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left, our arms and our virtue; and if we yield up our arms, how shall we make use of our virtue? Whereto Falinus, smiling on him, said, If I be not deceived, Young Gentleman, you are an Athenian, and I believe, you study Philosophy, and it is pretty that you say; but you are much abused, if you think your virtue can withstand the King's power.

Here was the scorn: the wonder followed-which was, that this young Scholar or Philosopher, after all the Captains were murdered in parly by treason, conducted those ten thousand foot through the heart of all the King's high countries from Babylon to Grecia in safety in despight of all the King's forces, to the astonishment of the world and the encouragement of the Grecians in times succeeding to make invasion upon the Kings of Persia; as was after purposed by Jason the Thessalian, attempted by Agesilaus the Spartan, and atchieved by Alexander the Macedonian, all upon the ground of the act of that young Scholar.

[Classical Tripos, 1836.]

32. It is not possible to have the true pictures or statues of Cyrus, Alexander, Cæsar; no, nor of the kings or great personages of much later years; for the originals cannot last, and the copies cannot but lose of the life and truth. But the images of men's wits and knowledges remain in books exempted from the wrong of time, and capable of perpetual renovation. Neither are they fitly to be called images because they generate still, and cast their seeds in the minds of others, provoking and causing infinite actions and opinions in succeeding ages : so that if the invention of the ship was thought so noble, which carrieth riches and commodities from place to place, and consociateth the most remote regions in participation of their fruits,-how much more are letters to be magnified, which as ships pass through the vast seas of time, and make ages so distant to participate of the wisdom, illuminations and inventions, the one of the other?

[Chancellor's Medals, 1836.]

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33. TOUCHING matters of revenue, a statesman should be acquainted with the various branches of the public income, its sources and amount; so that if any one has been overlooked, it may be turned to account, or if less productive than it ought to be, it may be enlarged. He ought also to be conversant with the public expenditure; for a nation is not less enriched by retrenchment of expenditure than by addition of income. In matters of peace and war he should know the national force, its present amount and condition, as well as the amount it may be raised to, and the improvement it may admit of. He should be familiar too with the wars in which not only his own country, but the neighbouring states have been engaged. And, with a view to the security of the territory, he should understand well what places are best suited for posts, and what amount, as well as what kind of force, is best calculated to defend them.

[St John's College Fellowships, 1836.]

34. My loving people, we have been persuaded by some, that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear: I have always so behaved myself, that under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects. And therefore I

am come amongst you at this time, not as for my recreation or sport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all: to lay down, for my God, and for my kingdom, and for my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart of a King, and of a King of England too: and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realms : to which, rather than any dishonour should grow by me, I myself will take up arms: I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, by your forwardness, that you have deserved rewards and crowns; and we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time my lieutenant-general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble and worthy subject; not doubting by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, and of my kingdom, and of my people.

[Trinity College, 1836.]


35. THE Greek philosophers passed their days in learned leisure and retirement. Speculation was the employment of their lives, and their works were the result of uninterrupted study and reflection. The Romans, on the other hand, regarded philosophy, not as the business of life, but as an elegant relaxation, or as an avenue to advancement in the state. They heard with attention the ingenious disputes agitated among the Greeks, and perused their works with pleasure; but they had no time to invent new theories. The philosophers of Rome were men who governed their country at home, or combated her enemies abroad. They had, indeed, little motive to invent new systems, since so many were presented to them, ready formed. In the same manner as the plunder of Syracuse or Corinth supplied Rome with her statues and pictures, and rendered unnecessary the exertions of native artists; and as the dramas of Euripides and Menander provided sufficient materials for the Roman stage; so the Garden, Porch, and Academy, furnished a variety of doctrines which must have discouraged the formation of new and original theories. [Trinity College, 1836.]

36. It was by oral discourse that knowledge was chiefly communicated at the dawn of science, when books either did not exist, or were extremely rare. Socrates, in particular, was accustomed thus to inculcate his moral lessons; and it was natural for the scholars, who recorded them, to follow the manner in which they had been delivered. In the dialogues of Plato, the agreeable irony of that philosopher-the address with which, by seeming to yield, he ensnares the adversary-his quibbles-his subtle distinctions, and perplexing interrogatories, are managed with consummate skill and great dramatic effect; while, at the same time, the scenery and circumstances are often described with a richness and beauty of style, which no philosophic writer has as yet surpassed.

[Trinity College, 1836.)

37. In fine he alone doth appear truly a gentleman, who hath the heart to undergo hard tasks for public good, and willingly taketh pains to oblige his neighbours and friends. The work indeed of gentlemen is not so gross but it may be as smart and painful as any other. For all hard work is not manual; there are other instruments of action beside the plough, the spade, the hammer, the shuttle; nor doth every work produce sweat, and visible tiring of body; the head may work hard in contrivance of good designs, the tongue may be very active in dispensing advice, persuasion, comfort, and edification in virtue; a man may bestir himself in going about to do good; these are works employing the cleanly industry of a gentleman.

[Trinity College Fellowships, 1836.]

38. It was very strange, that upon such an accusation, maintained with so slender evidence, men that had well deserved of their country should be overthrown. But their enemies had so incensed the rascal multitude, that no man durst absolve them, save only Socrates the wise and virtuous philosopher, whose voice in this judgment was not regarded. Six of them were put to death, of whom one had hardly escaped drowning, and was with much ado relieved by other vessels in the storm; but the captains which were absent escaped; for when the fury of the people was overpast, this judgment was reversed, and the accusers called into question for having deceived and perverted the citizens. Thus the Athenians went about to free themselves from the infamy of injustice; but the divine justice was not asleep, nor would be so deluded.

[Classical Tripos, 1837.]

39. WHEN the soul has made its escape through the lips or the wound, it is not dispersed in the air, but preserves the form of the living person.

But the face of the earth, lighted by the sun, is no fit place for the feeble joyless phantom. It protracts its unprofitable

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