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great comfort, that your Majesty hath in mind your Majesty's royal promise, which to me is anchora CVI. TO THE EARL OF SALISBURY, LORD spei, touching the attorney's place. I hope Mr. TREASURER, UPON A NEW-YEAR'S TIDE.: Attorney shall do well. I thank God I wish no

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR GOOD LORDSHIP, man's death, nor much mine own life, more than to do your Majesty service. For I account my life the I would entreat the new year to answer for the accident, and my duty the substance. But this I old, in my humble thanks to your lordship ; both will be bold to say ; if it please God that I ever for many your favours, and chiefly that upon the serve your Majesty in the attorney's place, I have occasion of Mr. Attorney's infirmity I found your known an attorney Coke, and an attorney Hobart, lordship even as I could wish. This doth increase both worthy men, and far above myself: but if I a desire in me to express my thankful mind to your should not find a middle way between their two lordship; hoping, that though I find age and dedispositions and carriages, I should not satisfy my- cays grow upon me, yet I may have a flash or two self. But these things are far or near, as it shall of spirit left to do you service: and I do protest please God. Meanwhile I most humbly pray your before God, without compliment or any light vanity Majesty, to accept my sacrifice of thanksgiving for of mind, that if I knew in what course of life to do your gracious favour. God preserve your Majesty, you best service, I would take it, and make my I ever remain

thoughts, which now fly to many pieces, be reduced to that centre. But all this is no more but that I

am ; which is not much ; but yet the entire of him CV. *TO THE MOST HIGH AND EXCELLENT that is, &c.



CEEDING IN A PRIVATE CAUSE.Ş Having divided my life into the contemplative and active part, I am desirous to give his Majesty

MY VERY GOOD LORD, and your highness of the fruits of both, simple I did little expect, when I left your lordship last, though they be.

that there would have been a proceeding against To write just treatises, requireth leisure in the Mr. Barnard to his overthrow : wherein I must conwriter, and leisure in the reader, and therefore are fess myself to be in a sort accessary; because he not so fit, neither in regard of your highness's relying upon me for counsel, I advised that course princely affairs, nor in regard of my continual ser

which he followed. Wherein now I begin to quesvice; which is the cause that hath made me choose tion myself whether in preserving my respects unto to write certain brief notes, set down rather signi- your lordship, and the rest, I have not failed in the ficantly than curiously, which I have called “ Es-duty of my profession towards my client. For cersays.” The word is late, but the thing is ancient ; tainly, if the words had been heinous, and spoken in for Seneca's epistles to Lucilius, if you mark them a malicious fashion, and in some public place, and well, are but essays, that is, dispersed meditations, well proved ; and not a prattle in a tavern, caught though conveyed in the form of epistles. These hold of by one who, as I hear, is a detected sycolabours of mine, I know, cannot be worthy of your phant, Standish, I mean; yet I know not what lighness, for what can be worthy of you ? But my

could have been done more, than to impose upon hope is, they may be as grains of salt, that will him a grievous fine, and to require the levying of rather give you an appetite, than offend you with the same ; and to take away his means of life by his satiety. And although they tandle those things disfranchisement, and to commit him to a defamed wherein both men's lives and their persons are most prison during Christmas; in honour whereof, the conversant ; yet what I have attained I know not ; prisoners in other courts do commonly of grace ob but I have endeavoured to make them not vulgar, tain some enlargement. This rigour of proceeding, but of a nature, whereof a man shall find much in to tell your lordship and the rest, as my good friends, experience, and little in books; so as they are nei- my opinion plainly, tendeth not to strengthen auther repetitions nor fancies. But, however, I thority, which is best supported by love and fear shall most humbly desire your highness to accept intermixed; but rather to make people discontented them in gracious part, and to conceive, that if I and servile; especially when such punishment is cannot rest, but must show my dutiful and devoted inflicted for words not by rule of law, but by a juaffection to your highness in these things which risdiction of discretion, which would evermore be proceed from myself, I shall be much more ready moderately used. And I pray God, whereas, Mr. to do it in performance of any of your princely com- Recorder, when I was with you, did well and wisely mandments. And so wishing your highness all put you in mind of the admonitions you often reprincely felicity, I rest,

ceived from my lords, that you should bridle unruly Your highness's most humble servant, tongues; that those kind of speeches and rumours, 1612,

FR. BACON. whereunto those admonitions do refer, which are * Stephens's Second Collection, p. I.

that he inserted part of it in his dedication to the duke of Tus† Sir Francis Bacon designed to have prefixed this epistle cany, before his translation of those Essays printed in 1618. to his Essays, printed in the year 1612, but was prevented by

Rawley's Resuscitatio.

s Ibid. the prince's leath; yet it was so well liked by Mr Matthew,

concerning the state and honour thereof, do not pass , be beholden in those cases in a right cause. And too licentiously in the city unpunished; while these so I bid you farewell. words which concern your particular, are so straitly

FR. BACON. inquired into, and punished with such extremity. But these things your own wisdom, first or last, will best represent unto you. My writing unto you at this time is, to the end, that howsoever I do take CIX. ITO SIR HENRY SAVILLE. it somewhat unkindly, that my meditation prevailed no more : yet that I might preserve that farther

Sir, respect that I am willing to use unto such a state, Coming back from your invitation at Eton, where in delivering my opinion unto you freely, before I I had refreshed myself with company which I loved, would be of counsel, or move any thing that should I fell into a consideration of that part of policy, cross your proceedings; which, notwithstanding, whereof philosophy speaketh too much, and laws in case my client can receive no relief at your too little; and that is, of education of youth. Wherehands, I must and will do ; continuing, nevertheless, upon fixing my mind a while, I found straightways, in other things, my wonted good affections to your and noted even in the discourses of philosophers, selves and your occasions.

which are so large in this argument, a strange silence concerning one principal part of that subject. For as touching the framing and seasoning of youth to

moral virtues, as tolerance of labours, continency CVIII. TO SIR VINCENT SKINNER.* from pleasures, obedience, honour, and the like, they

handle it; but touching the improvement, and helpSIR Vincent SKINNER,+

ing of the intellectual powers, as of conceit, memory, I see that by your needless delays, this matter is and judgment, they say nothing: whether it were, grown to a new question ; wherein for the matter that they thought it to be a matter wherein nature itself, if it had been stayed at the beginning by my only prevailed; or that they intended it as referred lord Treasurer and Mr. Chancellor, I should not so to the several and proper arts which teach the use much have stood upon it. For the great and daily of reason and speech. But for the former of these travels which I take in his Majesty's service, either two reasons, howsoever it pleaseth them to disare rewarded in themselves, in that they are but my tinguish of habits and powers, the experience is duty, or else may deserve a much greater matter. manifest enough, that the motions and faculties of Neither can I think amiss of any man, that in the wit and memory may be not only governed and fartherance of the king's benefit moved the doubt, guided, but also confirmed and enlarged by custom that knew not what warrant I had. But my wrong and exercise duly applied: as if a man exercise is, that you having had my lord Treasurer's and Mr. shooting, he shall not only shoot nearer the mark, Chancellor's warrant for payment above a month but also draw a stronger bow. And as for the latter, since; you, I say, making your payments, belike of comprehending these precepts within the arts of upon such differences, as are better known to your logic and rhetoric, if it be rightly considered, their self, than agreeable to the respect of his Majesty's office is distinct altogether from this point; for it is service, have delayed all this time, otherwise than I no part of the doctrine of the use or handling of an might have expected from our ancient acquaintance, instrument, to teach how to whet or grind the inor from that regard which one in your place may strument to give it a sharp edge, or how to quench owe to one in mine. By occasion whereof there it, or otherwise whereby to give it a stronger temper. ensueth to me a greater inconvenience, that now my Wherefore finding this part of knowledge not broken, name in sort must be in question amongst yon, as if I have, but " tanquam aliud agens," entered into it, I were a man likely to demand that which were un- and salute you with it; dedicating it, after the reasonable, or be denied that which is reasonable : ancient manner, first as to a dear friend, and then as and this must be, because you can pleasure men at to an apt person, forasmuch as you have both place pleasure. But this I leave with this : that it is the to practise it, and judgment and leisure to look first matter wherein I had occasion to discern of your deeper into it than I have done. Herein you must friendship, which I see to fall to this ; that whereas call to mind " Aplotov pèv vəwp. Though the arguMr. Chancellor, the last time, in my man's hearing, ment be not of great height and dignity, nevertheless very honourably said, that he would not discontent it is of great and universal use : and yet I do not any man in my place; it seems you have no such see why, to consider it rightly, that should not be caution. But my writing to you now is to know of a learning of height, which teacheth to raise the you where now the stay is, without being any more highest and worthiest part of the mind. But how. beholden to you, to whom indeed no man ought to soever that be, if the world take any light and use

P. 197.

Stephens's First Collection, p. 53. + Officer of the receipts of the exchequer. Rymer, XVI. Sir Henry Saville, so justly celebrated for his noble edition of St. Chrysostoin and other learned works, was many years warden of Merton college in Oxford, in which university he founded a geometry and astronomy lecture, 25 May, 1620. See the instrument of foundation, Rymer, XVI. p. 217, and

likewise provost of Eton. To this gentleman, as of all the most proper, Sir Francis Bacon sends this discourse touching “Helps for the intellectual Powers in Youth;” but being an imperfect essay to incite others, he places this useful subject among the deficients reckoned up in his “ Advancement of Learning." Stephens.

♡ Stephens's First Collection, p. 54.









by this writing, I will the gratulation be to the good | amples of strange victories over the body in every friendship and acquaintance between us two : and of these. Nay, in respiration, the proof hath been so I commend you to God's divine protection. of some who by continual use of diving and work.

ing under the water, have brought themselves to be able to hold their breath an incredible time : and

others that have been able, without suffocation, to I did ever hold it for an insolent and unlucky endure the stifling breath of an oven or furnace so saying, "Faber quisque fortunæ suæ; except it be heated as though it did not scald nor burn, yet it uttered only as a hortative or spur to correct sloth. was many degrees too hot for any man not made to For otherwise, if it be believed as it soundeth, and it to breathe or take in. And some impostors and that a man entereth into a high imagination that counterfeits likewise have been able to wreathe and he can compass and fathom all accidents; and cast their bodies into strange forms and motions ; ascribeth all successes to his drifts and reaches; and yea, and others to bring themselves into trances the contrary to his errors and sleepings: it is com- and astonishments. All which examples do demonmonly seen that the evening fortune of that man is strate how variously and to how high points and not so prosperous, as of him that without slackening degrees the body of man may be as it were molded of his industry attributeth much to felicity and and wrought. And if any man conceive that it is providence above him. But if the sentence were some secret propriety of nature that hath been in turned to this, " Faber quisque ingenii sui,” it were those persons which have attained to those points, somewhat more true, and much more profitable ; , and that it is not open for every man to do the because it would teach men to bend themselves to like, though he had been put to it; for which reform those imperfections in themselves which now cause such things come but very rarely to pass : it they seek but to cover, and to attain those virtues is true no doubt but some persons are apter than and good parts which now they seek but to have others; but so as the more aptness causeth perfeconly in show and demonstration. Yet notwithstand- tion, but the less aptness doth not disable: so that, ing every man attempteth to be of the first trade, of for example, the more apt child, that is taken to be carpenters, and few bind themselves to the second ; made a funambulo, will prove more excellent in his whereas nevertheless the rising in fortune seldom feats; but the less apt will be gregarius funumbulo amendeth the mind; but on the other side, the re- also, And there is small question, but that these moving of the stonds and impediments of the mind abilities would have been more common, and others doth often clear the passage and cnrrent to a man's of like sort, not attempted, would likewise have fortune. But certain it is, whether it be believed or been brought upon the stage, but for two reasons : no, that as the most excellent of metals, gold, is of the one, because of men's diffidence in prejudging all others the most pliant and most enduring to be them as impossibilities; for it holdeth in those wrought; so of all living and breathing substances, things which the poet saith, “possunt, quia posse the perfectest man is the most susceptible of help, videntur;" for no man shall know how much may improvement, impression, and alteration ; and not be done except he believe much may be done. The • only in his body, but in his mind and spirit ; and other reason is, because they be but practices base there again not only in his appetite and affection, and inglorious, and of no great use, and therefore but in his powers of wit and reason.

sequestered from reward of value, and on the other For as to the body of man, we find many and side painful; so as the recompence balanceth not strange experiences, how nature is over-wrought by with the travel and suffering. And as to the will custom, even in actions that seem of most difficulty of man, it is that which is most maniable and obe. and least possible. As first in voluntary motion, dient; as that which admitteth most medicines to which though it be termed voluntary, yet the high- cure and alter it. The most sovereign of all is reliest degrees of it are not voluntary; for it is in gion, which is able to change and transform it in my power and will to run ; but to run faster than the deepest and most inward inclinations and moaccording to my lightness or disposition of body, is tions, and next to that is opinion and apprehension, not in my power nor will. We see the industry whether it be infused by tradition and institution, or and practice of tumblers and funambulos, what wrought in by disputation and persuasion ; and the effects of great wonder it bringeth the body of man third is example, which transformeth the will of unto. So for suffering of pain and dolour, which is man into the similitude of that which is most olithought so contrary to the nature of man, there is servant and familiar towards it; and the fourth is, much example of penances in strict orders of super-when one affection is healed and corrected by an. stition what they do endure, such as may well verify other, as when cowardice is remedied by shame and the report of the Spartan boys, which were wont to dishonour, or sluggishness and backwardness by be scourged upon the altar so bitterly as sometimes indignation and emulation, and so of the like; and they died of it, and yet were never heard to com- lastly, when all these means or any of them have plain. And to pass to those faculties which are new-framed or formed human will, then doth custom reckoned more involuntary, as long fasting and ab- and habit corroborate and confirm all the rest. stinence, and the contrary extreme, voracity ; the Therefore it is no marvel, though this faculty of the leaving and forbearing the use of drink for altoge-mind, of will and election, which inclineth affection ther; the enduring vehement cold, and the like; and appetite, being but the inceptions and rudiments there have not wanted, neither do want, divers ex- of will, may be so well governed and managed ; because it admitteth access to so divers remedies to

Five points. be applied to it, and to work upon it: the effects 1. That exercises are to be framed to the life ; whereof are so many and so known, as require no that is to say, to work ability in that kind whereof enumeration; but generally they do issue, as medi- a man in the course of action shall have most use. cines do, into two kinds of cures, whereof the one 2. The indirect and oblique exercises ; which do, is a just or true cure, and the other is called palli- per partes and per consequentiam, enable these faation : for either the labour and intention is to culties; which perhaps direct exercise at first would reform the affections really and truly, restraining but distort ; and these have chiefly place where the them if they be too violent, and raising them if faculty is weak, not per se, but per accidens ; as if they be too soft and weak; or else it is to cover want of memory grow through lightness of wit and them, or, if occasion be, to pretend them and repre- | want of staid attention; then the mathematics or sent them : of the former sort whereof the exam- the law helpeth ; because they are things, wherein ples are plentiful in the schools of philosophers, if the mind once roam, it cannot recover. and in all other institutions of moral virtue: and of 3. Of the advantages of exercise ; as to dance the other sort the examples are more plentiful in the with heavy shoes, to march with heavy armour and courts of princes, and in all politic traffic; where it carriage; and the contrary advantage, in natures is ordinary to find, not only profound dissimulations, very dull and unapt, of working alacrity, by framing and suffocating the affections, that no note or mark an exercise with some delight or affection. appear of them outwardly; but also lively simulations and affectations, carrying the tokens of pas

“Ut pueris olim dant crustula blandi

Doctores, elementa velint ut discere prima.” sions which are not, as risus jussus and lacryme

Horat. Sat. I. i. 25. coacte, and the like.

4. Of the cautions of exercise; as to beware lest OF HELPS OF THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS. by evil doing, as all beginners do weakly, a man

grow not, and be inveterate, in an ill habit, and so The intellectual powers have fewer means to take not the advantage of custom in perfection, but work upon them, than the will or body of man; in confirming ill. Slubbering on the lute. but the one that prevaileth, that is, exercise, work- 5. The marshalling and sequel of sciences and eth more forcibly in them than in the rest.

practices; logic and rhetoric should be used to be * The ancient habit of the philosophers, “ Si read after poesy, history, and philosophy ; first, exquis quærat in utramque partem de omni scibili.” ercise, to do things well and clean ; after, promptly

The exercise of scholars making verses extem- and readily. pore, “ Stans pede in uno."

The exercises in the universities and schools are The exercise of lawyers in memory narrative. of memory and invention ; either to speak by heart

The exercise of sophists, and “ Jo. ad oppositum," that which is set down verbatim, or to speak extemwith manifest effect.

pore ; whereas there is little use in action of either Artificial memory greatly holpen by exercise. or both; but most things which we utter are neither

The exercise of buffoons to draw all things to verbally premeditate, nor merely extemporal. Thereconceits ridiculous.

fore exercise would be framed to take a little breathThe means that help the understanding and fa- ing, and to consider of heads; and then to fit and culties thereof are,

form the speech extempore. This wculd be done (Not example, as in the will, by conversation ; in two manners; both with writing and tables, and and here the conceit of imitation already digested, without : for in most actions it is permitted and with the confutation“ obiter si videbitur,” of Tully's passable to use the note, whereunto if a man be not opinion, advising a man to take some one to imi- accustomed, it will put him out. tate. Similitude of faces analysed.)

There is no use of a narrative memory in acade. Arts, Logic, Rhetoric; The ancients, Aristotle, miis, namely, with circumstances of times, persons, Plato, Theætetus, Gorgias “ litigiosus vel sophista," and places, and with names; and it is one art to Protagoras, Aristotle, “schola sua.” Topics, Elenchs, discourse, and another to relate and describe ; and Rhetorics, Organon, Cicero, Hermogenes. The | herein use and action is most conversant. Neoterics, Ramus, Agricola. “Nil sacri ;” Lullius Also to sum up and contract, is a thing in action his Typocosmia, studying Cooper's Dictionary, Mat- of very general use. thæus collection of proper words for metaphors, Agrippa “ de vanitatibus," &c.

Que. If not here of imitation.

Collections preparative. Aristotle's similitude of CX. SIR FRANCIS BACON TO MR. MATTHEW a shoemaker's shop, full of shoes of all sorts : De- ABOUT HIS WRITINGS, AND THE DEATH mosthenes, “ Exordia concionum." Tully's precept OF A FRIEND.+ of theses of all sorts preparative.

The relying upon exercise, with the difference of using and tempering the instrument: and the simi- The reason of so much time taken before my litude of prescribing against the laws of nature and answer to yours of the fourth of August, was chiefly of estate.

by accompanying my letter with the paper which * These that follow are but indigested notes.

T Sir Tobie Matthew's Collection of Letters, p. 23.


as © &. What was the true time when you wrote the

here I send you ; and again, now lately, not to hold | time, and in what place meant you to have preached from you till the end of a letter, that which by grief them ? if by treatise, to whom did you intend to may, for a time, efface all the former contents, the dedicate, or exhibit, or deliver such treatise ? death of your good friend and mine A. B., to whom 5. What was the reason, and to what end did you because I used to send my letters for conveyance to first set down in scattered papers, and after knit up, you, it made me so much the more unready in the in form of a treatise or sermon, such a mass of treadespatch of them. In the mean time I think my- sonable slanders against the king, his posterity, and self, howsoever it hath pleased God otherwise to the whole state ? bless me, a most unfortunate man, to be deprived of 6. What moved you to write, the king might be two, a great number in true friendship, of those stricken with death on the sudden, or within eight friends, whom I accounted as no stage-friends, but days, as Ananias or Nabal? do you know of any private friends, and such, as with whom I might conspiracy or danger to his person, or have you both freely and safely communicate, him by death, heard of any such attempt ? . and you by absence. As for the memorial of the 7. You have confessed that these things were late deceased queen, I will not question whether applied to the king; and that, after the example of you be to pass for a disinterested man or no; I preachers and chroniclers, kings' infirmities are to be freely confess myself am not, and so I leave it. As laid open; this showeth plainly your use must be for my other writings, you make me very glad of to publish them : show to whom and what manner. your approbation; the rather, because you add concurrence in opinion with others; for else I might said writings, or any part of them ? and what was have conceived, that affection would, perhaps, have the last time you looked upon them, or perused prevailed with you, beyond that, which if your judg. them, before they were found or taken ? ment had been neat and free, you could have 9. What moved you to make doubt whether the esteemed. And as for your caution, touching the people will rise against the king for taxes and opdignity of ecclesiastical persons, I shall not have pressions ? Do you know, or have you heard, of any cause to meet with them any otherwise, than in likelihood or purpose of any tumults or commotion ? that some schoolmen have, with excess, advanced 10. What moved you to write, That getting of the authority of Aristotle. Other occasion I shall the crown-land again would cost blood, and bring have none. But now I have sent you that only part men to say, This is the heir, let us kill him ? Do of the whole writing, which may perhaps have a you know, or have you heard of any conspiracy or little harshness and provocation in it: although I danger to the prince, for doubt of calling back the may almost secure myself, that if the preface passed crown-land ? so well, this will not irritate more, being indeed, to 11. What moved you to prove that all the king's the preface, but as palma ad pugnum. Your own officers mought be put to the sword ? Do you know, love expressed to me, I heartily embrace; and hope or have you heard of any petition is intended to be that there will never be occasion of other than en made against the king's council and officers, or any tireness between us; which nothing but majores rising of people against them ? charitates shall ever be able to break off.

12. What moved you to say in your writing, That our king, before his coming to the kingdom, promised mercy and judgment, but we find neither ?

What promise do you mean of, and wherein hath INTERROGATORIES WHEREUPON PEACHAM | the king broke the same promise ? IS TO BE EXAMINED.

There follows in the hand-writing of Secretary


Upon those interrogatories, Peacham this day 1. Who procured you, moved you, or advised you, was examined before torture, in torture, between to put in writing these traitorous slanders which torture, and after torture ; notwithstanding nothing you have set down against his Majesty's person and could be drawn from him, he still persisting in his government, or any of them ?

obstinate and insensible denials, and former answers. 2. Who gave you any advertisement or intelli

January the 19th, 1614. gence touching those particulars which are contained in your writings; as touching the sale of the


JUL. CÆSAR, crown lands, the deceit of the king's officers, the

RAN. CREWE, greatness of the king's gifts, his keeping divided


HENRY YELVERTON, courts, and the rest; and who hath conferred with

H. MOUNTAGUE, you, or discoursed with you, concerning these points ?

3. Whom have you made privy and acquainted with the said writings, or any part of them ? and

CXI. TO THE KING, CONCERNING PEACH. who hath been your helpers or confederates therein ?

AM'S CAUSE." 4. What use mean you to make of the said writings ? was it by preaching them in sermon, or by

IT MAY PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENT MAJESTY, publishing them in treatise ? if in sermon, at what

It grieveth me exceedingly that your Majesty Sir David Dalrymple’s Memorials and Letters relating to the history of Great Britain in the reign of James the First, should be so much troubled with this matter of p. 26. Edit. Glasgow. 1762.

† Rawley's Resuscitatio.


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