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which they had formerly set forth a comfortable board, and the ornaments which they had worn in happier days. It was a dismal thing to see men pale with anxiety pressing through crowds who were on the same miserable errand, and women weeping as they offered their little treasure to the scales. Such was the state to which one of the most flourishing cities in Europe was reduced !

[Classical Tripos, 1849.]

167. As they walked farther up the country, the more he was surprised to see no vestiges of handsome houses, no cities, nor any mark of elegant design. His conductor perceiving his surprise, observed, that the inhabitants of this new world were perfectly content with their ancient simplicity; each had a house, which, though homely, was sufficient to lodge his little family; they were too good to build houses, which could only increase their own pride, and the envy of the spectator; what they built was for convenience, and not for show. At least then,' said Asem, “they have neither architects, painters, nor statuaries, in their society; but these are idle arts, and may be spared. However, before I spend much more time here, you should have my thanks for introducing me into the society of some of their wisest men; there is scarce any pleasure to me equal to a refined conversation; there is nothing of which I am so enamoured as wisdom.'- Wisdom,' replied his instructor,

ho ridiculous ! we have no wisdom here, for we have no occasion for it; true wisdom is only a knowledge of our own duty, and the duty of others to us; but of what use is such wisdom here, where each intuitively performs what is right in himself, and expects the same from others? If by wisdom you should mean vain curiosity, and empty speculation, as such pleasures have their origin in vanity, luxury, or avarice, we are too good to pursue them.'

[Classical Tripos, 1849.]

168. The reason why the simpler sort are moved with authority is the conscience of their own ignorance; whereby it cometh to pass that having learned men in admiration, they rather fear to dislike them than know wherefore they should allow and follow their judgments. Contrariwise with them that are skilful authority is much more strong and forcible; because they only are able to discern how just cause there is why to some men's authority so much should be attributed. For which cause the name of Hippocrates (no doubt) were more effectual to persuade even such men as Galen himself, than to move a silly empiric. So that the very selfsame argu

. ment in this kind which doth but induce the vulgar sort to like, may constrain the wiser to yield. And therefore not orators only with the people, but even the very profoundest disputers in all faculties have hereby often with the best learned prevailed most.

[Chancellor's Medals, 1849.]

169. A COMMONWEALTH, with such civil and military institutions, was not formed to make conquests. While its subjects were disarmed, and its nobles excluded from military command, it carried on its warlike enterprises with great disadvantage. This ought to have taught the Venetians to rest satisfied with making self-preservation, and the enjoyment of domestic security, the objects of their policy. But republics are apt to be seduced by the spirit of ambition as well as kings. When the Venetians so far forgot the inferior defects in their government as

to aim at extensive conquests, the fatal blow which they received in the war excited by the league of Cambray, convinced them of the imprudence and danger of making violent efforts in opposition to the genius and tendency of their constitution.

[Magdalene College Scholarships, 1849.]

170. IF any artist, I do not say had executed, but had merely conceived in his mind the system of the sun, and the stars, and planets, they not existing, and had painted to us in words, or upon canvas, the spectacle now afforded by the nightly cope of heaven, and illustrated it by the wisdom of astronomy, great would be our admiration. Or had he imagined the scenery of this Earth, the mountains, the seas and the rivers; the grass, and the flowers, and the variety of the leaves of the woods, and the colours which attend the rising and the setting sun, and the hues of the atmosphere, turbid or serene, these things not before existing, truly we should have been astonished, and it would not have been a vain boast to have said of such a man, “Non sunt digni nomine Creatoris nisi Deus ac Poeta.” But now these things are looked on with little wonder, and to be conscious of them with intense delight is esteemed to be the distinguishing mark of a refined and extraordinary person. The multitude of men care not for them.

[Gonville and Caius College, 1849.]

171. THE principles of government are two-fold; internal, or the goods of the mind; and external, or the goods of fortune. The goods of the mind are natural or acquired virtues, as wisdom, prudence, and courage. The goods of fortune are riches. There be goods also of the body, as health, beauty, strength; but these are not to be brought into account upon this score, because if a man or an army acquire victory or empire, it is more from their discipline, arms, and courage, than from their natural health, beauty, or strength, in regard that a people conquered may have more of these, and yet find little remedy. The principles of government then are in the goods of the mind or in the goods of fortune. To the goods of the mind answers authority; to the goods of fortune, power or empire. A learned writer may have authority though he have no power; and a foolish magistrate may have power, though he have otherwise no esteem or authority. The difference of these two is observed by Livy in Evander, of whom he says, that he governed rather by the authority of others than by his own power. [St John's College Voluntary Classical, 1849.]

172. WHEN as therefore Darius had wearied himself and wasted his provisions in those desolate regions, wherein he found neither ways to direct him, victuals to refresh him, nor any houses, fruitful trees, or living creatures, nor any thing at all, which either he himself might make use of, or by destroying it might grieve his enemies, he began to perceive his own folly, and the danger into which he had brought him. Yet setting a good face upon a bad game, he sent brave messages to the Scythian, bidding him to cease his flight, and either to make trial of his valour and fortune in plain battle; or, if he acknowledged himself the weaker, then to yield by fair means and become his subject, giving him earth and water, which the Persians used to demand as a sign that all was yielded unto them. To this challenge the Scythian returned an Hieroglyphical answer; sending a bird, a frog, a mouse, and five arrows: which dumb shew Darius interpreting by his own wish, thought that he did yield all the elements wherein those creatures live, and his weapons withal into his hands. But Gobryas, one of the seven princes who had slain the Magi, construed their meaning aright which was thus: O ye Persians, get ye wings like birds, or dive under the water, or creep into holes in the earth, for else ye shall not escape our arrows. And this interpretation was soon verified by the Scythians themselves, who assailed the Persian camp, drave the horsemen into the trenches, and vexed the army with continual alarms day and night; were so fearless of this great monarch, and so little regarded him, that within his hearing, and even in his sight, they did not forbear the pastime of coursing a hare, which they had started by chance.

[St John's College, 1849.]

173. OMNE autem principium aut rei totius, quæ agetur, significationem habere debebit, aut aditum ad causam et munitionem, aut quoddam ornamentum et dignitatem. Sed oportet, ut ædibus ac templis vestibula et aditus, sic causis principia proportione rerum præponere. Itaque in parvis atque infrequentibus causis ab ipsa re est exordiri sæpe commodius. Sed cum erit utendum principio (quod plerumque erit) aut ex reo, aut ex adversario, aut ex re, aut ex eis, apud quos agitur, sententias duci licebit. Ex reo, (reos appello, quorum res est,) quæ significent virum bonum, quæ liberalem, quæ calamitosum, quæ misericordia dignum, quæ valeant contra falsam criminationem: ex adversario, iisdem ex locis fere contraria. Ex re, si crudelis, si infanda, si præter opinionem, si immerito, si misera, si ingrata, si indigna,

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