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olive grounds, and is bounded on either side by high and distant mountains; but it is commanded by some high ground called the Torrero, upon which there was a convent with some smaller buildings ..... During the night and on the following day, the enemy made an assault upon the city. A hospital, which was now filled with the sick and wounded, took fire, and was rapidly consumed. During this scene of horror, the most intrepid exertions were made to rescue these helpless sufferers from the flames. No person thought of his own property or individual concerns-every one hastened thither. The women were eminently active, regardless of the shot that fell around them, and braving the flames of the building. It has often been remarked, that the wickedness of women exceeds that of the other sexfor the same reason, when circumstances, forcing them out of their ordinary nature, compel them to exercise manly virtues, they display them in the highest degree. The loss of women and boys, during this siege, was very great, fully proportionate to that of men: they were always the most forward, and the difficulty was to teach them a prudent and proper sense of their danger.

[Classical Tripos, 1831.]

9. KynG RYCHARDE thus beynge aboute Bristowe, than the state generally of all men in England began to murmure and to ryse one agaynst another, and

mynystrynge of justyce was clene stopped up in all courtes of Englande, whereof the valyaunt men and prelates who loved reste and peace, and were glad to paye their duetyes were greatly abashed: for there rose in the realme companyes in dyvers rowtes, keppynge the feldes, and hygh wayes, so that marchauntes durste nat ryde

abrode to exercyse their marchaundyze for doute of robbynge, and no man knewe to whome to complayne to do them ryght reasone and justyce, whiche thynges were ryght prejudiciall and dyspleasaunt to the good people of Englande. For it was contrary to their accustomable usage: for all people, laborers and marchauntes were wonte to lyve in rest and peace, and to occupy their marchaundyze peasably, and the laborers to labour their landes quyetly. And than it was contrary, for when marchauntes rode fro towne to towne, and had outher golde or sylver in their purces, it was taken fro them, and fro other men and labourers out of their houses. These companyons wolde take whete, ootes, bufes, muttons, porkes, and the pore men durste speake no worde.

[Trinity College Fellowships, 1831.]

10. TAE honorable gentlemen are so ingenuous as to confess that our affairs, both abroad and at home, are at present in the utmost distress; but, say they, you ought to free yourselves from this distress, before you inquire how, or by what means, you were brought into it. Sir, according to this way of arguing, a minister that has plundered and betrayed his country, and fears being called to an account in Parliament, has nothing to do but to involve his country in a dangerous war, or some other great distress, in order to prevent an inquiry into his conduct; because he may be dead before that war is at an end, or that distress got over.— Thus, like the most villainous of all thieves, after he has plundered the house, he has nothing to do but to set it in a flame, that he may escape in the confusion. It is really astonishing to hear such an argument seriously urged in this House; but, say these gentlemen, if you found yourself

upon a precipice, would you stand to inquire how you were led there, before you considered how to get off? No, Sir; but if a guide had led me there, I should very probably be provoked to throw him over, before I thought of anything else; at least I am sure, I should not trust to the same guide for bringing me off; and this, Sir, is the strongest argument that can be used for an inquiry.

[Classical Tripos, 1832.]

11. The things that are now before us, said the princess, require attention and deserve it. What have I to do with the heroes or the monuments of ancient times ? With times which never can return, and heroes whose form of life was different from all that the present condition of mankind requires or allows?

To know anything, returned the poet, we must know its effects; to see men we must see their works, that we may learn what reason has dictated, or passion has incited, and find what are the most powerful motives of action. To judge rightly of the present, we must oppose it to the past; for all judgment is comparative, and of the future nothing can be known. The truth is, that no mind is much employed upon the present; recollection and anticipation fill up almost all our moments. Our passions are joy and grief, love and hatred, hope and fear. Of joy and grief the past is the object, and the future of hope and fear; even love and hatred respect the past, for the cause must have been before the effect. (St John's College Classical Examination, 1832.]

But the city of London, especially at the first, upon the near encamping of the rebels, was in great tumult: as it useth to be with wealthy and populous cities, especially those which for greatness and fortune are queens of their regions, who seldom see out of their windows, or from their towers, an army of enemies. But that which troubled them most, was the conceit, that they dealt with a rout of people, with whom there was no composition or condition, or orderly treating, if need were; but likely to be bent altogether upon rapine and spoil. And although they had heard that the rebels had behaved themselves quietly and modestly by the way as they went; yet they doubted much that would not last, but rather make them more hungry, and more in appetite to fall upon spoil in the end. Wherefore there was great running to and fro of people, some to the gates, some to the walls, some to the water-side : giving themselves alarms and panic fears continually. Nevertheless both the lord mayor, and the sheriffs, did their part stoutly and well, in arming and ordering the people. And the king likewise did adjoin some captains of experience in the wars, to advise and assist the citi


But soon after, when they understood that the king had so ordered the matter, that the rebels must win three battles, before they could approach the city, and that he had put his own person between the rebels and them, and that the great care was, rather how to impound the rebels that none of them might escape, than that any doubt was made to vanquish them; they grew to be quiet and out of fear.

[Classical Tripos, 1833.]


13. THE great end of all human industry, is the attainment of happiness. For this were arts invented, sciences cultivated, laws ordained, and societies modelled, by the profoundest wisdom of patriots and legislators, Even the lonely savage, who lies exposed to the inclemency of the elements, and the fury of wild beasts, forgets not, for a moment, this grand object of his being. Ignorant as he is of every art of life, he keeps still in view the end of all those arts, and eagerly seeks for felicity amidst that darkness with which he is environed. But as much as the wildest savage is inferior to the polished citizen, who under the protection of laws, enjoys every convenience which industry has invented; so much is this citizen himself inferior to the man of virtue, and the true philosopher, who governs his appetites, subdues his passions, and has learned, from reason, to set a just value on every pursuit and enjoyment. For is there an art and apprenticeship requisite for every other attainment? And is there no art of life, no rule, no precepts to direct us in this principal concern?

Can no particular pleasure be attained without skill; and can the whole be regulated without reflection or intelligence, by the blind guidance of appetite and instinct ?

[Classical Tripos, 1833.]

14. PRINCES indeed may confer titles and names of honour. But they are a man's own actions which must make him truly honourable; honour being but the reflection of a man's own actions, shining bright in the face of all about him, and from thence rebounding upon himself. And yet in spite of nature and reason and the judgment of all mankind, this high and generous thing must be that, in whose pretended quarrel almost all the duels of the world are fought. Oh! my honour is concerned, says one. In what? I pray. Why, he gave me the lie. That is, he gave you perhaps what was your own before. But as truth cannot be made false

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