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sisting of a multitude of fibres. These are simply crowds of nerve lines gathered together, led up from the extremities and trunk, or provided for intercommunication with the several parts of this central organ. Gathered all round about this, and constituting the external mass, on the summit, sides, and base of the brain, is a completely distinct substance known as the grey matter, folded up in wavings, twistings, or convolutions, enclosing myriads of cells from which nerve energy is discharged. These cells differ considerably in form and size, suggesting the possibility of distinct functions being assigned to cells of different structure, some being smaller and less intimately connected with those around, others so much larger and more important as to have suggested the name of pyramidal cells, and also having lines of connection between themselves and other parts much more numerous than in the case of the smaller cells. Every cell has a nucleus or central point, which is the centre of vitality, while the fibres which they send out, varying in number from one to four or five, establish connection between cells, or pass into the nerves proper. These cells are packed together in a soft glutinous substance, in the outer layer of which they are fewer in number; approaching the interior, they become more numerous; and they are both more abundant, larger in size, and more distinguished by the number of their protoplasmic * fibres as they lie nearer to the mass of nerve fibres. In this crowd of nerve cells are the stores of nerve energy supplied to the nerve system, with every exercise of which molecular changes in the brain are believed to take place. On this account there must be regular and ample supply of nourishment for the brain, for which such provision has been made that, according to Haller's computation, one fifth part of the whole blood supply goes to the brain.

Regarded as the great central organ, the brain is divided into two halves or hemispheres, from each one of which goes forth supply of nerve fibres and nerve energy for the opposite side of the body. Its greatest depth is in the central part, the front and back being rounded down, the frontal region being, however, considerably more massive than the rear. Besides this great central body, there are several dependent subordinate bodies,

* Protoplasm, see Appendix VII.


placed underneath, and directly above the upper part of the spine. Most important of these is the cerebellum, or little brain, whose functions are now generally believed to be closely connected with the equilibrium of the body when moving. Somewhat nearer the centre, and quite under the brain proper is the pons or bridge, providing for the interlacing of the fibres on their way out from the the central organ, and just below that are certain elongated bodies {medulla oblongata), consisting of masses of fibre just above the spinal cord.

Before closing this very brief and hasty description of the nerve system, there is one peculiarly striking arrangement to which special reference may be made. The mass of nerve fibre which passes down within the back-bone constituting the spinal column, which is formed in two divisions equivalent to the hemispheres of the brain, gives out at each of the vertebrae or spinal joints a supply of nerve for the portion of the body contiguous. This supply is sent out from each side of the column, and issues in two roots, a posterior and anterior; the posterior root being a body of sensory nerves, the anterior root of

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