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doubt as to the fact, the conduct of the enemy through the whole course of the war, would put the matter beyond all question.

[St John's College, 1844.]

118. O PRÆCLARUM diem, quum ad illud divinum animorum concilium coetumque proficiscar, quumque ex hac turba et colluvione discedam! Proficiscar enim non ad eos solum viros, de quibus ante dixi; sed etiam ad Catonem meum, quo nemo vir melior natus est, nemo pietate præstantior: cujus a me corpus crematum est; quod contra decuit ab illo meum. Animus vero non me deserens, sed respectans, in ea profecto loca discessit, quo mihi ipsi cernebat esse veniendum. Quem ego meum casum fortiter ferre visus sum; non quod æquo animo ferrem: sed me ipse consolabar, existimans, non longinquum inter nos digressum et discessum fore.

(Bp. of Ely's Fellowship, Jesus College, 1844.]

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119. THOSE who believe in a future state of rewards and punishments, act very absurdly if they form their opinions of a man's merit from his successes. tainly if I thought the whole circle of our being was concluded between our births and deaths, I should think a man's good fortune the measure and standard of his real merit, since Providence would have no opportunity of rewarding his virtue and perfection, but in this present life. A virtuous unbeliever, who lies under the pressure of misfortunes, has reason to cry out, as they say Brutus did a little before his death, Oh, virtue! I have worshipped thee as a substantial good, but I find thou art an empty name.' But to return to our first point — Though prudence does, in a great measure, produce our good or ill fortune in the world, it is certain there are many un

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foreseen accidents and occurrences, which very often pervert the finest schemes that can be laid by human wisdom. Nay, it often happens that prudence, which has always in it a great mixture of caution, hinders a man from being so fortunate, as he might possibly have been without it. A person who only aims at what is likely to succeed, and follows closely the dictates of human prudence, never meets with those great unforeseen successes, which are often the effect of a sanguine temper, or a more happy rashness; and this perhaps may be the reason that, according to the common observation, Fortune, like other Females, delights rather in favouring the young than the old.

[Davies' Scholarship, 1845.]

120. By this time Pizarro, and his companions had remained five months in an island, infamous for the most unhealthy climate in that region of America. During all this period, their eyes were turned towards Panama, in hopes of succour from their countrymen; but worn out at length with fruitless expectations, and disspirited with suffering hardships of which they saw no end, they, in despair, came to a resolution of committing themselves to the ocean on a float, rather than continue in that detestable abode. But, on the arrival of the vessel from Panama, they were transported with such joy, that all their sufferings were forgotten. Their hopes revived, and, with a rapid transition, not unnatural among men accustomed by their mode of life to sudden vicissitudes of fortune, high confidence succeeding to extreme dejection, Pizarro easily induced not only his own followers, but the crew of the vessel from Panama, to resume his former scheme with fresh ardour.

[Magdalene College Scholarships, 1845.)

121. It is evident to any one who takes a survey of the objects of human knowledge, that they are either ideas actually imprinted on the senses, or else such as are perceived by attending to the passions and operations of the mind, or lastly ideas formed by help of memory and imagination, either compounding, dividing, or barely representing, those originally perceived in the aforesaid ways. By sight I have the ideas of light and colours, with their several degrees and variations. By touch I perceive, for example, hard and soft, heat and cold, motion and resistance, and of all these more and less either as to quantity or degree. Smelling furnishes me with odours, the palate with tastes, and hearing conveys sounds to the mind in all their variety of tone and composition. And as several of these are observed to accompany each other, they come to be marked by one name and so to be reputed as one thing. Thus for example, a certain colour, taste, smell, figure, and consistence having been observed to go together are accounted one distinct thing signified by the name 'apple.' Other collections of ideas constitute a stone, a tree, a book, and the like sensible things; which as they are pleasing or disagreeable excite the passions of love, hatred, joy, grief, and so forth.

[Classical Tripos, 1845.]

122. FLAMINIUS was through life the enemy of the aristocratical party; and our accounts of those times come from writers whose feelings were highly aristocratical. Besides his defeat and death at Thrasymenus made the Romans in general unfriendly to his memory; as natural pride is always ready to ascribe disasters in war to the incapacity either of the general or the government. But Flaminius was a brave and honest man, over confident it is true, and over vehement, but neither a demagogue nor a mere blind partizan. Like many others of the noblest of the plebeians, he was impatient of that craft of augury which he well knew was no genuine and simple-hearted superstition, but an engine of aristocratical policy, used by the nobility against those whom they hated or feared, yet the time was not come when the people at large saw this equally; and therefore Flaminius shared the fate, and incurred the blame, of those premature reformers, who putting the sickle to the corn before it is ripe, reap only mischief to themselves, and obtain no fruit for the world. [Classical Tripos, 1845.]

123. SHALL we be deterred by our wealth from resisting these outrages? What! shall we live in a temporary state of timid ease, fattening ourselves like swine to be killed to-morrow, and to become the easier prey to our enemies ? No; God forbid! If we have the spirit that has ever distinguished Britons, that very wealth will be our strength; with it we shall be more than a match for their blind fury. No man, I will venture to say, has a more lively sense of the severe inflictions of war than myself; I always held it as one of the last of evils, and wish to adopt it now only from the conviction that at no distant period we shall be obliged to encounter it at a much greater disadvantage. A war with France under such circumstances as now govern her conduct, must be terrible, but peace will be much more so.

[Caius College, 1845.]

124. As I was busy in the inside of it behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed;

for on a sudden I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill, over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner: I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before; and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon

I was no sooner stept down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times, with three such shocks, as would have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life: I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island. [St John's College Voluntary Classical, 1845.]



125. They gave them also their help to build a new wall, not of earth, as the former, but of stone, (both at the public cost and by particular contributions) traversing the isle in direct line from east to west between certain cities placed there as frontiers to bear off the enemy, where Severus had walled once before. They raised it twelve feet high, eight broad. Along the south shore, because from thence also hostility was feared, they place towers by the sea side at certain distances, for safety of the coast. Withal they instruct them in the art of war, leaving patterns of their arms and weapons behind

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