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adventures for the first part of their lives, before their meridian, declined to so dull an appetite of danger, as if they had not the same souls. [Classical Tripos, 1844.]
109. But of one thing we must have special care, as being a matter of no small moment; and that is, how the Will, properly and strictly taken, as it is of things which are referred unto the end that man desireth, differeth greatly from that inferior natural desire which we call Appetite. The object of Appetite is whatsoever sensible good may be wished for; the object of Will is that good which Reason doth lead us to seek. Affections, as joy, and grief, and fear, and anger, with such like, being as it were the sundry fashions and forms of Appetite, can neither rise at the conceit of a thing indifferent, nor yet choose but rise at the sight of some things. Wherefore it is not altogether in our power, whether we will be stirred with affections or no: whereas actions which issue from the disposition of the Will are in the power thereof to be performed or stayed.
[Classical Tripos, 1844.]
110. We are contrariwise of opinion, that he which will perfectly recover a sick, and restore a diseased body unto health, must not endeavour so much to bring it to a state of simple contrariety, as of fit proportion in contrariety unto those evils which are to be cured. He that will take away extreme heat by setting the body in extremity of cold, shall undoubtedly remove the disease, but together with it the diseased too. The first thing therefore in skilful cures, is the knowledge of the part affected; the next is of the evil which doth affect it; the last is not only of the kind but also of the measure of contrary things whereby to remove it.
[Chancellor's Medals, 1844.]
111. MR HAMPDEN was a man of much greater cunning, and it may be of the most discerning spirit, and of the greatest address and insinuation to bring any thing to pass which he desired, of any man of that time, and who laid the design deepest. He was not a man of many words, and rarely begun the discourse, or made the first entrance upon any business that was assumed; but a very weighty speaker, and after he had heard a full debate, and observed how the house was like to be inclined, took up the argument, and shortly, and clearly, and craftily, so stated it, that he commonly conducted it to the conclusion he desired; and if he found he could not do that, he never was without the dexterity to divert the debate to another time, and to prevent the determining any thing in the negative, which might prove inconvenient in the future. [Chancellor's Medals, 1844.]
112. Many have been of opinion, among whom is Plutarch, a great writer, that the people of Rome were more favoured by fortune, than assisted by their virtues, in gaining their empire. And among
other which he alleges to that purpose,
appears by the confession of the same people, that they acknowledged all their victories from fortune, having consecrated more temples to her, than to any other god. And Livy seems to side with this opinion: because it is very seldom, that he brings in any Roman speaking where he makes mention of virtue, but he that joins fortune therewith. Whereunto I will not yield in any terms, nor think I it can be maintained : for if never any republic made the same progress that Rome made; it is because never hath any republic been so ordered to make its advantage, as Rome was: for the valour of their armies gained them their empire, and their order of proceeding, and their own manner, with that which their first founder likewise devised for them, made them keep what they had gotten, as hereafter in several discourses shall be declared. [St John's College Classical Examination, 1844.]
113. FIRST, permit me to observe, that the use of force alone is but temporary. It may subdue for a moment; but it does not remove the necessity of subduing again ; and a nation is not governed, which is perpetually to be conquered. My next objection is its uncertainty. Terror is not always the effect of force; and an armament is not a victory. If you do not succeed you are without resource; for, conciliation failing, force remains; but, force failing, no further hope of reconciliation is left. Power and authority are sometimes bought by kindness; but they can never be begged as alms by an impoverished and defeated violence. A further objection to force is, that you impair the object by your very endeavours to preserve it. The thing you fought for is not the thing which you recover; but depreciated, sunk, wasted, and consumed in the contest. Nothing less will content me than whole America. I do not choose to consume its strength along with our own; because in all parts it is the British strength which I consume.
[Queens' College, 1844.]
114. FIRST excogitate matter, then words; and examine the weight of each, and be better at the end than in the beginning, and in the beginning than in the middle. Express fully, but not profusely; and yet there are places in which we should let out all our sail, and others in which we should contract, and take it in. Understand those to whom you are to speak; consider what they will hear with most attention, what is most longed for, what will leave the sweetest memorial of the past, and allusions to things known and pleasing.
[Trinity College, 1844.]
115. The soul in respect of the body may be compared to an excellent workman, who cannot labour in his occupation without some necessary instruments, and those well wrought and prepared to his hand. The most skilful musician cannot raise any harmony from an instrument of music out of tune. We are therefore to be very careful of these external parts, since the spirit which moves in them can naturally produce no actions of worth, if this instrumental frame be out of order. Hence it is that those men who abuse their bodies by the violence of intemperate sins, are sometimes overtaken, either with a sleepy dulness, or a wild distraction. Their souls are not able to produce any worthy act after a defect contracted upon their organs, or else are unwilling to be restrained and confined to a bad lodging or a loathsome dungeon.
(Jesus College, 1844.]
The soul of man therefore being capable of a more divine perfection, hath, besides the faculties of growing unto sensible knowledge, which is common unto us with beasts, a farther ability, whereof in them there is no shew at all, the ability of reaching higher than unto sensible things. Concerning perfections in this kind; that by proceeding in the knowledge of truth and by growing in the exercise of virtue, man amongst the creatures of this inferior world aspireth to the greatest conformity with God; this is not only known unto us, whom he himself hath so instructed, but even they do acknowledge, who amongst men are not judged the nearest unto him. With Plato what one thing more usual, than to excite men unto love of wisdom, by shewing how much wise men are thereby exalted above men; how knowledge doth raise them up into heaven; how it maketh them, though not Gods, yet as Gods, high, admirable, and divine.
[King's College, 1844.]
117. Of those who wish for peace, there are two classes. There are some, and of those a very numerous body, who are desirous for peace, as soon as peace can be obtained on safe and honourable terms. To such it must be clear that the object of their wishes cannot be secured by laying aside the means of action. But there are others, who are of opinion that, for the attainment of peace, there are no terms which we ought not to accept, no law to which we ought not to submit. Even those who entertain these humiliating ideas, would be guilty of insanity, were they to add to the degradation, by laying aside one of the weapons to which they trust for the acquisition of their darling object. Such conduct would betray a desire not only to take any terms which the enemy might be pleased to dictate, but to take every means to render these terms as bad as possible. It is evident then, that the measure in agitation affects the question of peace, both as it depends upon the period of its restoration, and the terms on which it may be concluded. Did the reasonings upon this subject leave any