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realized by the fact. Other arts need no foreign aid, each suffices for itself, but eloquence, that is the art of speaking with science, skill and elegance, acknowledges no well defined district, within the boundaries of which it is circumscribed. He, who professes this art, must have the talent of speaking well on every question, which can form a subject of discussion amongst men, or he must abandon all claim to the title of eloquence.

[Downing College Fellowship, 1837.]

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75. THERE is yet another circumstance which recommends a description more than all the rest, and that is, if it represents to us such objects as are apt to raise a secret ferment in the mind of the reader, and to work with violence upon his passions. For, in this case, we are at once warmed and enlightened, so that the pleasure becomes more universal, and is several ways qualified to entertain us. Thus, in painting, it is pleasant to look on the picture of any face where the resemblance is hit; but the pleasure increases if it be the picture of a face that is beautiful, and is still greater if the beauty be softened with an air of melancholy or sorrow. The two leading passions which the more serious parts of poetry endeavour to stir up in us are terror and pity. And here, by the way, one would wonder how it comes to pass, that such passions as are very unpleasant at all other times, are very agreeable when excited by proper descriptions. It is not strange that we should take delight in such passages as are apt to produce hope, joy, admiration, love, or the like emotions in us, because they never rise in the mind without an inward pleasure which attends them: but how comes it to pass, that we should take delight in being terrified or

dejected by a description, when we find so much uneasiness in the fear or grief which we receive from another occasion ?

[Jesus College, 1837.]

76. Youth, as it is most liable to be corrupted by vice, so it is most capable of being imbued with virtue; then nature is soft and pliable, so as easily to be moulded into any shape, ready to admit any stamp impressed thereon; then the mind is a pure table, in which good principles may be farily engraven, without rasing out any former ill prejudices; then the heart being a soil free of weeds, the seeds of goodness being cast therein will undisturbedly grow and thrive. If we do then imbibe false conceptions, or have bad impressions made on our minds, it will be hard afterwards to expel, or to correct them. Passion is then very fluid and moveable, but, not being impetuously determined any way, may easily be derived into the right channel. Then the quickness of our wit, the briskness of our fancy, the freshness of our memory, the vigour of our affections, the lusty and active mettle of our spirits, being applied to virtuous studies and endeavours, will produce most noble fruits; the beauty of which will adorn us, the sweetness will please us, so as to leave on our minds a perpetual relish and satisfaction in goodness.

[Trinity College Scholarships, 1837.]

77. LENITY and indulgence, he said, toward rebels were not only in themselves injurious to such a power, but would now afford an example of levity, which would destroy all the stability of the laws, and would stimulate the vanity of clever and ambitious men, to seek reputation by continually overthrowing what had been maturely resolved on the proposal of another. His own opinion remained unchanged; and he could not conceive how any one, who was not either seduced by the desire of displaying a perverse ingenuity, or swayed by mercenary motives, could question the justice and expediency of the decree. Mitylene had been guilty, not simply of revolt, but of a malignant, wanton conspiracy, against an ally who had distinguished her among all her confederates by peculiar honours and privileges. As the offence was aggravated, the punishment ought to be

Nor was there any ground for making a distinction-which would only encourage offenders by supplying them with pretexts easily fabricated_between the class which had been active in the rebellion, and that which by its acquiescence had shewn itself willing to share the risk of the enterprise, and had in fact cooperated with its authors. [St John's College, 1837.]


78. J. CÆSAR was a zealous promoter of this law; but from a different motive than the love either of Pompey, or the Republic: his design was, to recommend himself by it to the people, whose favour he foresaw would be of more use to him than the Senate's, and to make the precedent familiar, that whatever use Pompey might make of it, he himself might one day make a bad one. For this is the common effect of breaking through the barrier of the laws, by which many states have been ruined; when, from a confidence in the abilities and integrity of some eminent citizen, they invest him, on pressing occasions, with extraordinary powers for the common benefit and defence of the society; for though power so entrusted, may, in particular cases, be of singular service, and sometimes even necessary; yet the example is always dangerous, furnishing a perpetual pretence to the

ambitious and ill-designing, to grasp at every prerogative which had been granted at any time to the virtuous, till the same power, which would save a country in good hands, oppresses it at last in bad.

[Trinity College, 1837.]

79. THE odium of Cicero's death fell chiefly on Antony; yet it left a stain of perfidy and ingratitude also on Augustus; which explains the reason of that silence which is observed about him by the writers of that age; and why his name is not so much as mentioned, either by Horace or Virgil. For though his character would have furnished a glorious subject for many noble lines, yet it was no subject for court poets; since the very mention of him must have been a satire on the prince; especially while Antony lived; among the sycophants of whose court, it was fashionable to insult his memory by all the methods of calumny that wit and malice could invent: nay Virgil, on an occasion that could hardly fail of bringing him to his mind, instead of doing justice to his merit, chose to do an injustice rather to Rome itself, by yielding the superiority of eloquence to the Greeks, which they themselves had been forced to yield to Cicero. [Trinity College, 1837.]

80. And now, having done my duty to the bill, let me say a word to the author. I should leave him to his own noble sentiments, if the unworthy and illiberal language with which he has been treated, beyond all example of parliamentary liberty, did not make a few words necessary; not so much in justice to him, as to my own feelings. I must say then, that it will be a distinction honourable to the age, that the rescue of the greatest number of the buman race that ever were so grievously oppressed, from the greatest tyranny that was ever exercised, has fallen to the lot of abilities and dispositions equal to the task; that it has fallen to one who has the enlargement to comprehend, the spirit to undertake, and the eloquence to support, so great a measure of hazardous benevolence. His spirit is not owing to his ignorance of the state of men and things; he well knows what snares are spread about his path, from personal animosity, from court intrigues, and possibly from popular delusion. But he has put to hazard his ease, his security, his interest, his power, even his darling popularity, for the benefit of a people whom he has never seen. This is the road that all heroes have trod before him. He is traduced and abused for his supposed motives. He will remember, that obloquy is a necessary ingredient in the composition of all true glory: he will remember, that it was not only in the Roman customs, but it is in the nature and constitution of things, that calumny and abuse are essential parts of triumph. These thoughts will support a mind, which only exists for honour, under the burthen of temporary reproach. He is doing indeed a great good; such as rarely falls to the lot, and almost as rarely coincides with the desires, of any man.

Let him use his time. Let him give the whole length of the reins to his benevolence. He is now on a great eminence, where the eyes of mankind are turned to him. He may live long, he may do much. But here is the summit. He never can exceed what he does this day.

[Trinity College, 1837.]

81. But since perfection is in fact not attainable by man, we must proceed in a less elevated strain, and con

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