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they were to make ; not one petition unanswered. putation may light upon Sir Robert Naunton, And this, I think, could not be said in our age before. through his zealous affection to attend his Majesty This I speak not out of ostentation, but out of glad in this journey. ness when I have done my duty. I know men think I will not omit to let you know, that his Majesty I cannot continue, if I should thus oppress myself is very well, and receiveth much contentment in his with business : but that account is made. The journey. And with this conclusion, I rest duties of life are more than life; and, if I die now, I shall die before the world will be weary of me,
Your lordship’s most affectionate to do you service, which in our times is somewhat rare. And all this
G. BUCKINGHAM. while I have been a little unperfect in my foot. But Edinburgh, the 11th of June, 1617. I have taken pains more like the beast with four legs, than like a man with scarce two legs. But if it be a gout, which I do neither acknowledge, nor much disclaim, it is a good-natured gout; for I have TO THE LORD VISCOUNT FENTON.|| no rage of it, and it goeth away quickly. I have hope, it is but an accident of changing from a field
MY VERY GOOD LORD, air * to a Thames-air; † or rather, I think, it is the I THANK your lordship for your courteous letter; distance of the king and your lordship from me, that and if I were asked the question, I would always doth congeal my humours and spirits.
choose rather to have a letter of no news, than a When I had written this letter, I received your letter of news ; for news imports alteration : but lordship's letter of the third of this present, wherein letters of kindness and respect bring that, which, your lordship showeth your solicitous care of my though it be no news amongst friends, is more health, which did wonderfully comfort me. And it welcome. is true, that at this present I am very well, and my I am exceedingly glad to hear, that this journey supposed gout quite vanished.
of his Majesty, which I never esteemed more than a I humbly pray you to commend my service, long progress, save that it had reason of state joined infinite in desire, howsoever limited in ability, to his with pleasure, doth sort to be so joyful and so comMajesty, to hear of whose health and good dispo- fortable. sition is to me the greatest beatitude, which I can For your parliament, God speed it well; and for receive in this world. And I humbly beseech his ours, you know the sea would be calm, if it were not Majesty to pardon me, that I do not now send him for the winds: and I hope the king, whensoever that my account of council business, and other his royal shall be, will find those winds reasonably well laid. commands, till within these four days ; because the Now that the sun is got up a little higher, God flood of business of justice did hitherto wholly ordains all things to the happiness of his Majesty, possess me ; which, I know, worketh this effect, as and his monarchy. it contenteth his subjects, and knitteth their hearts My health, I thank God, is good; and I hope this more and more to his Majesty, though, I must con- supposed gout was but an incomer. I ever rest fess, my mind is upon other matters, as his Majesty Your lordship's affectionate and assured friend, shall know, by the grace of God, at his return. God
FR. BACON. ever bless and prosper you.
Whitehall, June 18 [1617). Your lordship's true and most devoted friend and servant,
FR. BACON. Whitehall, this 8th of June, 1617.
TO THE LORD KEEPER, WRITTEN FROM
SCOTLAND, JUNE 28, 1618.
I will begin to speak of the business of this day; TO THE LORD KEEPER. I
opus hujus diei in die suo, which is of the parlia
ment. It began on the 7th of this month, and MY HONOURABLE LORD,
ended this day, being the 28th of June. His MaYour lordship will understand, by Sir Thomas jesty, as I perceived by relation, rode thither in Lake's letter, his Majesty's directions touching the great state the first day. These eyes are witnesses, surveyor's deputy of the court of wards. And that he rode in an honourable fashion, as I have though I assure myself of your lordship’s care of the seen him in England, this day. All the lords rode business, which his Majesty maketh his own; yet in English robes : not an English lord on horseback, my respect to Sir Robert Naunton & maketh me add though all the parliament-house at his Majesty's my recommendation thereof to your lordship, whom elbow, but my lord of Buckingham, who waited upon I desire to give all the fartherance and assistance the king's stirrup in his collar, but not in his robes. you can to the business, that no prejudice or im- His Majesty the first day, by way of preparation to Gray's-Inn.
|| Sir Thomas Erskine, who for his service to the king, in † Dorset-house, originally belonging to the bishops of Salis- thë attempt of the earl of Gowry, was, upon his Majesty's bary, afterwards the house of Sir Richard Sackville, and then accession to the throne of England, made captain of his guard of his son Sir Thomas, earl of Dorset, and lord treasurer. in the room of Sir Walter Raleigh. He was afterwards created Harl. MS3, vol. 7006.
earl of Kelly. Surveyor of the court of wards.
I From a copy in the Paper-office.
the subject of the parliament, made a declaratory unreasonably and undutifully refractory, his Majesty speech, wherein he expressed himself what he would hath declared himself, that he will proceed against not do, but what he would do. The relation is too him by the warrant of the law, and by the strength prolix for a sheet of paper; and I am promised a of his royal power. copy of it, which I will bring myself unto your lord- His Majesty's speech this day had a necessary ship with all the speed I may. But I may not be connexion with his former discourse.
He was so reserved, as not to tell your lordship, that in that pleased to declare what was done and determined in speech his Majesty was pleased to do England and the progress of this parliament; his reasons for it; Englishmen much honour and grace; and that he and that nothing was gotten by shouldering or studied nothing so much, sleeping and waking, as to wrestling, but by debate, judgment, and reason, withreduce the barbarity, I have warrant to use the out any interposition of his royal power in any king's own word, of this country unto the sweet thing. He commanded the lords in state of judicivility of ours; adding farther, that if the Scottish cature, to give life, by a careful execution, unto the nation would be as docible to learn the goodness of law, which otherwise was but mortuum cadaver el England, as they are teachable to limp after their bona peritura. ill, he might with facility prevail in his desire: for Thus much touching the legal part of my adverthey had learned of the English to drink healths, totisement unto you. I will give your lordship an acwear coaches and gay clothes, to take tobacco, and count in two lines of the complement of the country, to speak neither Scottish nor English. Many such time, and place. diseases of the times his Majesty was pleased to The country affords more profit and better conenumerate, not fit for my pen to remember, and tentment, than I could ever promise myself, by my graciously to recognise, how much he was beholden reading of it. to the English nation for their love and conformity The king was never more checrful in body and to his desires. The king did personally and in mind, never so well pleased : and so are the English fallibly sit amongst them of the parliament every of all conditions. day; so that there fell not a word amongst them, but The entertainment, very honourable, very general, his Majesty was of council with it.
and very full : every day feasts and invitations. I The whole assembly, after the wonted manner, know not who paid for it. They strive, by direction, was abstracted into eight bishops, eight lords, eight to give us all fair contentment, that we may know, gentlemen, knights of the shires, and eight lay that the country is not so contemptible, but that it is burgesses for towns. And this epitome of the worth the cherishing. whole parliament did meet every day in one room The lord provost of this town, who in English is to treat and debate of the great affairs of the king- the mayor, did feast the king and all the lords this dom. There was exception taken against some of the week; and another day all the gentlemen. And I lower house, which were returned by the country, confess, it was performed with state, with abundance, being pointed at as men averse in their appetites and with a general content. and humours to the business of the parliament, There is a general, and a bold expectation, that who were deposed of their attendance by the king's Mr. John Murray shall be created a baron of this power; and others, better affected, by the king's country; and some do chat, that my lord of Buckelection, placed in their room.
ingham's Mr. Wray shall be a groom of the bedThe greatest and weightiest articles, agitated in chamber in his place. this parliament, were specially touching the govern- There hath been yet no creation of lords, since ment of the kirk and kirkmen, and for the abolish- his Majesty did touch Scotland: but of knights ing of hereditary sheriffs to an annual charge; and to many, yet not so many as we heard in England ; but enable justices of the peace to have as well the real it is thought all the pensioners will be knights toexecution, as the title of their places. For now the morrow. Neither are there any more English lords sheriff doth hold jura regalia in his circuit without sworn of the privy council here, save my lord of check or controlment; and the justices of the peace Buckingham. do want the staff of their authority. For the church. The earl of Southampton, Montgomery, and Hay, and commonwealth, his Majesty doth strive to shape are already gone for England. the frame of this kingdom to the method and de- I have made good profit of my journey hither; grees of the government of England, as by reading for I have gotten a transcript of the speech, which of the several acts it may appear. The king's de- your lordship did deliver at your first and happy sire and travel herein, though he did suffer a mo- sitting in chancery ; which I could not gain in Engmentary opposition, (for his countrymen will speak land. It hath been showed to the king, and reboldly to him,) hath in part been profitable. For ceived due approbation. The God of heaven, allthough he hath not fully and complementally pre-wise and all-sufficient, guard and assist your lordship vailed in all things, yet he hath won ground in most in all your actions: for I can read here whatsoever things, and hath gained acts of parliament to autho- your lordship doth act there ; and your courses be rize particular commissioners, to set down orders such, as you need not to fear to give copies of them. for the church and churchmen, and to treat with But the king's ears be wide and long, and he seeth sheriffs for their offices by way of pecuniary com- with many eyes. All this works for your honour and position. But all these proceedings are to have an comfort. I pray God nothing be soiled, heated, or inseparable reference to his Majesty. If any prove cooled in the carriage. Envy sometimes attends
virtues, and not for good; and these bore certain that good service, whereof we hear so general approprieties and circumstances inherent to your lord probation, that it much rejoiceth me, who rest ship’s mind; which men may admire, I cannot ex- Your lordship’s ever at command, press. But I will wade no farther herein, lest I
G. BUCKINGHAM. should seem eloquent. I have been too saucy with
Falkland, the 5th of July, 1617. your lordship, and held you too long with my idleness. He that takes time from your lordship, robs the public. God give your body health, and your soul heaven.
TO THE KING.|| My lord of Pembroke, my lord of Arundel, my lord Zouch, and Mr. Secretary Lake, were new sworn
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY, of the council here.
I do very much thank your Majesty for your letter, and think myself much honoured by it. For though it contain some matter of dislike, in which
respect it had grieved me more than any event TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM. which hath fallen out in my life ; yet because I
know reprehensions from the best masters to the MY VERY GOOD LORD,
best servants are necessary; and that no chastiseI HAVE sent enclosed a letter to his Majesty con- ment is pleasant for the time, but yet worketh good cerning the strangers ; in which business I had effects; and for that I find intermixed some passages formerly written to your lordship a joint letter with of trust and grace; and find also in myself inwardly my lord of Canterbury, and my lord Privy Seal,* sincerity of intention, and conformity of will, howsoand Mr. Secretary Winwood.
ever I may have erred; I do not a little comfort I am, I thank God, much relieved with my being myself, resting upon your Majesty's accustomed in the country air, and the order I keep ; so that of favour; and most humbly desiring, that any one of late gears I have not found my health better. my particular notions may be expounded by the
Your lordship writeth seldomer than you were constant and direct course, which, your Majesty wont; but when you are once gotten into England, knoweth, I have ever held in your service. you will be more at leisure. God bless and prosper And because it hath pleased your Majesty, of your
singular grace and favour, to write fully and freely Your lordship’s true and devoted friend and unto me; it is duty and decorum in me not to write servant.
shortly to your Majesty again, but with some length;
FR. BACON. not so much by way of defence or answer, which Gorhambury, July 29, 1617.
yet I know your Majesty would always graciously admit; as to show, that I have, as I ought, weighed every word of your Majesty's letter.
First, I do acknowledge, that this match of Sir TO THE LORD KEEPER."
John Villiers is magnum in parvo in both senses,
that your Majesty speaketh. But your Majesty MY HONOURABLE LORD,
perceiveth well, that I took it to be in a farther deI have acquainted his Majesty with your letter, gree, majus in parvo, in respect of your service. who in this business of Sir John Bennet's, f hath But since your Majesty biddeth me to confide upon altogether followed your lordship’s direction. your act of empire, I have done. For, as the scrip
His Majesty hath at length been pleased to de- ture saith, " to God all things are possible;” so spatch Mr. Lowder, according to your lordship's certainly to wise kings much is possible. But for desire, for the place in Ireland. What the cause of that second sense, that your Majesty speaketh of, the stay was, I shall impart to your lordship, when magnum in parvo, in respect of the stir ; albeit it I see you, being now too long to relate.
being but a most lawful and ordinary thing, I most His Majesty hath not yet had leisure to read the humbly pray your Majesty to pardon me, if I signify little book you sent me to present unto him ; but, as to you, that we here take the loud and vocal, and, as soon as I see the fittest opportunity, I will offer it to I may call it, streperous carriage, 10 have been far
more on the other side, which indeed is inconvenient, His Majesty, God be thanked, is very well; and rather than the thing itself. I am exceeding glad to hear of your health, that Now for the manner of my affection to my lord you are of so good term-proof, which is the best of of Buckingham, for whom I would spend my life, it, being you are in those businesses put most to the and that which is to me more, the cares of my life; trial, which I wish may long continue in that strength, I must humbly confess, that it was in this a little that you may still do his Majesty and your country parent-like, this being no other term, than his lord• Edward, earl of Worcester.
one of the barons of the exchequer in Ireland ; for which he 1 Harl. MSS. Vol. 7006.
was recommended by the lord keeper to the earl of Buckingof Godstow in Oxfordshire, who was sent to Brussels ham, in a letter dated at Whitehall
, May 25, 1617. to the archduke, to expostulate with him concerning a libel || This letter appears, from the indorsement of the king's on the king, imputed to Erycius Puteanus, and entitled, Isaaci answer to it, to have been written at Gorhambury, July 25, Casauboni Corona Regia.
1617. That printed with this date in his Works, should be He had been solicitor to the queen ; but finding her dis- August 2, 1617, as I find by the original draught of it. like of him, he was willing to part with his place for that of
ship hath heretofore vouchsafed to my counsels; but time he was before the lords, might particularly in truth, and it please your Majesty, without any perceive an alteration in my carriage. And now grain of disesteem for his lordship’s discretion. For that your Majesty hath been pleased to open yourI know him to be naturally a wise man, of a sound self to me, I shall be willing to farther the match and staid wit, as I ever said unto your Majesty. And by any thing, that shall be desired of me, or that is again, I know he hath the best tutor in Europe. But in my power. yet I was afraid, that the height of his fortune might And whereas your Majesty conceiveth some dregs make him too secure; and as the proverb is, a looker- of spleen in me by the word Mr. Bacon; truly it on sometimes seeth more than a gamester.
was but to express in thankfulness the comparative For the particular part of a true friend, which of my fortune unto your Majesty, the author of the your Majesty witnesseth, that the earl hath lately latter, to show how little I needed to fear, while I performed towards me, in palliating some errors of had your favour. For, I thank God, I was never mine ; it is no new thing with me to be more and vindicative nor implacable. more bound to his lordship ; and I am most humbly As for my opinion of prejudice to your Majesty's to thank, whatsoever it was, both your Majesty and service, as I touched it before, I have done; I do him; knowing well, that I may and do commit many humbly acquiesce in your Majesty's satisfaction, and errors, and must depend upon your Majesty's gra- rely upon your Majesty's judgment, who unto judgcious countenance and favour for them, and shall ment have also power, so to mingle the elements, have need of such a friend near your Majesty. For as may conserve the fabric. I am not so ignorant of mine own case, but that I For the interest which I have in the mother, I know I am come in with as strong an envy of some do not doubt but it was increased by this, that I in particulars, as with the love of the general. judgment, as I then stood, affected that which she
For my opposition to this business, which, it did in passion. But I think the chief obligation seemeth, hath been informed your Majesty, I think was, that I stood so firmly to her in the matter of it was meant, if it be not a thing merely feigned, her assurance, wherein I supposed I did your Maand without truth or ground, of one of these two jesty service, and mentioned it in a memorial of things; for I will dissemble nothing with your Ma- council-business, as half craving thanks for it. And jesty. It is true, that in those matters, which by sure I am now, that, and the like, hath made Sir your Majesty's commandment and reference, came Edward Coke a convert, as I did write to your Mabefore the table concerning Sir Edward Coke, I was jesty in my last. sometimes sharp, it may be too much ; but it was For the collation of the two spirits, I shall easily with end to have your Majesty's will performed ; or subscribe to your Majesty's answer; for Solomon else, when methought he was more peremptory than were no true man, if in matter of malice the woman became him, in respect of the honour of the table. should not be the superior. It is true also, that I disliked the riot or violence, To conclude, I have gone through, with the plainwhereof we of your council gave your Majesty ad- ness of truth, the parts of your Majesty's letter, very vertisement by our joint letter: and I disliked it the humbly craving pardon for troubling your Majesty more, because he justified it to be law; which was so long; and most humbly praying your Majesty to his old song. But in that act of council, which was continue me in your grace and favour, which is the made thereupon, I did not see but all my lords were fruit of my life upon the root of a good conscience. as forward as myself, as a thing most necessary for And although time in this business have cast me preservation of your peace, which had been so care- upon a particular, which, I confess, may have probafully and firmly kept in your absence. And all this ble show of passion or interest ; yet God is my had a fair end, in a reconcilement made by Mr. witness, that the thing that most moved me, was an Attorney, whereby both husband and wife and child anxious and solicitous care of your Majesty's state should have kept together. Which, if it had con- and service, out of consideration of the time past tinued, I am persuaded the match had been in better and present. and fairer forwardness, than now it is.
God ever preserve and bless your Majesty, and Now for the times of things, I beseech your Ma- send you a joyful return, after your prosperous jesty to understand that which my lord of Bucking-journey. ham will witness with me, that I never had any word of letter from his lordship of the business, till I wrote my letter of advice ; nor again, after my letter of advice, till five weeks after, which was The King 10 the LORD KEEPER, in answer to his now within this sennight. So that although I did Lordship's letter from Gorhambury, of July 25, in truth presume, that the earl would do nothing 1617 without your Majesty's privity ; yet I was in some
JAMES R. doubt, by this his silence of his own mind, that he was not earnest in it, but only was content to em- Right trusty and well beloved counsellor, we greet brace the officious offers and endeavours of others.
But, to conclude this point, after I had received, Although our approach doth now begin to be near by a former letter of his lordship, knowledge of his London, and that there doth not appear any great mind, I think Sir Edward Coke himself, the last necessity of answering your last letter, since we are * Sir Henry Yelverton.
so shortly to be at home; yet we have thought good
to make some observations to you upon the same, short of memory, as to have forgotten how far you that you may not err, by mistaking our meaning. undertook in that business, before acquainting us
The first observation we are to make is, that, with it; what a long journey you made the poor whereas you would invert the second sense, wherein man undertake, together with the slight recommendwe took your magnum in parvo, in accounting it to ation you sent of him; which drave us to those be made magnum by their streperous carriage, that straits, that both the poor man had been undone, and were for the match, we cannot but show you your your credit a little blasted, if Buckingham had not, mistaking therein. For every wrong must be by his importunity, made us both grant you more than judged by the first violent and wrongous ground suit, for you had already acted a part of it, and whereupon it proceeds. And was not the thefteous likewise run a hazard of the hinderance of your own stealing away of the daughter from her own father service, by preferring a person to so important a the first ground whereupon all this great noise hath place, whom you so slightly recommended. since proceeded ? For the ground of her getting Our third observation is upon the point of your again came upon a lawful and ordinary warrant, opposition to this business, wherein you either do, subscribed by one of our council,t for redress of the or at least would seem to mistake us a little. For former violence: and except the father of a child first, whereas you excuse yourself of the oppositions might be proved to be either lunatic, or idiot, we you made against Sir Edward Coke at the councilnever read in any law, that either it could be law- table, both for that, and other causes; we never ful for any creature to steal his child from him; or took upon us such a patrociny of Sir Edward Coke, that it was a matter of noise and streperous carriage as if he were a man not to be meddled withal in for him to hunt for the recovery of his child again. any case. For whatsoever you did against him, by
Our next observation is, that whereas you protest our employment and commendation, we ever allowyour affection to Buckingham, and thereafter confess, ed it, and still do, for good service on your part. that it is in some sort parent-like ; yet, after that | De bonis operibus non lapidamus vos. But whereyou have praised his natural parts, we will not say, as you talk of the riot and violence committed by that you throw all down by a direct imputation him, we wonder you make no mention of the riot upon him; but we are sure you do not deny to have and violence of them, that stole away his daughter, had a greater jealousy of his discretion, than, so far which was the first ground of all that noise, as we as we conceive, he ever deserved at your or any said before. For a man may be compelled by maniman's hands. For you say, that you were afraid fest wrong beyond his patience; and the first breach that the height of his fortune might make him too of that quietness, which hath ever been kept since secure; and so, as a looker on, you might sometimes the beginning of our journey, was made by them see more than a gamester. Now we know not that committed the theft. And for your laying the how to interpret this in plain English otherwise, burden of your opposition upon the council, we than that you were afraid, that the height of his meddle not with that question ; but the opposition, fortune might make him misknow himself. And which we justly find fault with you, was the refusal to surely, if that be your parent-like affection toward sign a warrant for the father to the recovery of his him, he hath no obligation to you for it. And for child, clad with those circumstances, as is reported, our part, besides our own proof, that we find him of your slight carriage to Buckingham's mother, farthest from that vice of any courtier, that ever when she repaired to you upon so reasonable an we had so near about us ; so do we fear, that you errand. What farther opposition you made in that shall prove the only phenix in that jealousy of all business, we leave it to the due trial in the own time. the kingdom. For we would be very sorry, that the But whereas you would distinguish of times, preworld should apprehend that conceit of him. But tending ignorance either of our meaning or his, when we cannot conceal, that we think it was least your you made your opposition; that would have served part of any to enter into that jealousy of him, of for a reasonable excuse not to have farthered such whom we have heard you oft speak in a contrary a business, till you had been first employed in it: style. And as for that error of yours, which he but that can serve for no excuse of crossing any lately palliated, whereof you seem to pretend igno- thing, that so nearly concerned one, whom you prorance; the time is so short since you commended fess such friendship unto. We will not speak of to him one 1 to be of the barons of our exche obligation; for surely we think, even in good manqner in Ireland, as we cannot think you to be so ners, you had reason not to have crossed any thing,
• Lady Hatton had first removed her daughter to Sir Ed- with all true affection; whereas others did it out of faction mund Withipole's house, near Oatlands, without the know. and ambition. Which words glancing directly at secretary ledge of Sir Edward Coke; and from thence, according to a Winwood, he alleged, that what he had done was by the direcletter of Mr. Chamberlain, dated July 19, 1617, the young lady tion of the queen and the other parties, and showed a letter of was privately conveyed to a house of the lord of Argyle's by approbation of all his courses from the king, making the whole Hampton-Court. “Whence,” adds Mr. Chamberlain," her table judge what faction or ambition appeared in his carriage: father, with a warrant from Mr. Secretary [Winwood,] fetched to which no answer was returned. The queen, some time her; but indeed went farther than his warrant, and brake after, taking notice of the disgust, which the lord kceper had open divers doors before he got her.”
conceived against secretary Winwood, and asking his lordship, † Secretary Winwood, who, as Mr. Chamberlain observes what occasion the secretary had given him to oppose himself in the letter cited in the note above, was treated with ill lan- so violently against him, his lordship answered, “ Madam, I guage at the council-board by the lord keeper, and threatened can say no more but he is proud, and I am proud.” MS. letwith a premuni e, on account of his warrant granted to Sir ter of Mr. Chainberlain, October 11, 1617. Edward Coke His lordship, at the same time, told the lady Mr. Lowder. See the letter of the earl of Buckingham Comptop, mother of the earl of Buckingham, that they wished of the 5th of July. well to her and her sons, and would be ready to serve the earl