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During Mina's imprisonment in the Bucks County jail he wrote in Spanish a lengthy account of his life which he delivered to the Sheriff with a request that it be printed, and it was published in English by two different printers the day after he was hanged. It stated that his name was Carolino Estradas de Mina and that he was born on the Island of Cuba in 1809, where his father was commandant. He came to the United States in 1829 and having been accused of stealing some jewelry was imprisoned for fourteen months. On his release he started for Philadelphia, and on his way came to Mr. Chapman's house. Mrs. Chapman he said soon fell in love with him and poisoned her husband in order to marry him. He declared solemnly that he had no hand in the crime, and that after their marriage she confessed her guilt to him, whereupon he left her. The confession (which is written in the third person) says: "During the same day Carolino led Mrs. C. into his chamber, and having locked the door, he threatened to stab her if she did not reveal the whole truth respecting the mysterious death of her husband, at the same time promising her that if she made a full confession, he would not harm her and would bind himself by the word of a gentleman to keep the whole an inviolable secret. She then confessed, that in order to marry him she had murdered her former husband; that she knew Carolino to be rich, and that when she would be married to him he would take her to live with his parents; that another motive for killing him was the fear that he would kill her through jealousy of Carolino. She had purchased the phial of poison from a doctor in the vicinity, and had given him one hundred dollars for it, and a promise of secrecy on his part as to having sold it. The directions were to give three drops per day, but she, fearing that Carolino should discover her husband to be jealous of him, and that his sentiments of honor should then induce him to leave her house, gave him ten drops per day instead of three that the doctor had also told her this portion could only be administered in beer, and that it was in this beverage that she daily mixed the ingredient that was to rob her husband of his life; that she had been driven to this awful step, not merely for the jealousy he evinced shortly before his decease, and the miserable life he caused her to lead, but principally to marry Carolino."

After his conviction he made an attempt to escape from the county prison, and succeeded in gaining the woods but was pursued and brought back to prison where he was loaded with irons to secure him.


June 21.

Today Mina was executed at Doylestown. His confession, published the next day, added the following account of it:

Carolino or Mina was hung yesterday, pursuant to his sentence, at 20 minutes before 12 o'clock. The execution took place two miles from Doylestown, on the poor house ground; it is computed that at

least 10,000 people were present, and we are pleased to state there were not more than 100 females in this vast concourse. The culprit was taken from the prison at half past 9 o'clock in the morning, and rode to the place of execution in an open dearborne, in company with the Sheriff and a Catholic priest of this city. The civil authorities of the village preceded the dearborne, and immediately after it, about twenty persons, assistants and friends of the Sheriff. After these, several troops of horses, and several companies of infantry, from the surrounding neighborhood, followed.

Our informant visited Mina in prison at a late hour on Wednesday evening as well as on Thursday morning. On both occasions, the culprit conversed lightly and freely, on various subjects, and exhibited no symptoms of penitence till the clock struck nine (the hour fixed for his departure from prison), when he raised his hands to Heaven, and exclaimed, "Oh my God! the hour is arrived!" And from that time until the moment of his execution, he appeared thoroughly given to reflections concerning his dreadful fate, and held constant communion with the priest. He knelt on the scaffold beneath the gallows, and prayed with apparent sincerity for several minutes. He protested to the last that he was innocent of the crime for which he was about to suffer, and immediately before his exit into eternity, he made a short speech in Spanish, which was translated by the clergyman. The substance of it was as follows:

"Americans! you see before you an innocent victim-I have not to my knowledge wronged any person! if I have, however, I sincerely hope they will forgive me, as I forgive all those who have ever wronged me: You thirst for my blood! You think I am a coward! I will show you that I will die like a man-Innocent Mina!-Poor Mina is innocent!"

We regret to say that his death struggle was protracted for upwards of ten minutes, there not being sufficient length of rope allowed for the fall to break his neck immediately. The poor wretch struggled convulsively for a long time, and endeavored apparently in every possible way to put an end to his mortal agony. There appeared to be not the slightest sympathy shown in any bosom for the sufferer, and so strong was the excitement against Mrs. Chapman, that had she appeared upon the ground, it was the opinion of many that she would immediately have been put to death.

The conduct of the sheriff throughout was such as to have produced general satisfaction. He performed all the unpleasant duties of hangman, etc., with his own hands.

On Tuesday night last, we understand that Mina attempted to commit suicide. Having found a rusty nail in one portion of his cell, he ground it to a sharp point on the stones, and penetrated one of the veins in his left arm, by which a great quantity of blood was emitted. After having been detected in the attempt, and the wound bound up, he swallowed a large quantity of broken glass, but without having the desired effect. On being questioned with regard to

these attempts, he said that his object was not to commit suicide, but to weaken himself by blood-letting, in order that his death by violence might be rendered easier.

Throughout the revolting ceremony not the slightest disturbance took place among the spectators, and an involuntary shudder passed through the bosoms of all as the murderer was precipitated into eternity.



When in June, 1778, the British troops evacuated Philadelphia, Major General Benedict Arnold' was appointed by Washington to take command of that city. His task was not an easy one as the enemy had been in possession for nearly a year and many of the leading citizens were of doubtful patriotism and inclined to the interests of the King of England. And much of the property belonged to this class of the inhabitants or its ownership was doubtful, thus affording a great opportunity for graft and fraud. One of his first acts was to issue a proc

1 ARNOLD, BENEDICT. (1741-1801.) Born Norwich, Conn. After some years as an apothecary apprentice, he removed in 1763 to New Haven, where he carried on a drug business combined with book selling. At the beginning of the Revolution he was captain of a company at New Haven, which he took to Massachusetts after the battle of Lexington. He went on the expedition against Fort Ticonderoga and promoted to Colonel, he sailed down Lake Champlain and captured St. Johns. He proposed to Washington an expedition against Quebec, and was sent there in command of it. He captured Montreal and was made a General, but was unsuccessful and Canada was abandoned. In 1777 Arnold took a conspicuous part with General Gates, which resulted in the surrender of Burgoyne's army. (See 3 Am. St. Tr. 806.) On account of wounds he left the active service and was appointed Commander of Philadelphia. There he quarreled with the civil authorities, which resulted in his court martial, after which he began his correspondence with the British, and the plot to surrender West Point. This was discovered by the capture of Major André (post, p. 464), but he escaped to the British lines and as the price of his treason was paid a large sum of money and made a Brigadier General in the British army. He led a force against his countrymen and destroyed much property and captured several forts. At the end of the war he went to England, where he lived twenty years, but went to St. John, New Brunswick for a time, where he engaged in business. He became very unpopular there and was hung in effigy. He returned to England, and when the war with France began he petitioned for a command, but as no officers would serve or associate with him, it was refused. He died in London, aged 61.

lamation prohibiting the sale of goods until a commission should decide whether any part belonged to the King or his subjects. Though this measure had been ordered by Congress it was extremely unpopular in Philadelphia and caused a prejudice and dislike which turned public opinion strongly against him.

There was nothing in the character of General Arnold to conciliate the favor of the masses when once lost, and the luster of his military fame, as the fighting general, was soon obscured by a course of official and private conduct, which betrayed the speculator, and the weak, vain, and ambitious man. To add to this was the fact that his associations in the city were largely among those who secretly hoped for the success of the royal cause.

The habits of General Arnold while holding chief military command in Philadelphia, were extravagant to a degree far beyond his income. He indulged in an expensive equipage, a sumptuous table, and costly livery, and he became involved in debt, from which he undertook to extricate himself by private speculations, which were unfortunate. He took shares in privateers, and was unlucky. He presented claims against the United States, for expenses incurred in his northern campaigns, which were disallowed by the commissioners appointed to audit them. He quarreled with members of Congress who happened to oppose his claims, and he was continually alluding to his wounds, his scars, and his services, as a reason why his pretensions should be regarded and his demands allowed.

At the end of seven months his difficulties with the President and Council of Pennsylvania had drawn from that body a severe public censure upon his conduct, which was followed by a direction to the Attorney General to prosecute him for "such illegal and oppressive acts as were cognizable in courts of law," and the Council enumerated eight distinct charges against him. These were: 1. Giving protection to a vessel owned by a disloyal person to leave Philadelphia, proceed to sea and enter any port of the United States. 2. Closing up the shops in Philadelphia on his taking command so that even

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