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forces himself spent the night in the field, by such a fire as could be made of the little wood, and bushes which grew thereabouts, unresolved what to do the next morning; many reporting, that the enemy was gone: but when the day appeared, the contrary was discovered: for then they were seen standing in the posture and place in which they fought, from whence their general, wisely, never suffered them to stir all that night: presuming reasonably, that if they were drawn off never so little from that place, their numbers would lessen, and that many would run away: and therefore he caused all manner of provisions, with which the country supplied him plentifully, to be brought thither to them for their repast, and reposed himself with them in the place: besides, that night he received a great addition of strength, not only by rallying those horse and foot, which had run out of the field of battle, but by the arrival of two thousand fresh foot, (which were reckoned among the best of the army,) and five hundred horse, which marched a day behind the army for the guard of their ammunition, and a great part of their train, not supposing there would have been any action that would have required their presence. All the advantage this seasonable recruit brought them, was to give their old men so much courage as to keep the field, which it was otherwise believed they would hardly have been persuaded to have done.

[Jesus College, 1847.]

175. 'Tis certain that a serious attention to the sciences and liberal arts softens and humanizes the temper, and cherishes those fine emotions, in which true virtue and honour consists. It rarely, very rarely, happens that a man of taste and learning is not, at least, an


honest man, whatever frailties may attend him. The bent of his mind to speculative studies must mortify in him the passions of interest and ambition, and must, at the same time, give him a greater sensibility of all the decencies and duties of life. He feels more fully a moral distinction in characters and manners, nor is his sense of this kind diminished, but, on the contrary, it is much increased by his speculations. Besides such insensible changes upon the temper and disposition, 'tis highly probable, that others may be produced by study and application. The prodigious effects of education may convince us, that the mind is not altogether stubborn and inflexible, but will admit of many alterations from its original make and structure. Let a man propose to himself the model of a character, which he approves of: let him be well acquainted with those particulars in which his own character deviates from this model: let him keep a constant watch over himself, and bend his mind, by a continual effort, from the vices towards the virtues; and I doubt not but, in time, he will find in his temper an alteration for the better. Habit is another powerful means of reforming the mind, and implanting in it good dispositions and inclinations. A man who continues in a course of sobriety and temperance, will hate riot and disorder: if he engage in business or study, indolence will seem a punishment to him: if he constrain himself to practise beneficence and affability, he will soon abhor all instances of pride and violence. Where one is thoroughly convinced that the virtuous course of life is preferable; if he has but resolution enough, for some time, to inforce a violence on himself, his reformation need not be despaired of. [Trinity College Fellowships, 1847.]

176. Having given the embassador his hand to kiss, and inquired of the queen's health, he willed him to go sit in the place provided for him, nigh ten paces distant; from thence to send him the queen's letters and present. Which the embassador thinking not reasonable stepped forward; but the chancellor meeting him, would have taken his letters; to whom the embassador said, that the queen had directed no letters to him; and so went on and delivered them to the emperor's own hands; and after a short withdrawing into the council-chamber, where he had conference with some of the council, he was called in to dinner: about the midst whereof, the emperor standing up, drank a deep carouse to the queen's health, and sent to the embassador a great bowl of Rhenish wine to pledge him. But at several times being called for to treat about affairs, and not yielding aught beyond his commission, the emperor not wont to be gainsaid, one day especially broke into passion, and with a stern countenance told him, he did not reckon the queen to be his fellow; for there are, quoth he, her betters. The embassador not holding it his part, whatever danger might ensue, to hear any derogate from the majesty of his prince, with like courage and countenance told him that the queen was equal to any in christendom, who thought himself greatest; and wanted not means to offend her enemies whomsoever. Yea, quoth he, what sayest thou of the French and Spanish kings? I hold her, quoth the embassador, equal to either. Then what to the German emperor? Her father, quoth he, had the emperor in his pay.

(Classical Tripos, 1848.]

177. PHYSICIANS tell us that there is a great deal of difference between taking a medicine, and the medicine getting into the constitution. A difference not unlike which, obtains with respect to those great moral propositions, which ought to form the directing principles of human conduct. It is one thing to assent to a proposition of this sort; another, and a very different thing, to have properly imbibed its influence.

I take the case to be this perhaps almost every man living has a particular train of thought into which his mind falls, when at leisure from the impressions and ideas that occasionally excite it; perhaps, also, the train of thought here spoken of, more than any other thing, determines the character. It is of the utmost consequence, therefore, that this property of our constitution be well regulated.

[Classical Tripos, 1848.]

178. NEITHER was he ignorant that, after he had strengthened himself with arms and a military power, neither Crassus nor Pompey could ever be able to bear up against him: whereof the one trusted to his great riches, the other to his fame and reputation; the one decayed through age, the other in power and authority; and neither of them was grounded upon true and lasting foundations. And the rather, for that he had obliged all the senators and magistrates, and in a word all those that had any power in the commonwealth, so firmly to himself with private benefits, that he was fearless of any combination or opposition against his designs, till he had openly invaded the imperial power. Which thing though he always bare in his mind, and at the last acted it, yet he did not lay down his former person; but coloured things so, that what with the reasonableness of his demands, what with his pretences of peace, and what with the moderate use of his successes, he turned all the envy of the adverse party, and seemed to take up arms upon necessity for his own preservation and safety. But the falseness of this pretence manifestly appeared.

[Chancellor's Medals, 1848.]

179. I WILL now mention the favourable opportunity which you have, if you wish to embrace it, of obliging foreigners, among whom there is no one at all conspicuous for genius or for elegance who does not make the Tuscan language his delight, and indeed consider it as an essential part of education, particularly if he be only slightly tinctured with the literature of Greece or of Rome. I, who certainly have not merely wetted the tip of my lips in the stream of those languages, but, in proportion to my years, have swallowed the most copious draughts, can yet sometimes retire with avidity and delight to feast on Dante, Petrarch, and many others; nor has Athens itself been able to confine me to the transparent wave of its Ilissus, nor ancient Rome to the banks of its Tiber, so as to prevent my visiting with delight the stream of the Arno, and the hills of Fæsolæ. ...... The other critics in your language seem to this day to have had no other design than to satisfy their own countrymen, without taking any concern about any body else. Though I think that they would have provided better for their own reputation and for the glory of the Italian language, if they had delivered their precepts in such a manner as if it was for the interest of all men to learn their language. But, for all them, we might think that you Italians wished to confine your wisdom within the pomerium of the Alps. [Bell Scholarships, 1848.]

180. As soon as this was known, the disappointed

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