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80. Fro Æthiop men gon to Ynde, be manye dyverse Contreyes. And men clepen the highe Ynde Emlak. And Ynde is devyded in 3 principalle parties: that is, the more, that is a full hoot Contree; and Ynde the lesse, that is a full atempree Contrey, that strechethe to the Lond of Mede; and the 3 part, toward the Septentrion, is full cold, so that for pure cold and contynuelle Frost, the Watre becomethe Cristalle. And upon tho Roches of Cristalle growen the gode Dyamandes. And ther bene sume of the gretnesse of a Bene, and sume als grete as an Haselle Note. I schall speke a litille more of the Dyamandes, to the ende that theye that knowen hem not, be not disceyved. Fro this Lond men gon to another Yle, that is clept Silla : and it is well a 800 myles aboute. In that Lond is fulle mochelle waste, for it is fulle of wylde Bestes, of Serpentes and of Cokadrilles. Theise Cokadrilles ben a maner of long Serpente, zalowe and rayed aboven, and han 4 Feet and schorte Thyes and grete Nayles as Clees or Talouns : and there ben sume that han 5 Fadme in length, and sume of 6 and a halfendel. And in the nyght thei dwellen in the Watir, and on the day, upon the Lond. Theise Serpentes slen men, and thei eten hem wepynge: and whan thei eten, thei meven the over Jowe, and noughte the nether Jowe; and thei have no Tonge. In that Contree is the See that men clepen the Gravely See, that is alle Gravelle and Sond, with outen ony drope of Watre: and it ebbethe and flowethe in grete Wawes, as other Sees don: and it is never stille ne in pes, in no maner cesoun. And no man may passe that See be Navye, ne be no maner of craft: and therfore may no man knowe, what Lond is bezond that See. And many other marveylles ben there; that it
were to combrous and to long to putten it in scripture of Bokes.
[St Peter's College, 1841.)
81. AND of discerning goodness there are but these two ways: the one the knowledge of the causes whereby it is made such; the other the observation of signs and tokens. Signs and tokens to know good are of sundry kinds; some more certain and some less. The most certain token of evident goodness is, if the general persuasion of all men do so account it. In which case, surmises and slight probabilities will not serve. Things casual do vary, and that which a man doth but chance to think well of cannot still have the like hap. Yet some necessary cause there must be, whensoever the judgments of all men generally, or for the most part, run one and the same way, especially in matters of natural discourse. For of things naturally and necessarily done there is no more affirmed than this: They keep either always or for the most part one tenor,
[St Peter's College, 1841.]
82. In this manner the fight began; the king's forces pressing with their utmost vigour those four ways up the hill, and the enemy as obstinately defending their ground. The fight continued with very doubtful success till towards three of the clock in the afternoon, when word was brought to the chief officers of the Cornish that their ammunition was spent to less than four barrels of powder; which (concealing the defect from the soldiers) they resolved could only be supplied with courage: and therefore, by messengers to one another, they agreed
to advance with their full bodies, without making any more shot, till they reached the top of the hill, and so might be upon even ground with the enemy; wherein the officer's courage and resolution was so well seconded by the soldier, that they began to get ground in all places; and the enemy, in wonder of the men who outfaced their shot with their swords to quit their post.
[Trinity College, 1841.]
83. It is by bribing, not so often by being bribed, that wicked politicians bring ruin on mankind. Avarice is a rival to the pursuits of many; it finds a multitude of checks and many opposers in every walk of life; but the objects of ambition are for the few, and every person who aims at indirect profit, and therefore wants other protection than innocence and law, instead of its rival, becomes its instrument. There is a natural allegiance and fealty due to this domineering paramount evil from all the vassal vices which acknowledge its superiority and readily militate under its banners; and it is under that discipline alone that avarice is able to spread itself to any considerable extent, or to render itself a general public mischief. [Trinity College, 1841.]
84. In proportion as the principle of the division of labour is more extensively applied, the workman becomes more weak, more narrow-minded and more dependent. The art advances, the artisan recedes. On the other hand, in proportion as it becomes more manifest that the productions of manufactures are by so much the cheaper and better as the manufacture is larger and the amount of capital employed more considerable, wealthy and educated men come forward to embark in manufactures which were heretofore abandoned to poor or ignorant handicraftsmen. The magnitude of the efforts required, and the importance of the results to be obtained, attract them. Thus at the very time at which the science of manufactures lowers the class of workmen, it raises the class of masters. Whereas the workman concentrates his faculties more and more upon the study of a single detail, the master surveys a more extensive whole, and the mind of the latter is enlarged in proportion as that of the former is narrowed. In a short time the one will require nothing but physical strength without intelligence; the other stands in need of science, and almost of genius, to ensure success. This man resembles more and more the administrator of a vast empire,—that man, a brute. [Trinity College, 1841.]
85. I MUST confess there is hardly any where to be found a more insipid race of mortals, than those whom we moderns are contented to call poets, for having attained the chiming faculty of a language, with an injudicious random use of wit and fancy. But for the man, who truly and in a just sense deserves the name of Poet, and who as a real Master, or Architect in the kind, can describe both men and manners, and give to an action its just body and proportions; he will be found, if I mistake not, a very different creature. Such a poet is indeed a second Maker: a just Prometheus, under Jove. Like that sovereign Artist or universal plastic Nature, he forms a whole, coherent and proportioned in itself, with due subjection and subordinacy of constituent parts. He notes the boundaries of the passions, and knows their exact tones and measures; by which he justly represents them, marks the sublime of sentiments and action, and distinguishes the beautiful from the deformed, the amiable from the odious. The moral Artist, who can thus imitate the Creator, and is thus knowing in the inward form and structure of his fellow-creature, will hardly, I presume, be found unknowing in himself, or at a loss in those numbers which make the harmony of a mind. For knavery is mere dissonance and disproportion. And though villains may have strong tones, and natural capacities of action; 'tis impossible that true Judgment and Ingenuity should reside, where Harmony and Honesty have no being. [Trinity College, 1841.]
86. As when a carver makes an image, he shapes only that part whereupon he worketh; as if he be upon the face, that part which shall be the body is but a rude stone still, till such time as he comes to it: but contrariwise, when nature makes a flower or living creature she formeth rudiments of all the parts at one time: so in obtaining virtue by habit, while a man practiseth temperance, he doth not profit much to fortitude nor the like; but when he dedicateth and applieth himself to good ends, look, what virtue soever the pursuit and passage towards those ends doth commend unto him, he is invested of a precedent disposition to conform himself thereunto.
[Corpus Christi College, 1841.]
87. THE ruin or prosperity of a state depends so much upon the administration of its government, that, to be acquainted with the merit of a ministry, we need only observe the condition of the people. If we see them obedient to the laws, prosperous in their industry, united at home, and respected abroad, we may reasonably presume that their affairs are conducted by men of experi