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I have ever had of my lord, whereof your Majesty | lordship shall do me right: and yet I shall take it for is best witness, is far from that. But my meaning favour, if you signify to them, that you have received was plain and simple, that his lordship might, satisfaction from me, and would have them use me through his great fortune, be the less apt to cast and friendly and in good manner. God keep us from foresee the unfaithfulness of friends, and the malig- these long journeys and absence, which make misnity of enemies, and accidents of time. Which is a understandings and give advantage to untruth, and judgment, your Majesty knoweth better than I, that God ever prosper and preserve your lordship. the best authors make of the best and best tempered Your lordship's true and devoted friend and spirits, " ut sunt res humanæ;" insomuch that Guic

servant, ciardine maketh the same judgment, not of a par

FR. BACON, C. S. ticular person, but of the wisest state of Europe, the

Gorhambury, Aug. 23, 1617. senate of Venice, when he saith, their prosperity had made them secure, and underweighers of perils. Therefore I beseech your Majesty to deliver me in this from any the least imputation upon my dear CLXXXVI. A MEMORIAL FOR YOUR and noble lord and friend. And so expecting that

MAJESTY.T that sun which when it went from us left us cold weather, and now it is returned towards us hath Although I doubt not but your Majesty's own brought with it a blessed harvest; will, when it memory and care of your affairs will put you in mind cometh to us, dispel and disperse all mists and mis- of all things convenient against you shall meet with takings.

your council, yet some particulars I thought it not July 31, 1617.

unfit to represent to your Majesty ; because they passed the labour of your council.

1. Some time before your departure, here was de

livered unto you by the officers of your exchequer a CLXXXV. TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM.* computation of your revenue and expense, wherein

was expressed that your revenue ordinary was not MY VERY GOOD LORD,

only equal to your expense, but did somewhat exSince my last to your lordship, I did first send ceed it, though not much. for Mr. Attorney-General, and made him know, that, In this point, because the half year will now be since I heard from court, I was resolved to further expired at Michaelmas, it shall be fit, that your the match and the conditions thereof for your lord- Majesty call to account, whether that equality ship's brother's advancement the best I could. I hath held for this half year; and if not, what did send also to my lady Hatton, and some other the causes have been, and whether the course special friends, to let them know, I would in any prescribed hath been kept, that the ordinary thing declare for the match; which I did, to the expense hath been borne out of the ordinary end that if they had any apprehension of my assist- revenue, and the extraordinary only out of such ance, they might be discouraged in it. I sent also money as hath come in by extraordinary means, to Sir John Butler, and after by letter to my lady or else your estate cannot clearly appear. your mother, to tender my performance of any good II. To maintain this equality, and to cause your office towards the match or the advancement from Majesty's state to subsist in some reasonable manthe mother. This was all I could think of for the ner till farther supply might be had, it was found present,

to be necessary that 200,0001. of your Majesty's I did ever foresee, that this alliance would go most pregnant and pressing debts should be disnear to lose me your lordship that I hold so dear; charged; and after consideration of the means how and that was the only respect particular to myself to do that, two ways were resolved on. One that that moved me to be as I was, till I heard from you. 100,000!. should be discharged to the farmers of But I will rely upon your constancy and nature, your customs by 25,0001. yearly, they having for and my own deserving, and the firm tie we have in their security power to defalke so much of their respect of the king's service.

rent in their own hands: but because if that should In the mean time I must a little complain to your be defalked, then your ordinary should want so lordship, that I do hear my lady your mother and much, it was agreed that the farmers should be paid your brother Sir John do speak of me with some the 25,0001, yearly in the sale of woods. bitterness and neglect. I must bear with the one In this point it is fit for your Majesty to be inas a lady, and the other as a lover, and with both formed what hath been done, and whether for your lordship's sake, whom I will make judge order hath been taken with the farmers for it, of any thing they shall have against me. But I and what debts were assigned to them so to hope, though I be a true servant to your lordship, discharge; for of the particulars of that course you will not have me to be a vassal to their passions, I never heard yet. especially as long as they are governed by Sir And because it is apparent that the wood falls this Edward Coke and secretary Winwood, the latter of year do not amount to half that sum of 25,0001. which I take to be the worst; for Sir Edward Coke, your Majesty is to give charge that consideration I think, is more modest and discreet: therefore your be had how the same shall be supplied by some Stephens's First Collection, p. 215.

† Stephens's Second Collection, p. 58.

your kindness to

taketh up.

other extraordinary for the present year, or else here will follow a fracture of the whole assignments.

CLXXXVII. TO THE EARL OF BUCK. Item, Your Majesty may please to call for inform

INGHAM.* ation how that money raised upon the woods is employed, so much as is already received, MY EVER BEST LORD, NOW BETTER THAN YOURSELF, and to be wary that no part hereof be suffered Your lordship's pen or rather pencil hath porto go for extraordinaries, but to be employed trayed towards me such magnanimity and nobleness only for the use for which it is assigned, or else and true kindness, as methinketh I see the image of a greater rupture will follow in your assign- some ancient virtue, and not any thing of these ments.

times. It is the line of my life, and not the lines of Item, A special consideration is to be had what my letter, that must express my thankfulness:

course shall be taken for the rest of the years wherein if I fail, then God fail me, and make me with the wood sales for supply of this 25,0001. as miserable as I think myself at this time happy by yearly.

this reviver, through his Majesty's singular cleIII. The other hundred thousand pound was mency, and your incomparable love and favour. agreed to be borrowed, and an allotment made by God preserve you, prosper you, and reward you for my lords of the council at the table, how the same should be employed, and for what special services, Your raised and infinitely obliged friend and whereof I deliver to your Majesty herewith a copy.

servant, In which point it may please your Majesty to

FR. BACON, C. S. cause yourself to be informed how that allot. Sept. 22, 1617. ment hath been observed, and because it is likely that a good part of it hath gone towards the charges of this your journey to Scotland,

CLXXXVIII. TO THE EARL OF BUCKat least so it is paid, your Majesty is to call for

INGHAM.T the particulars of that charge, that you may see how much of that hundred thousand it MY VERY GOOD LORD,

I send your lordship the certificate touching the And then consideration is to be had how it may enrolment of prentices. We can find no ground for be supplied with some extraordinary comings in, as it by law. Myself shall ever be ready to farther namely the moneys to come from the merchant ad. things that your lordship commendeth ; but where venturers, that the same be allotted to none other the matter will not bear it, your lordship, I know, use, but to perform this allotment, that so the found will think not the worse, but the better of me, if I ation laid may be maintained, or else all will be to signify the true state of things to your lordship; seek; and if there be any other extraordinary means resting ever to come to your Majesty, that they may be reserved Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant, to that use.

FR. BACON, C. S. And because care must be had to keep your credit in London, for this money borrowed, your Majesty

York-house, October 29, 1617. may please to call for information what is done in

THE CERTIFICATE. the matter of the forests, and what sum, and in what reasonable time, is like to be made hereof.

According to his Majesty's command signified by The extraordinaries which it is like will be alleged your lordship's letters, we have advisedly considered for this year.

of the petition touching the enrolment of apprenYour Majesty's journey into Scotland.

tices' indentures, and heard the petitioners' counsel, The lord Hay's employment into France.

and do find as followeth: The lord Roos into Spain.

1. That the act of parliament 5 Eliz. doth not The Baron de Tour extraordinary from France.

warrant the erecting of an office to enrol such inSir John Bennett to the Archduke.

dentures, in cities, towns corporate, or market towns; The enlarging your park at Theobalds. but if any such enrolment should be, it must be by Sir John Digby's sending into Spain.

the officers there, who are assigned to perform sunOf all which when your Majesty hath seen an dry other things touching apprentices and servants. estimate what they amount unto, and what money

2. That in country villages, for which the suit hath been already delivered towards them, which I carries most colour, we cannot give the suitors hope, fear will fall to be out of the moneys borrowed at that any profit will be there made, warrantable by London ; then it is to be considered what extraor

law. dinaries are any ways to come in, which may sup

Thus we have, according to our duties, certified ply these extraordinaries laid out, and be employed our opinions of this petition, submitting the same for the uses for which the moneys borrowed were

nevertheless to his Majesty's great wisdom; and rest intended.

At your lordship’s command,


H. MONTAGUE. Oct. 25, 1617.

THO, COVENTRY. * Stephens's First Collection, p. 217.

t Ibid.

very blunt one; you have not besides sent him some CLXXXIX. TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM * advice of your own, his Majesty having only in

trusted you to speak with Sir Lionel Cranfield about MY VERY GOOD LORD,

his estate. The liking which his Majesty hath of our pro- Your lordship's faithful friend and servant, ceeding concerning his household, telleth me that

G. BUCKINGHAM. his Majesty cannot but dislike the declining and

Newmarket, 19 Nov. 1617. tergiversation of the inferior officers; which by this time he understandeth.

There be but four kinds of retrenchments. 1. The union of tables. 2. The putting down of

CXCI. TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM.Ş tables. 3. The abatement of dishes to tables. 4. The cutting off new diets and allowance lately

MY VERY GOOD LORD, raised; and yet perhaps such as are more necessary YESTERDAY at afternoon were read at the table than some of the old.

his Majesty's two letters, || written with his own In my opinion, the first is the best and most hand, the matter worthy the hand. For they were feasible. The lord chamberlain's table is the prin- written “ ex arte imperandi,” if I can judge; and I cipal table of state. The lord steward's table, I hope they and the like will disenchant us of the think, is much frequented by Scottish gentlemen. opinion, which yet sticks with us, that to-day will Your lordship's table hath a great attendance; and be as yesterday, and to-morrow as to-day; so as there the groom of the stole's table is much resorted to by will be, as he saith, “ Acribus initiis, fine incurioso.” the bedchamber. These would not be touched. But I hold my opinion given in my former letter, that for the rest, his Majesty's case considered, I think the uniting of some tables is the most passable way. they may well be united into one.

But that is not all; for when that is done, the king These things are out of my element, but my care may save greatly in that which remaineth. For if runneth where the king's state most laboureth. Sir it be set down, what tables shall be fixed, and what Lionel Cranfield † is yet sick, for which I am very diet allowed to them, my steward, as ill a mesnager sorry; for methinks his Majesty, upon these tossings as I am, or my lord mayor's steward, can go near to over his business from one to others, hath an apt tell, what charge will go near to maintain the prooccasion to go on with sub-committees. God ever portion. Then add to that some large allowance for preserve and prosper you.

waste, because the king shall not lose his preroYour lordship's true friend and devoted servant, gative to be deceived more than other men, and yet,


no question, there will be a great retrenchment. York-house, Nov. 19, 1617.

But against this last abatement will be fronted the payment of arrears. But I confess I would be glad that I might see, or rather that a parliament may

see, and chiefly that the king, for his own quiet, may CXC. TO THE LORD KEEPER. I

see, that upon such a sum paid, such an annual re

trenchment will follow : for things will never be MY HONOURABLE LORD,

done in act, except they be first done in conceit. His Majesty commandeth me to write to your I know these things do not pertain to me: for lordship, that he wonders your hand being at that my part is to acqnit the king's office towards God letter of the lords of the council, which he saith is a by administration of justice, and to oblige the hearts • Stephens's First Collection, p. 219.

ago, that my house could not be kept upon epigrams : long + Sir Lionel Cranfield was a man of so much note in these discourses and fair tales will never repair my estate. “Omtimes, and so often named in these papers, that I cannot omit nis virtus in actione constitit.”. Remember, that I told you, taking some notice of his good and bad fortunes. He was the shoe must be made for the foot, and let that be the square breui a merchant, yet by his great abilities in, and application of all your proceeding in this business. Abate superfluities to business, and the relation he had to my lord of Buckingham of all things; and multitudes of unnecessary otticers, whereby marriage, he was raised to be master of the court of requests, ever they be placed. But for the household, wardrobe, then of the wardrobe, and after of the court of wards, created and pensions, cut and carve as many as may agree with the Lord Cranfield, and earl of Middlesex ;, missing the lord possibility of my means. Exceed not your own rule of 50,0001. keeper's place, he was constituted lord high treasurer, which for the household. If you can make it less I will account it being an office he understood as well as any, we may conclude for good service. And that you may see I will not spare mine his integrity fell short of his ability, from the severe judgment own person, I have sent, with this bearer, a note of the supergiven against him by the house of lords in 1624. Stephens. fluous charges concerning my mouth, having had the happy Stephens's Second Collection, p. 61.

opportunities of this messenger, in an errand so nearly conIbid. p. 65.

cerning his place. In this I expect no answer in word or One of these letters of K. James, as it contains a specimen writing, but only the real performance, for a beginning to of the frugality and good economy of his court, and relates to relieve me out of my miseries. For now the ball is at your the subject we are upon, I have borrowed from the Cabala, feet, and the world shall bear me witness, that I have put you p. 258, in terms following.

fairly to it; and so praying God to bless your labours, l bid

you heartily farewell. Your own, A letter read to the council-board 21 Nov. 1617, touching

the abatement of his Majesty's household charge. MY LORDS:

Mr. Stephens says, In the other I suppose bis Majesty ap

prehends that the vigour the councilat first showed in reducing No worldly thing is so precious as time: ye know what task the charge of his household, would not be of long continuance; I gave you to work upon, during my absence; and what time it being observed by Tacitus, in the words here cited, to be a was limited unto you, for the performance thereof. This same thing not unusual in public aifairs, that violent beginnings shancellor of Scotland was wont to tell me twenty-four years had negligent conclusions,



of his people to him by the same, and to maintain | king's business. God ever preserve and prosper his prerogative. But yet because it is in hoc that you. the king's case laboureth, I cannot but yield my care,

Your lordship's true friend and devoted servant, and my strength too, in council, such as it is; which

FR. BACON, C. S. cannot be so much, as it was between our Lady-day

York-house, Nov. 27, 1617. and Michaelmas last. But whatsoever it is, it is wholly his Majesty's without any deflexion.

Sir Lionel Cranfield is now reasonably well reAs soon as I find any possibility of health in Sir covered. Lionel Cranfield, to execute a sub-commission, I will by conference with him frame a draught of a letter DRAUGHT OF THE SUB-COMMISSION. from his Majesty, for which there is the fairest occasion in the world. And the king hath prepared

MY LORDS, it as well as possible. God ever preserve and In this first and greatest branch of our charge prosper you.

concerning our house, we do find what difficulties are Your lordship’s true friend and devoted servant, made, and what time is lost, in disputing of and deris.

FR. BACON, C. S. ing upon the manner of doing it: whereof the matter York-house, Nov. 22, 1617.

must be, and is so fully resolved. Neither can we but see in this, as in a glass, the like event to follow in the rest upon like reason. For the inferior offi

cers in every kind, who are best able for skill to CXCII. TO THE EARL OF BUCKINGHAM.* propound the retrenchments, will out of interest or

fearfulness make dainty to do service; and that

which is done with an ill-will will never be well How well I wish to Sir Gilbert Haughton, him-done. Again, to make it the act of the whole table, self I dare say doth not doubt, partly out of mine for the particular propositions and reckonings, will own affection, and chiefly for your lordship’s affection be too tedious for you, and will draw the business towards him, which is to me more than mine own. itself into length; and make any particular comThat the king should make bargains of hope, when mittees of yourselves, were to impose that upon a his treasure sufficeth not for his own charge, I may few, which requireth to be carried indifferently as not advise for my dearest friends ; for I am nailed the act of you all. For since the great officers to the king's estate. But two things I shall assent themselves think it too heavy for them, as our state unto; the one, that if the king can redeem his now is, to deal in it, without bringing it to the table; works without charge of officers, I shall be glad of with much more reason may any particular persons it, both for the gentleman's sake, and because I per- of you be loth to meddle in it, but at the board. In ceive the uniting of the allum-works in the king's all which respects we have thought fit, neither do hand is best; the other, that if his Majesty be we see any other way, that you send unto us the pleased to signify his pleasure to my lord treasurer names of the officers of our exchequer, and our cus

that there be no forfeiture taken by Banister tom-house, and auditors, out of which we will make till the king shall advise of this bargain, we will hold choice of some few, best qualified to be sub-comhim to it. God preserve and prosper your lordship. mittecs, for the better case, and the speeding of the Your lordship, I think, perceiveth both by scribbling business by their continual travels and meetings; and cursory inditing, that I write in straits of whose part and employment we incline to be to at. business.

tend the principal officers in their several charges, Your lordship’s true friend and devoted servant,

and join themselves to some of the inferior officers, FR. BACON, C. S.

and so take upon them the mechanic and laborious

part of every business, thereby to facilitate and preYork-house, this 24th of Nov. 1617.

pare it for your consultations, according to the directions and instructions they shall receive from you


CXCIV. TO THE KING. I SEND your lordship a draught of a letter touch

MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY, ing the sub-commission, written in wide lines, because Being yesterday assembled in council to proceed it may be the better amended by his Majesty. I in the course we had begun for retrenchment of think it is so penned as none can except to it, no your Majesty's expenses; we received your princely nor imagine any thing of it. For the household letters, whereby we are directed to send to your business there was given a fortnight's day; for the Majesty the names of the officers of the exchequer, pensions, the course which I first propounded, of custom-house, and auditors, out of which you purabating a third throughout, and some wholly, seem- pose to make choice of some to be sub-committed eth well entered into. These be no ill beginnings. to handle the mechanic and laborious part of that But this course of the sub-commission threads all the which your Majesty had appointed to our care; we Stephens's Second Collection, p. 67.

+ Ibid.

Ibid. p. 69.

and me,

hare, according to our duty, sent unto your Majesty / and fresh suit, upon the king's business, than that the names of the several officers of your Majesty in the same is yet ripe, either for advertisement, or those places, to be ordered as your wisdom shall advice. think best to direct. But withal, we thought it The sub-commissioners meet forenoon and afterappertenant to our duties to inform your Majesty noon, with great diligence, and without distraction how far we have proceeded in the several heads of or running several ways: which if it be no more retrenchments by your Majesty at your departure than necessary, what would less have done ? that is, committed unto us, that when you know in what if there had been no sub-commissioners, or they not estate our labours are, your judgment may the bet- well chosen. ter direct any farther course as shall be meet.

I speak with Sir Lionel Cranfield, as cause reThe matter of the household was by us, some quireth either for account or direction, and as far as days since, committed peremptorily to the officers I can, by the taste I have from him, discern proof the house, as matter of commandment from your bably their service will attain, and may exceed his Majesty, and of duty in them, to reduce the expense Majesty's expectation. of your house to a limited charge of fifty thousand I do well like the course they take, which is, in pounds by the year, besides the benefit of the com- every kind to set down, as in beer, in wine, in beef, positions; and they have ever since painfully, as we in muttons, in corn, &c. what cometh to the king's are informed, travailed in it, and will be ready on use, and then what is spent, and lastly what may be Sunday next, which was the day given them, to saved. This way, though it be not so accusative, present some models of retrenchments of divers kinds, yet it is demonstrative. “Nam rectum est index all aiming at your Majesty's service.

sui et obliqui,” and the false manner of accounting, In the point of pensions we have made a begin. and where the gain cleaveth, will appear after by ning, by suspending some wholly for a time, and of consequence. I humbly pray his Majesty to pardon others of a third part; in which course we are still me for troubling him with these imperfect glances, going on, until we make it fit to be presented to which I do, both because I know his Majesty thinkyour Majesty; in like manner the lord chamber-eth long to understand somewhat, and lest his Malain and the lord Hay did yesterday report unto us, jesty should conceive, that he multiplying honours what their travail had ordered in the wardrobe; and and favours upon me, I should not also increase and although some doubt did arise unto us, whether redouble my endeavours and cares for his service. your Majesty's letters intended a stay of our labours, God ever bless, preserve, and prosper his Majesty until you had made choice of the sub-committee and your lordship, to whom I ever remain, intended by you; yet presuming that such a course

Your true and most devoted servant, by sub-committee was purposed rather for a fartherance, than let to that work, we did resolve to go

FR. BACON, C.S. on still till your Majesty's farther directions shall

16 Jan. 1617. come unto us; and then according to our duty we will proceed, as we shall be by your Majesty commanded. In the mean time we thought it our duty to inform your Majesty of what we have done, that CXCVI. TO MR. MATTHEW, ABOUT READ. neither your Majesty may conceive that we have ING AND GIVING JUDGMENT UPON HIS been negligent in those things which were commit- WRITINGS. + ted unto us, nor your directions by your late letters hinder or cast back that which is already so far

SIR, proceeded in. And so humbly kissing your royal BECAUSE you shall not lose your labour this afterhands

, and praying to the Almighty for your long noon, which now I must needs spend with my flord and happy reign over us, we rest

chancellor, I send my desire to you in this letter, Your Majesty's most humble and obedient sub

that you will take care not to leave the writing, jects and servants,

which I left with you last, with any man, so long, as that he may be able to take a copy of it; because, first, it must be censured by you, and then considered again by me. The thing which I expect most from you is, that you would read it carefully over by yourself, and to make some little note in writing, where

you think, to speak like a critic, that I do perhaps FR. BACON, C. S.

indormiscere, or where I do indulgere genio; or 5 Dec. 1617.

where, in fine, I give any manner of disadvantage

to myself. This, super totam materiam, you must CXCV. TO THE MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM.*

not fail to note : besides, all such words and phrases MY VERY GOOD LORD,

as you cannot like ; for you know in how high

account I have your judgment. I WRITE now only rather in a kind of continuance Stephens's Second Collection, p. 71.

special warrant made lord chancellor, Rymer XVII. p. 55, Sir Toby Matthew's Second Collection of Letters, p. 22. and at which time probably some affairs, that required privacy * This seems to be spoken pleasantly of himself, and to refer and retirement, might occur. to Jan. 15, 1617-18, on which day the lord Verulam was by










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