people assembled early in the morning, sometimes in the forum or public place, sometimes in a place called Pnyx, but most frequently in the theatre of Bacchus. A few days before each assembly there was a II gogga or Placart fixed on the ftatues of some illustrious mien erected in the city, to give notice of the subject to be debated. As they refused admittance into the assembly to all persons who had not attained the neceffary age, so they obliged all others to attend. The Lexiarchs stretched out a cord dyed with scarlet, and by it pushed the people towards the place of meeting. Such as received the stain were fined; the more diligent had a small pecuniary reward. These Lexiarchs were the keepers of the register, in which were inrolled the names of such citizens as had a right of voting. And all had this right who were of age, and not excluded by a personal fault. Undutiful chil. dren, cowards, brutaldebauchees, prodigals, debtors to the public, were all excluded. Until the time of Cecrops, women had a right of suffrage, which


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