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being in the cheerless twilight of the nether world, a shadow of its former self, and pursuing the empty image of its past occupations and enjoyments. Orion is engaged in chasing the disembodied beasts, which he had killed on the mountains, over the asphodel meadow. Minos is busied in holding mock trials, and dispensing his rigid justice to a race that has lost all power of inflicting wrong. Achilles retains his ancient pre-eminence among his dead companions, but he would gladly exchange the unsubstantial honour, even if it were to be extended to the whole kingdom of spirits, for the bodily life of the meanest hireling. Nothing was more remote from Homer's philosophy than the notion, that the soul, when lightened of its fleshly incumbrances, exerted its intellectual faculties with the greater vigour. On the contrary he represents it as reduced by death to a state of senseless imbecility. Alas," exclaimed Achilles, when the spirit of Patroclus had vanished, “even in Hades there remains a ghost, and an image of the dead, but the mind is altogether gone.”

[Classical Tripos, 1837.]

40. FRANCE, without its sovereign, without money in her treasury, without an army, without generals to command it, and encompassed on all sides by a victorious and active enemy, seemed to be on the very

brink of destruction. But on that occasion the great abilities of Louise, the regent, saved the kingdom which the violence of her passions had more than once exposed to the greatest danger. Instead of giving herself up to such lamentations as were natural to a woman so remarkable for her maternal tenderness, she discovered all the foresight, and exerted all the activity, of a con.

summate politician. She assembled the nobles at Lyons, and animated them by her example no less than by her words, with such zeal in defence of their country, as its present situation required. She collected the remains of the army which had served in Italy, ransomed the prisoners, paid the arrears, and put them in a condition to take the field. She levied new troops, provided for the security of the frontiers, and raised sums sufficient for defraying these extraordinary expenses. Her chief care, however, was to appease the resentment, or to gain the friendship, of the king of England; and from that quarter the first ray of comfort broke in upon the French.

[Magdalene College Scholarships, 1837.]

41. THE Athenian commanders in the mean time consulted both on the calamity which had befallen them, and on the present general distress in the army. For they perceived that they were unsuccessful in their attempts, and that the soldiers were wearied with staying; for they were oppressed with disease from two causes, both from its being the season of the year in which men are most generally sick, and from the place in which they were encamped being marshy and unhealthy: and all other circumstances also appeared to them to be without hope. To Demosthenes therefore it appeared that they ought not to remain any longer; but, as he had intended when he ventured on the enterprize against Epipolæ, now that it had failed, he gave his vote for departing without delay, while the sea was yet practicable to be crossed, and they could manage to convey the army at least with the fresh accession of naval force. It was also, he said, more serviceable to the state to make war against those who were erecting fortresses against them in their country, than against the Syracusans whom it was no longer easy to subdue.

[Chancellor's Medals, 1837.]

42. AND as it is essential to the very being of parliament, that elections should be absolutely free, therefore all undue influences upon the electors are illegal, and strongly prohibited. For Mr Locke ranks it among those breaches of trust in the executive magistrate, which according to his notions amount to a dissolution of the government, "if he employs the force, treasure, and officers of the society to corrupt the representatives, and gain them to his purposes, or openly pre-engages the electors, and prescribes to their choice such whom he has by solicitations, threats, promises, or otherwise, won to his designs. For thus to regulate candidates and electors, and new-model the ways of election, what is it (says he) but to cut up the government by the roots; and poison the very fountain of public security ?" As soon therefore as the time and place of election, either in counties or boroughs, are fixed, all soldiers quartered in the place are to remove, at least one day before the election, to the distance of two miles or more; and not to return till one day after the poll is ended.

[Trinity College, 1837.]

Man is a very busy and active creature, which cannot live and do nothing, whose thoughts are in restless motion, whose desires are ever stretching at somewhat, who perpetually will be working either good or evil to himself: wherefore greatly profitable must that thing be, which determineth him to act well, to spend his care and pain on that which is truly advantageous to


him: and that is religion only. It alone fasteneth our thoughts, affections and endeavours upon occupations worthy the dignity of our nature, suiting the excellency of our natural capacities and endowments, tending to the perfection and advancement of our reason, to the enriching and ennobling of our souls. Secluding that, we have nothing in the world to study, to affect, to pursue, not very mean and below us, not very base and misbecoming us, as men of reason and judgment.

[King's College, 1837.]


WHEN all was got ready for the departure, silence was proclaimed by the sound of the trumpet; and, after a pause, the solemn prayers for a prosperous voyage were offered, not separately, as usual, in each galley, but pronounced by a herald, and repeated simultaneously through the fleet; and the chorus of supplication was swelled by the voices of the multitude, both of citizens, and—if there were any who wished well to Athens-of foreigners, on shore. At the same time in every ship libations were poured, both by officers and men, from vessels of gold and silver. When these rites were ended, and the pæan was sung, the armament moved slowly out of the harbour in a column, which broke up as soon as it got to sea; and it then pushed across the gulf with all the speed each galley could make, to Ægina, and thence pursued its voyage to Corcyra.

[St John's College, 1837.]

45. A FRENCH Governor is seldom chosen for any other reason than his qualification for his trust. To be a bankrupt at home, or to be so infamously vicious that he cannot be decently protected in his own country, seldom recommends any man to the government of a French colony. Their officers are commonly skilful either in war or commerce, and are taught to have no expectation of honor or preferment, but from the vigor and justice of their administration. Their great security is the friendship of the natives, and to this advantage they have certainly an indisputable right;—because it is the consequence of their virtue. It is ridiculous to imagine, that the friendship of nations, whether civil or barbarous, can be gained and kept but by kind treatment; and surely they who intrude, uncalled, upon the country of a distant people, ought to consider the natives as worthy of common kindness, and content themselves to rob without insulting them.

[Chancellor's Medals, 1838.]

46. It would not be easy to persuade us of the cowardice of a soldier of fortune, who acquired and preserved the esteem of the legions, as well as the favour of so many warlike princes. Yet even calumny is sagacious enough to discover and to attack the most vulnerable part. The valour of Diocletian was never found inadequate to his duty or to the occasion; but he appears not to have possessed the daring and generous spirit of a hero, who courts danger and fame, disdains artifice, and boldly challenges the allegiance of his equals. His abilities were useful rather than splendid; a vigorous mind, improved by the experience and study of mankind; dexterity and application in business; a judicious mixture of liberality and economy, of mildness and rigour; profound dissimulation under the disguise of military frankness; steadiness to pursue his ends; flexibility to vary his means; and above all, the great

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