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digesting the greatest variety of fortune. So that | But what, Squire, is thy master's end? If to make when all other places and professions require but the prince happy he serves, let the instructions to their several virtues, a brave leader in the wars employmen,' the relations of ambassadors, the must be accomplished with all. It is the wars that treaties between princes, and actions of the present are the tribunal seat, where the highest rights and time, be the books he reads : let the orations of possessions are decided; the occupation of kings, wise princes, or experimented connsellors, in council the root of nobility, the protection of all estates. or parliament, and the final sentences of grave and And lastly, lovers never thought their profession learned judges in weighty and doubtful causes, be sufficiently graced, till they have compared it to a the lecturers he frequents. Let the holding of affecwarfare. All, that in any other profession can be tion with confederates without charge, the frustratwished for, is but to live happily; but to be a brave ing of the attempts of enemies without battles, the commander in the field, death itself doth crown the entitling of the crown to new possessions without head with glory. Therefore, Squire, let thy master show of wrong, the filling of the prince's coffers go with me; and though he be resolved in the pur- without violence, the keeping of men in appetite suit of his love, let him aspire to it by the noblest without impatience, be the inventions he seeks out. means. For ladies count it no honour to subdue Let policy and matters of state be the chief, and althem with their fairest eyes, which will be daunted most the only thing he intends. But if he will bewith the fierce encounter of an enemy. And they lieve Philaulia, and seek most his own happiness, will quickly discern a champion fit to wear their he must not of them embrace all kinds, but make glove, from a page not worthy to carry their pan-choice, and avoid all matter of peril, displeasure, and tofle. Therefore, I say again, let him seek his for-charge, and turn them over to some novices, that tune in the field, where he may either lose his love, know not manacles from bracelets, nor burdens from or find new argument to advance it.
robes. For himself, let him set for matters of commodity and strength, though they be joined with
envy. Let him not trouble himself too laboriously THE STATESMAN'S SPEECH.
to sound into any matter deeply, or to execute any
thing exactly ; but let himself make himself cunning SQUIRE, my advice to thy master shall be as a rather in the humours and drifts of persons, than in token wrapped up in words: but then will it show the nature of business and affairs. Of that it sufficeth itself fair when it is unfolded in his actions. To to know only so much, as may make him able to wish him to change from one humour to another, make use of other men's wits, and to make again a were but as if, for the cure of a man in pain, one smooth and pleasing report. Let him entertain the should advise him to lay upon the other side, but proposition of others, and ever rather let him have not enable him to stand on his feet. If from a san- an eye to the circumstances, than to the matter itguine delightful humour of love, he turn to a me- self; for then shall he ever seem to add somewhat lancholy retired humour of contemplation, or a tur- of his own : and besides, when a man doth not forget bulent boiling humour of the wars; what doth he so much as a circumstance, men do think his wit but change tyrants ? Contemplation is a dream; doth superabound for the substance. In his counlove, a trance; and the humour of war is raving. sels let him not be confident ; for that will rather These be shifts of humour, but no reclaiming to make him obnoxious to the success; but let him
I debar him not studies nor books, to give follow the wisdom of oracles, which uttered that him stay and variety of conceit, refresh his mind, which might ever be applied to the event. And to cover sloth and indisposition, and to draw to him ever rather let him take the side which is likeliest from those that are studious, respect and commend to be followed, than that which is soundest and best, ation. But let him beware, lest they possess not that every thing may seem to be carried by his ditoo much of his time; that they abstract not his rection. To conclude, let him be true to himself, judgment from present experience, nor make him and avoid all tedious reaches of state, that are not presume pon knowing much, to apply the less. merely pertinent to his particular. And if he will For the wars, I deny him no enterprise, that shall needs pursue his affection, and go on his course, be worthy in greatness, likely in success, or necessary what can so much advance him in his own way ? in duty; not mixed with any circumstance of jea. The merit of war is too outwardly glorious to be. lousy, but duly laid upon him. But I would not have inwardly grateful: and it is the exile of his eyes, him take the alarm from his own humour, but from which looking with such affection upon the picture, the occasion; and I would again he should know an cannot but with infinite contentment behold the life. employment from a discourting. And for his love, But when his mistress shall perceive, that his enlet it not disarm his heart within, as to make him deavours are become a true support of her, a distoo credulous to favours, nor too tender to unkindcharge of her care, a watchman of her person, a nesses, nor too apt to depend upon the heart he knows scholar of her wisdom, an instrument of her opernot. Nay in his demonstration of love, let him ation, and a conduit of her virtue ; this, with his not go too far; for these seely lovers, when they diligences, accesses, humility, and patience, may profess such infinite affection and obligation, they move her to give him further degrees and approaches tax themselves at so high a rate, that they are to her favour. So that I conclude, I have traced ever under arrest. It makes their service seem him the way to that, which hath been granted to nothing, and every cavil or imputation very great. some few, amare et sapere, to love and to be wise.
of her nature, and of his estate. Attend, you beadsTHE REPLY OF THE SQUIRE.
man of the muses, you take your pleasure in a wil
derness of variety ; but it is but of shadows. You WANDERING Hermit, storming Soldier, and hollow are as a man rich in pictures, medals, and crystals. Statesman, the enchanting orators of Philautia, which Your mind is of the water, which taketh all forms have attempted by your high charms to turn resolved and impressions, but is weak of substance. Will Erophilus into a statue deprived of action, or into you compare shadows with bodies, picture with life, a vulture attending about dead bodies, or into a variety of many beauties with the peerless excellency monster with a double heart; with infinite assur- of one ? the element of water with the element of ance, but with just indignation and forced patience, fire? and such is the comparison between knowI have suffered you to bring in play your whole ledge and love. forces. For I would not vouchsafe to combat you Come out, man of war; you must be ever in noise. one by one, as if I trusted to the goodness of my You will give laws, and advance force, and trouble breath, and not the goodness of my strength, which nations, and remove land-marks of kingdoms, and little needeth the advantage of your severing, and hunt men, and pen tragedies in blood : and that, much less of your disagreeing. Therefore, first, I which is worst of all, make all the virtues accessary would know of you all what assurance you have of to bloodshed. Hath the practice of force so deprived the fruit whereto you aspire.
you of the use of reason, as that you will compare You, Father, that pretend to truth and knowledge, the interruption of society with the perfection of how are you assured that you adore not vain chi- society ? the conquest of bodies with the conquest mæras and imaginations ? that in your high pros- of spirits ? the terrestrial fire, which destroyeth and pect, when you think men wander up and down; dissolveth, with the celestial fire, which quickeneth that they stand not indeed still in their place? and and giveth life? And such is the comparison beit is some smoke or cloud between you and them, tween the soldier and the lover. which moveth, or else the dazzling of your own And as for you, untrue Politique, but truest bond.
Have not many, which take themselves to man to Philautia, you that presume to bind occabe inward counsellors with nature, proved but idle sion, and to overwork fortune, I would ask you but believers, which told us tales, which were no such one question. Did ever any lady, hard to please, matter? And, Soldier, what security have you for or disposed to exercise her lover, enjoin him so good these victories and garlands which you promise to tasks and commandments, as Philautia exacteth of yourself ? Know you not of many which have made you ? While your life is nothing but a continual actprovision of laurel for the victory, and have been ing upon a stage; and that your mind must serve fain to exchange it with cypress for the funeral ? of your humour, and yet your outward person must many which have bespoken fame to sound their tri- serve your end ; so as you carry in one person two umphs, and have been glad to pray her to say nothing several servitudes to contrary masters. But I will of them, and not to discover them in their flights ? leave you to the scorn of that mistress, whom you
Corrupt Statesman, you that think by your engines undertake to govern ; that is, to fortune, to whom and tions to govern the wheel of fortune, do you Philautia hath bound yon. And yet, you commisnot mark, that clocks cannot be long in temper? sioner of Philautia, I will proceed one degree farthat jugglers are no longer in request, when their ther: if I allowed both of your assurance, and of tricks and slights are once perceived ? Nay, do you your values, as you have set them, may not my not see, that never any man made his own cunning master enjoy his own felicity, and have all yours and practice, without religion and moral honesty, | for advantage ? I do not mean, that he should divide his foundation, but he overbuilt himself, and in the himself in both pursuits, as in your feigning tales end made his house a windfall ? But give ear now towards the conclusion you did yield him; but beto the comparison of my master's condition, and cause all these are in the hands of his mistress more acknowledge such a difference, as is betwixt the fully to bestow, than they can be attained by your melting hailstone and the solid pearl. Indeed it addresses, knowledge, fame, fortune. For the seemeth to depend, as the globe of the earth seemeth muses, they are tributary to her Majesty for the to hang, in the air; but yet it is firm and stable in great liberties they have enjoyed in her kingdom, itself. It is like a cube, or a die-form, which toss it during her most flourishing reign; in thankfulness or throw it any way, it ever lighteth upon a square. whereof they have adorned and accomplished her Is he denied the hopes of favours to come ? He can Majesty with the gifts of all the sisters. What resort to the remembrance of contentments past. library can present such a story of great actions, as Destiny cannot repeal that which is past. Doth he her Majesty carrieth in her royal breast by the find the acknowledgment of his affection small ? often return of this happy day? What worthy auHe may find the merit of his affection the greater. thor or favourite of the muses, is not familiar with Fortune cannot have power over that which is within. her? Or what language, wherein the muses have Nay, his falls are like the falls of Antæus ; they used to speak, is unknown to her? Therefore, the renew his strength. His clouds are like the clouds hearing of her, the observing of her, the receiving of harvest, which make the sun break forth with instructions from her, may be to Erophilus a lecture greater force. His wanes are changes like the moon's, exceeding all dead monuments of the muses. For whose globe is all light towards the sun, when it is Fame, can all the exploits of the war win him such all dark towards the world; such is the excellency a title, as to have the name of favoured and selected servant of such a queen ? For Fortune, can any in- | than to gain ; whereof I am not yet wise enough to solent politique promise to himself such a fortune, repent me. But the while, whereas Solomon speakby making his own way, as the excellency of her eth that want cometh first like a wayfaring man, nature cannot deny to a careful, obsequious, and and after like an armed man, I must acknowledge to dutiful servant ? And if he could, were it equal your lordship myself to [be] in primo gradu; for honour to obtain it by a shop of cunning, as by the it stealeth upon me. But for the second, that it gift of such a hand ?
should not be able to be resisted, I hope in God I Therefore Erophilus's resolution is fixed : he am not in that case ; for the preventing whereof, as renounceth Philautia, and all her enchantments. I do depend upon God's providence all in all, so in For her recreation, he will confer with his muse : the same his providence I see opened unto me three for her defence and honour, he will sacrifice his life not unlikely expectations of help: the one, my pracin the wars, hoping to be embalmed in the sweet' tice; the other, some proceeding in the queen's odours of her remembrance. To her service will service; the third, [the] place I have in reversion ; he consecrate all his watchful endeavours, and will which, as it standeth now unto me, is but like ever bear in his heart the picture of her beauty ; in another man's ground reaching upon my house, which his actions, of her will; and in his fortune, of her may mend my prospect, but it doth not fill my barn. grace and favour.
For my practice, it presupposeth my health, which, if I should judge of as a man that judgeth of a fair
morrow by a fair evening, I might have reason to TO SIR THOMAS EGERTON, LORD KEEPER value well. But myself having this error of mind, OF THE GREAT SEAL."
that I am apter to conclude in every thing of change MAY IT PLEASE YOUR HONOURABLE GOOD LORDSHIP,
from the present tense than of a continuance, do
make no such appointment. Besides, I am not so Op your lordship’s honourable disposition, both far deceived in myself, but that I know very well, generally and to me, I have that belief, as what I and I think your lordship is major corde, and in think, I am not afraid to speak; and what I would your wisdom you note it more deeply than I can in speak, I am not afraid to write. And therefore I myself, that in practising the law, I play not all my have thought to commit to letter some matter, best game, which maketh me accept it with a nisi whereunto (which] I have been [conceived] led quod potius, as the best of my fortune, and a thing [into the same] by two motives; the one, the con- agreeable to better gifts than mine, but not to mine. sideration of my own estate ; the other, the appetite, For my placing, your lordship best knows, that which I have to give your lordship some evidence when I was much dejected with her Majesty's of the thoughtful and voluntary desire, which is in strange dealing towards me, it pleased you of your me, to merit well of your most honourable lordship: singular favour so far to comfort and encourage me, which desire in me hath been bred chiefly by the as to hold me worthy to be excited to think of succonsent I have to your great virtue come in good ceeding your lordship in your second place ; † sigtime to do this state pleasure ; and next by your nifying in your plainness, that no man should better loving courses held towards me, especially in your content yourself: which your exceeding favour you nomination and enablement of me long since to the have not since varied from, both in pleading the solicitor's place, as your lordship best knows. Which like signification into the hands of some of my best your two honourable friendships I esteem so much friends, and also in an honourable and answerable (in so great sort] as your countenance and favour nomination and commendation of me to her Majesty. in my practice, which are somewhat to my poverty ; Wherein I hope your lordship, if it please you to yet I count them not the best [greatest) part of the call to mind, did find me neither overweening in obligation, wherein I stand bound to you.
presuming too much upon it, nor much deceived And now, my lord, I pray you right humbly, that in my opinion of the event for the continuing it still you will vouchsafe your honourable licence and pa- in yourself, nor sleepy in doing some good offices tience, that I may express to you, what in a doubt- to the same purpose. ful liberty I have thought fit, partly by way of Now upon this matter I am to make your lordpraying your help, and partly by way of offering my ship three humble requests, which had need be very good will; partly again by way of pre-occupating reasonable, coming so many together. First, that your conceit, lest you may in some things mistake. your lordship will hold and make good your wishes
My estate, to confess a truth to your lordship, is towards me in your own time ; for no other I mean weak and indebted, and needeth comfort; for both it; and in thankfulness thereof, I will present your my father, though I think I had greatest part in his lordship with the fairest flower of my estate ; though love to all his children, yet in his wisdom served it yet bear no fruit; and that is the poor reversion, me in as a last comer; and myself, in mine own which of her Majesty's gift I hold ; in the which I industry, have rather referred and aspired to virtue shall be no less willing Mr. John Egerton, I if it seem
From the original draught in the library of Queen's † The mastership of the rolls; which office the lord keeper College, Oxford, Arch. D. 2. the copy of which was communi. held till the lord Bruce was advanced to it, May 18, 1603. cated to me by Thomas Tyrwhytt, Esq. clerk of the honour. Second son of the lord keeper, whose eldest son Sir able House of Commons. Sir William Dugdale in his Ba- Thomas, knighted at Cadiz upon the taking it in 1596 by the ronage of England, vol. ii. p. 438, has given two short earl of Essex, died in Ireland, whither he attended that earl passages of this letter transcribed by him from the unpublish- in 1599, as Mr. John Egerton likewise did, and was knignted ed original.
by his lordship, and at the coronation of king James was
good to you, should succeed me in that, than I would wind, but yield so far to a general opinion, as be willing to succeed your lordship in the other place. there was never a more or particular example.
My next humble request is, that your lordship But I submit it wholly to your honourable grave would believe a protestation, which is, that if there consideration ; only I humbly pray you to conceive be now against the next term, or hereafter, for a that it is not any money that I have borrowed of little bought knowledge of the court teacheth me to Mr. Mills, nor any gratification I receive for my aid, foresee these things, any heaving or palting at that that makes me show myself any ways in it, but simplace, upon mine honesty and troth, my spirit is not ply a desire to preserve the rights of the office, in, nor with it; I, for my part, being resolutely as far as it is meet and incorrupt; and secondly resolved not to proceed one pace or degree in this his importunity, who nevertheless, as far as I see, matter but with your lordship’s foreknowledge and taketh a course to bring this matter in question to approbation. The truth of which protestation will his farther disadvantage, and to be principal in his best appear, if by any accident, which I look not for, own harm. But if it be true, that I have heard of I shall receive any farther strength. For, as I now more than one or two, that besides this forerunning am, your lordship may impute it only to policy alone in taking of fees, there are other deep corruptions, in me, that being without present hope myself, I which in an ordinary course are intended to be would be content the matter sleep.
proved against him ; surely, for my part, I am not My third humble petition to your lordship is, that superstitious, as I will not take any shadow of it, you would believe an intelligence, and not take it nor labour to stop it, since it is a thing medicinable for a fiction in court; of which manner I like for the office of the realm. And then if the place Cicero's speech well, who writing to Appius Claudius, by such an occasion or otherwise should come in saith; “Sin attem quæ tibi ipsi in mentem veniant, possession, the better to testify my affection for ea aliis tribuere soles, inducis genus sermonis in your lordship, I should be glad, as I offered it to amicitiam minime liberale.” But I do assure your your lordship by way of (surrender,] so in this case lordship, it is both truc and fresh, and from a person to offer it by way of joint-patentcy, in nature of a of that sort, as having some glimpse of it before, reversion, which, as it is now, there wanteth no I now rest fully confirmed in it: and it is this, good will in me to offer, but that both, in that conthat there should be a plot laid of some strength dition it is not worth the offering ; and besides, I between Mr. Attorney-General,* and Mr. Attorney know not whether my necessity may enforce me to of the wards, t for the one's remove to the rolls, and sell it away ; which, if it were locked in by any the other to be drawn to his place. Which, to be reversion or joint-patentcy, I were disabled to do for plain with your lordship, I do apprehend much. For first, I know Mr. Attorney-General, whatsoever Thus your lordship may perceive how assured a he pretendeth or protesteth to your lordship, or any persuasion I have of your love towards me, and care other, doth seek it; and I perceive well by his of me; which hath made me so freely to communi. dealing towards his best friends, to whom he oweth cate of my poor state with your lordship, as I could most, how perfectly he hath conned the adage of have done to my honourable father, if he had lived ; "proximus egomet mihi :" and then I see no man which I most humbly pray your lordship may be ripened for the place of the rolls in competition with private to yourself, to whom I commit it to be used Mr. Attorney-General. And lastly, Mr. Attorney to such purpose, as in your wisdom and honourable of the wards being noted for a pregnant and stirring love and favour should seem good. And so humbly man, the objection of any hurt her Majesty's busi- craving pardon, I commend your lordship to the ness may receive in her causes by the drawing up divine preservation. of Mr. Attorney-General, will wax cold. And yet
At your lordship’s honourable command humnevertheless, if it may please your lordship to pardon bly and particularly. me so to say, of the second of those placings I think with some scorn; only I commend the knowledge hereof to your lordship's wisdom, as a matter not to be neglected.
MR. FRANCIS BACON TO) THE EARL OF And now lastly, my honourable good lord, for my ESSEX.I ON HIS LORDSHIP'S GOING ON third poor help, I account [it] will do me small good, TIIE EXPEDITION AGAINST CADIZ. except there be a heave; and that is this place of the star-chamber. I do confess ingenuously to your
MY SINGULAR GOOD LORD, lordship out of my love to the public, besides my I have no other argument to write on to your particular, that I am of opinion, that rules without good lordship, but upon demonstration of my deepexamples will do little good, at least not to continue ; est and most bounden duty, in fulness whereof I but that there is such a concordance between the mourn for your lordship's absence, though I mitigate time to come and the time passed, as there will be it as much as I can with the hope of your happy no reforming the one without informing of the other. success, the greatest part whereof, be it never so And I will not, as the proverb is, spit against the great, will be the safety of your most honourable made knight of the Bath. He succeeded his father in the 1605, and has a monument erected to his memory in Westtitles of baron of Ellesmere and viscount Brackley, and on minster Abbey. the 17th of May was created carl of Bridgewater.
Among the Papers of Antony Bacon, Esq. vol. xi, fol * Coke.
69, in the Lambeth library. + Probably Sir Thomas Heskett, who died 15th October,
person : for the which in the first place, and then | amazed with me, when they are come from governfor the prosperity of your enterprise, I frequently ing a little troop to a great ; and from pray. And as in so great discomfort it hath pleas- all the great spirits of our state. And sometimes I ed God some ways to regard my desolateness by am as much troubled with them, as with all the raising me so great and so worthy a friend in your ab- troops. But though these be warrants for my selsence, as the new-placed lord keeper,* in whose dom writing, yet they shall be no excuses for my placing as it hath pleased God to establish mightily fainting industry. I have written to my lord keepone of the chief pillars of this estate, that is, the er and some other friends to have care of you in my justice of the land, which began to shake and sink, absence. And so commending you to God's happy and for that purpose no doubt gave her Majesty and heavenly protection, I rest strength of heart of herself to do that in six days,
Your true friend, which the deepest judgment thought would be the
ESSEX. work of many months ; so for my particular, I do find in an extraordinary manner, that his lordship Plymouth, this 17th of May, 1596. doth succeed my father almost in his fatherly care of me, and love towards me, as much as he professeth to follow him in his honourable and sound courses of justice and estate ; of which so special
MR. FRANCIS BACON TO HIS BROTHER favour the open and apparent reason I can ascribe
ANTONY. I to nothing more than the impression, which upon
GOOD BROTHER, many conferences of long time used between his lordship and me, he may have received, both of YESTERNIGHT Sir John Fortescu s told me he your lordship's high love and good opinion towards had, not many hours before, imparted to the queen his lordship, verified in many and singular offices, your advertisements, and the gazette likewise; which whereof now the realm, rather than himself, is like the queen caused Mr. John Stanhope || to read all to reap the fruit; and also of your singular affection over unto her; and her Majesty conceiveth they be towards me, as a man chosen by you to set forth not vulgar. The advertisements her Majesty made the excellency of your nature and mine, though estimation, of as concurring with other advertisewith some error of your judgment. Hereof if it ments, and alike concurring also with her opinion may please your lordship to take knowledge to my of the affairs. So he willed me to return you the lord, according to the style of your wonted kindness, queen's thanks. Other particular of any speech your lordship shall do me great contentment. My from her Majesty of yourself he did not relate to lord told me he had written to your lordship, and For my lord of Essex's and your letters, he wished with great affection he had been so lucky, said, he was ready and desirous to do his best. as to have had two hours' talk with you upon those But I seemed to make it but a love-wish, and passed occasions, which have since fallen out. So wishing presently from it, the rather because it was late in that God may conduct you by the hand pace by the night, and I mean to deal with him at some pace, I commend you and your actions to his divine better leisure after another manner, as you shall providence.
hereafter understand from me. I do find in the Your lordship's ever deepliest bounden,
speech of some ladies and the very face of the court
some addition of reputation, as methinks, to us both ;
FR. BACON. and I doubt not but God hath an operation in it, 10 May, 1596.
that will not suffer good endeavours to perish.
The queen saluted me to-day, as she went to chapel. I had long speech with Sir Robert Cecil
this morning, who seemed apt to discourse with me; THE EARL OF ESSEX TO MR. FRANCIS
yet of yourself ne verbum quidem, not so much as a BACON.†
quomodo valet? Sir,
This I write to you in haste, aliud ex alio, I pray I have thought the contemplation of the art mili. set in a course of acquainting my lord keeper what tary harder than the execution. But now I see passeth, at first by me, and after from yourself. I where the number is great, compounded of sea and am more and more bound to him. land forces, the most tyrones, and almost all volun- Thus wishing you good health, I recommend you taries, the officers equal almost in age, quality, and to God's happy preservation. standing in the wars, it is hard for any man to ap
Your entire loving brother, prove himself a good commander. So great is my zeal to omit nothing, and so short my sufficiency to
FR. BACON. perform all, as, besides my charge, myself doth From the court, this 30th of May, (1596.] afflict myself. For I cannot follow the precedents of our dissolute armies, and my helpers are a little
Egerton. * Among the Papers of Antony Bacon, Esq. vol. xi. fol. 139, in the Lambeth library.
Chancellor of the exchequer.
Ibid. vol. xi. fol. 29.
Made treasurer of the chamber, in July, 1596, and in May, 1615, created lord Stanhope of Harrington, in Northamptonshire.