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excitation occasioned there is extended along a connecting fibre to a second nerve cell, which is the starting point for a motor nerve; along that line the impulse is instantly and inevitably continued; and as an almost instantaneous result, without any form of sensibility to indicate what is taking place, the muscular energy is liberated, and action is the direct consequence. The problem which immediately arises is this,—How far may the activity of all living organism be accounted for in this way, including even the activity of man? This is a problem which will present an interesting subject for discussion in the next stage of this inquiry, the import of which must now be made apparent by the sketch of the structure of the nerve system, and the results of the experiments as to localization.
Nothing more is now required to complete this narrative leading up to this problem, and discovering its proportions, than a brief account of correlative inquiry which has afforded strong confirmatory evidence as to the truth of the conclusions favoring localization, and coordinate action of different portions of the brain as the central organ governing the whole nerve system. The corroberative evidence at once supporting the conclusions as to localization and favoring their extension to human nature is obtained by reference to the results of injury to the nerve system at various parts of the body, and injury to the brain as ascertained after death. Continuing experiments on the animals, it has been shown that even if a portion of the brain be cut away, it is still possible to operate on the nerve lines in the usual manner by means of electricity. Pushing experiment in this direction still further it has been found that more serious injury permanently destroys the centre, and entails paralysis of the muscles controlled by it when in a healthy state. In like manner it has been proved that if the nerve itself be cut, the communication is at an end, and movement by stimulation has become impossible.
By perpetually occurring cases of paralysis in human experience, and careful examination after death of the exact situation and extent of disease in the brain, it has been shown by accumulation of evidence, that the laws which provide for sensibility and for muscular activity in the history of the lower animals, do also hold in the case of man. While the brain continues in full vigor, all the usual forms of sensibility, and modes of action are simple; where these have become disturbed, restricted or impossible, some injury has been accidentally inflicted on the brain of the sufferer, or disease has begun in the organ, and has gained a hold exactly proportionate to the forms of restraint and disturbance which have become outwardly manifest. These are results which show how much is due by way of sympathy, and patience, and encouragement to those who suffer under any degree of brain injury or disease, due from all around them whose conduct may have any part in determining their experience. These results testify how closely the human organism stands allied to lower orders of organism around; how many homologies of structure there are, and how many analogies in experience. These things declare that science has a clear and unchallangeable field of inquiry in seeking an explanation of human nature on the same lines of procedure as those which have been followed in ascending the scale of living organism. The nature and extent of materials at its disposal as the result of the most recent investigations have now been indicated. The problem is, How far can the anatomy and physiology of the human frame account for the facts of human life? The strength and practical power of religious thought in the world will depend upon the answer, for science must here carry some test of religion. On the other hand, the prohlem which human life presents is hy far the most severe test which science has to encounter. In facing the facts, science is engaged with the settlement of its own boundaries,—the demonstration of its own limits. In facing this highest problem which human observation encounters,—man's explanation of himself,—let us cease from comparisons between scientific claims and religious, and let us face with patience and resolution the question— What is the exact place, and what the destiny of man, who has piled up the sciences, and midst the turmoil and conflict of life, has found his most elevating exercise, and most profound calm, in worship of "the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God "?
MAN'S PLACE IN THE WORLD.
'I ""HE accumulated interest gathered around the direct and collateral investigations bearing on the development of species, has naturally turned greatly increased attention on man's position in the universe. As has been shown by study of the nervous system belonging to animal life, all organism has been constructed on a uniform plan, advancing in complication as the organism becomes more intricate in structure, having separate parts assigned to distinct functions. This uniform plan is seen to culminate in man. Thus it follows, that man appears to the scientific observer, as the last or most advanced figure in a gradually ascending scale. That this is man's place in the field of organized existence no one will doubt.
The prevailing view of our nature, however, recognizes more in it than bone, mus