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ach, Ihre himself has said : Quod have, from the earliest period, been ad orthographiam hujus particulæ at- distinguished for the want of certain tinet retinetur in ea Germanicum ch, words or particles used in the other Teuquod alias, si unicum conjunctivum och

tonic languages. The preposition or exceperis ab universa lingua Suio prefix bi, or be, is one of these. No Gothica, exula e jussimus. What trace of it, we believe, is to be found would Ihre have said to the claim of in any genuine Scandinavian words, peculiar affiliation between his own though it has been partially introduced Swedish, which has expelled the gut from Germany into the modern Danish tural ch, and a language in which one and Swedish. But and ben, which, of its most eminent poets is said to be it is thought, have a tolerable claim to the author of a string of gutturals authenticity as Scotch words, could put together in the following shape, have no existence in any Scandinaas if for the purpose of caricaturing vian tongue. They correspond to the its notorious propensities, and show- Saxon butan and binnan, and are coming its utter repugnance to Scandi. pounds of the prefix be or bi with the navian euphony. It is from Dunbar's words for ont and in ; in the same way Ballat of Our Lady.

as is done in below, before, behind, Haile, bricht, be sicht, in hevyn on hicht!

&c. Through, which appears so often Huile, day sterne orientale !

in Scotch as thurch, its genuine AnOur licht most richt, in clud of nycht,

glo-Saxon form, is also unknown to Our darkness for to scale :

Scandinavian. The prefix ga, ge, is in Haile, wicht, in sicht, puttar to flicht like manner Germanic merely, and Of fendis in battale !

the particle a prefixed to verbs is Haile,plicht, but sicht! Haile mekle of mycht! pure Anglo-Saxon, and unknown in Haile, glorious Virgine, haile !

Icelandic. These have both been Ave Maria, gratia plena !

much obliterated in Scotch as well as Haile gentill nychtingale,

in English ; but they are to be found Way stricht, clırdicht, to wilsome wicht, in enough of Scotch words to show That irke bene in travale.

their original existence. The conIn fact, it is plain that the modern junction when is also unknown to the English has here adopted the Scan

Scandinavian languages-so that the dinavian character, and that the Scot- first word we meet with in the oldest tish is distinguished from its sister reputed specimen of Scotch,“ hen dialect by having closely adhered to Alysander, our king, was dede,” gives the original Saxon.

its testimony in favour of the Saxon 2. The Scandinavian languages as opposed to the Scandinavian chahave always possessed a passive or ra- racter of our language. The verb to ther a middle voice, formed not by the make, the substantive verb to be, the use of auxiliaries, but by the incorpo- adjective great, the adjective auld, ration apparently of the reflec- and many others, all constantly found tive pronoun with the termina. iv pure Scotch, are in like manner untions of the verb. This peculi. known in a pure Scandinavian form, arity, which is a source of great but are universal in the Germanic lan: neatness of expression, is wholly un. guages. The copulative conjuncknown to any of the other Teutonic tions, the negatives and the relative tongues, and no trace of it is to be pronouns, which are generally so imfound in the Scottish dialect.

portant, as indicating the original 3. The Scandinavian languages character of a language, are all widehave always been distinguished from ly different in the Scandinavian lanothers of the Teutonic family, by their guages from what they are in the mode of dealing with the definite artin Scotch, which in these respects is cle, which is not prefixed, but post- identical with English. fixed to their nouns, and amalgamated 5. In Scotch, as in a dialect that with the termination. Thus in Da- contains an admixture of heterogenenish, en mand, a man, mand-en, the ous elements, we sometimes find both man ; et barn, a child, barn-et, the the Saxon and the Scandinavian form child. This singular contrivance, of a word, where they are mutually dis. which is a disguised use of the demon. tinct. For example, the Gothic comstrative pronoun, is wholly unknown bination of consonants zd, becomes with us.

in Saxon rd, and in Norse dd; thus, 4. The Scandinavian languages brurds, spica, punctum, becomes in A.


Saxon brord, and in Icelandic broddr. been formed from an anomalous preBoth of these forms are found in terite biyuntha, like kuntha, which in Scotch: braird is the point or summit lower German is found in the form of the young grain; brodd means a begunde, We may infer, however, pointed instrument or wound. In that the Scotch derived from the Congeneral, however, the Scotch follows tinent the term teind, which they use exclusively the Saxon form in such for the English tithe, and which forms words. The Gothic huzds, thesaurus, the only deviation we at present reis in Icelandic hodd, but in Scotch member from the rule we have hurd, like the English hoard. The old stated. Scotch reird, a voice, or sound, from In general, we think it may be the Gothic razda, assumes the Saxon safely asserted, that the consonantal form, and is thus opposed to the Ice- structure of the Scottish is substan. landic rodd. The Scotch airt, mean- tially that of the Saxon.

There are ing a point or quarter of the heavens, some exceptions, such as starn, stella, though with symptoms of a Celtic ori. which is nearer the Gothic stairno gin, is most probably the Saxon or than the A.-S. steorra, in which the Germanic form of the Icelandic oddr, n has been assimilated to the r. But cuspis, puoctum, and thus corresponds such differences are not sufficient to to the German ort, in the phrase die disturb the general rule, or to lead to vier örter des himmels. The word any inference at variance with what odd, however, as opposed to even, is a we have above said. Scandinavian form of the same root, The vowelism of the Scotch is not b'it it is as much English as Scotch. altogether pure. In some instances It involves the idea of a pointed sur- it differs, alike from the classic A.face as opposed to a plain one.

Ort Saxon and from the Icelandic. Thus, oder eben spilen is given in Schmeller's the diphthong, which in Icelandic is an excellent Bavarian dictionary as an ei, and in A.-Saxon a broad á, is uniexpression now going into disuse, and formly in Scotch an ai or ae. Thus ortig, as a thing that is odd or has no hám X.-S., home E., heimr Icel., is fellow, such as in Scotland is called in Scotch hame; hál A.-S., whole E., Orra. Horne Tooke's etymology of heill Icel.,

is in Scotch hail ; bán A.odd made it the past participle of the S., bone E., bein Icel., is in Scotch verb to owe !

bane; and so of stone, stane ; moan, 5. In another remarkable instance mane; oak, aik; &c. In this respect the Scotch has almost exclusively fol. the Scotch agrees with the northern lowed the Anglo-Saxon form. The dialect of England, as held up to riGothic combination nth, is dealt with dicule in the Reeve's Tale in Chaucer. differently in the Saxon and Scandi- The same peculiarity is to be found navian languages. In the Saxon the in the old Saxon, and it is common to n is elided, in the Scandinavian almost the modern Scandinavian dialects, and always the th. Thus anthar, Goth., to those of Lower Germany. alter, becomes in Saxon other, in Ice- In dealing with the Gothic diphthong landic annar.

Tunthus, Goth., dens, au, the Scotch is irregular, following apparently for tanthus, becomes in sometimes the original sound, as inloup, Saxon tóth, tooth, in Icelandic tönn. stoup, nout, in which it agrees with the Sinths, Goth., via, vicis, is in Saxon Icelandic and partially with the Gersàth, in Icelandic sinn. Swinths is man, but for the most part adopting the swith and swinnr. Munths is múth deviation into which the A.-Saxon has and munnr. Kuntha, novi, potui, is fallen, by converting the sound into in A.-S. cùthe, could, E., in Icelandic ea. This is a very important point of kunna. Kunths, notus, becomes cúth, resemblance, because fortunately, it A..S., kunnr Icel. Kunthian, notum can be traced very far back. The facere, is cýthan A.-S., kynna Icel. lines on the death of Alexander enAll of these words are found in Scot- able us to say, from the rhymes which tish compositions, as well as in com- they present, that the Scotch at that mon speech, exclusively in an Anglo- early time followed the vowelism of Saxon shape, with the elision of the the A.-Saxon, and not of the Icelann: ither, tooth, sithe, swyth, mouth, dic. The structure of the verse shows couth, kythe. Begouth, which is suf. that dead, bread, lead, by rhyming ficently Scotch, is an example of th with remede must have been prosame Saxon tendency. It must have nounced nearly as at present, that is, al


most as deed, breed, leed. This was, as Scotland, as it must all along have far as we can learn, the A.-Saxon pro- been since the date of authentic hisnunciation of these words, but widely tory ; and of what countries can that different from the Icelandic. Thus be said except where the languages dead was in A.-S. dead, in Icelandic are identical daudr ; bread in A.-S. breád, in Ice- With regard to the Norman Scotch, landic braud ; lead in A.-S. leád, in of which alone indeed we have any Icelandic laud, if such a word at all direct knowledge, we hold it to be existed. In the very earliest state of utterly absurd to suppose, as Mr Ellis our language, then, its pronunciation was led to do, that it could be framed strikingly assimilates it to the A.- in Scotland by influences separate Saxon, and distinguishes it both from and distinct from those which prothe Gothic and from the ancient duced English. Nothing but Norse.

miracle could have produced, on such In some of its most characteristic a hypothesis, two languages so nearly features of a vocalic sort, the Scotch alike. The same obliteration of inis faithful to the Anglo-Saxon, where flections and of genders is found in the English has deviated from its ori- both, with just those differences which ginal. Thus the A.-Saxon mús, hús, we expect to prevail in a country ditún, fúl, are correctly preserved in vided into provinces and districts. Scotch; while the English mouse, Take one common feature merely as house, town, foul, have been changed a sample. Contrary to the analogy by what in Sanscrit grammar is called of all the ancient Teutonic languages, the guna, of which the introduction and of other modern ones, the mascuand influence in the Teutonic dialects line termination of the plural in s, has has as yet been imperfectly traced. been adopted, both in English and in

The preceding observations, extend. Scotch, as the sign of the plural in all ing probably to a tedious length of genders, and in all words, with only a detail, have, we trust, demonstrated few exceptions, to be found alike in each the difficult, and we think the des- of the two countries. Such a corresperate, nature of any attempt to sepa pondence produced by accident, would rate our Scotch dialect from its neigh. be truly marvellous. When we furbour across the border, and to refer ther remember that the corresponding it in preference to a Scandinavian sign of the Scandinavian plural is not origin. The more the subject is s but r, we have an additional argustudied, we think the more complete- ment against the theory we have been ly the delusion of Dr Jamieson's combating. views will appear. His own book, by The Norman Scotch undoubtedly its very plan and title, has innocently possesses some peculiarities distintended to create an erroneous impres- guishing it from old English. But sion on this subject. He calls it a the germs of these are to be found in Dictionary of the Scottish Language. provincial differences of the AngloBut it is in truth not a dictionary of Saxon itself, of which numerous exany language. It is a dictionary only amples are collected in Hickes's of the peculiarities of the Scottish chapter on what he rashly calls the language. It is a mere idioticon, in Dano-Saxon dialect. These differwhich half the Scottish language is ences may partially be traceable to entirely omitted, that half, namely, Scandinavian influences, but it is diffi. which is literally identical with Eng. cult to say to what extent; and the im. lish. It is further, a collection not of portant observations of Raske on the classical words, or of the dialect of any subject, will guard us against too imlimited period, but of all the ar- plicit an adoption of that theory. chaisms, provincialisms, and vulgar- is Some of these peculiarities,” he isms of Scottish literature or speech, says, “ being common to the Frisic for 400 years. Such a work is apt to and old Saxon, may safely be ascribed exaggerate, in our estimation, the to that tribe of Angles which seated differences between the two languages, itself in Northumberland, and not to and undoubtedly to withdraw atten- the Scandinavians, in whose language tion from their resemblances. But they are not to be found, and thus where is the evidence or ground for contribute to prove that the Angles surmising, that at any period an Ang- were of genuine Teutonic, (Germanic,) lian translation of the Scriptures and not of Scandinavian origin." would not have been as intelligible in It is possible that in here trying to



make the rule straight, we may have The task would be difficult,
bent it a little too much in the oppo- and is not likely to be soon under-
site direction, and may seem to have taken ; while, without its aid, there is
allowed the Scandinavian language always the risk of hasty inferences
and customs too little influence in and vague impressions.
Scotland. If so, let the error be cor. The erroneous system on which Dr
rected, and the truth placed on a fair Jamieson's book to a great extent
and stable position, by means, not of proceeds, is certainly adverse to any
conjecture and assertion, but of tan- claims which may be advanced for its
gible proof or scientific analysis. Let high authority as a work of scientific
the words or forms that are Scandi. philology. But this deduction from
navian be pointed out ; let it be shown its merits leaves it still what we wish-
when they are first found in our re- ed at first to represent it, and what it
cords ;

and let it be proved that they will always be considered—a faithful are peculiar to Scandinavia, and un- reflection of national manners and known to other countries. Nothing customs, and a vast and valuable storewould be more useful or interesting, house of information, for illustrating and nothing is more wanted, than a an important subdivision of that comhistorical deduction both of the Scotch mon language of our countrymen, and English languages; such as would which may justly be called, in refershow, on sound data, the various ence to its structure and its produce sources from which they have at differ- tions, the richest and the noblest form ent times derived the treasures of of speech that the world has yet beauty and strength which they pos- witnessed.



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“ In his last hours, as he opened a note which bis servant brought to him, he said, ' An odd thougsht trikes me ; we shall receive no letters in the grave.'"-BOSWELL's Life of Johnsún.

Yes—'mid the unutterable dread

With which both Flesh and Spirit shrink,
When the stern Angel of the Dead

Impels us to the Future's brink-
While all is hurry, doubt, dismay,
Life's footing crumbling fast away,
And sins, long silent, dark and fell,
Across the memory flitting yell,
Even then that Sage's transient thought

Some pangs at least the soul can save,
For be what may our awful lot,

No letters reach us in the grave.
Letters from Home-we're spared at last

A longing, lingering watch to keep,
And when th' expected post is past

And brings them not, to shrink and weep,
And count how many hours remain
Before that post comes round again :
Or bitterer still to break the seals,
Sick for the love no line reveals,
Striving to wrest cold Duty's words

To heart-born tenderness and truth,
As if existence' shatter'd chords

Could yield the music of our youth!
A Patron's letters ;- never more

To feel them mock our honest pride,
With all the bard denounced of yore-

The curse “ in suing long to bide."*

* " Full little knowest thou that hast not tryed

What hell it is in sueing long to byde," &c.-Spencer.

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Never again to know th' intense
And feverish anguish of suspense,
When the cool, final, brief reply,
As yet unopen'd, meets the eye-
One moment more-and all we dread

May whelm us like a drowning wave;
Our doom-hope, health, and fortune fled-

To drift in darkness to the grave.
No letters there!--not even the small

Rose-scented one that dared not come
By day, but stole at evening's fall,

When every tell.tale breeze was dumb,
Asking the soul's dark gates of sin
To let the Writer's image in.
How, when that tiny billet came,
Our breath heaved thick, our blood grew flame,
As swift we started to assume

The muffling cloak and secret knife,
And glided down the glen's long gloom,

Though Danger dogg'd our life!
No letters in the grave.

We're free
From Friendship's smooth effusions there,
From Him in whose fidelity

As in a jewel-casket rare,
The heart was wont in every shock
Its secret thoughts, like gems, to lock-
The supple knave, who, when dismay
And outcry howlid around our way,
And most our errors ask'd a guide

Was then himself the first to fly,
And leave us, plunder'd, to the wide

Remorseless tempest thund'ring by.
The grave l-when once that goal is won,

Ye lesser agonies adieu !
The daily letter from the dun-

The monthly admonition too,
From Hood or North, regretting much
Our pen grows palsied in its touch,
Or begging henceforth to decline
Our famous things in Dickens' line :
Their reign is o'er, those Kings of men,

True sons of Tonson and of Cave-
No brief epistles need we pen,

Subscribed “ Impransus " * _in the grave.
And Thou_immortal Moralist !

To whom my idlesse owes this rhyme
Though unto thee no more exist

The clouds, tear-fraught, of earthly time,
Oh, 'midst the prate of modern fools,
Whose envious spite, by pigmy rules,
Would dare thy mighty miud to span,
And underrate its giant plan,
Could'st thou but mark what strength to bear,

What tameless power, what purpose brave,
Some Few still learn from thy career,

'Twould soothe thee, even beyond the grave.

* “ I am, Sir, yours, Impransus, Sam'. JOHNSON,” the expressive signature to one of Johnson's letters (during his early struggles) to Cave. - See Boswell's Life, edited by the Right Hon. John Wilson CROKER, vol. i. p. 107.

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