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fourth link of the chain. If the chain be made of the simplest form, with Bat links, and eacii link be made of an exact length (making them all on a mould), the motion will be as easy as with any wheelwork, and without the least chance of slipping. The greatest difficulty is to keco the machine in repair. The most consequential part of it, the fiist mover, the sly, and the pinion and wheel, by which its motion is transmitted to the rtst of the machine, are situated in a piace of difficult access, and where they are exposed to violent heat, and to the smoke and soot. It is of importance* that the whole be so put t^ether as to be easily taken down, in order to sweep the tent, or to be repaired, &c. For this purpose, let the cross bar which carries the lower end of the Upright spindle be placed a little on one side of the perpendicular line from the upper pivot hole. Let the cook which carries the oil-cup and the pivot of the horizontal axis BC be screwed to one fide of this cross bar, so that the centre of the cup miy be exactly under the upper pivot hole. By this construction we have omy to unscrew this cock, and then both axles come cut of their places at once, and may be replaced without any trouble. Fig. 4. shows the manner in which this may be done, where M represents a section of the lower cross bar. BCD£ is the cock, fixed to the bar by the pins which go through both, with finger nuts a and b 011 the opposite fide. F i i= the hard steel pin with the conical top i, on which the lower end I of the upright spindie AG rests, in the manner recommended as the best and the most durable. Tiie pivot of the horizontal ax>s turns in a hoie at K the top of the cock.

* SMOKELESS, adj. [fromsmoke.] Having no smoke.

Tenants with sighs the smokeless tow'rs survey,

And turn th' unwilling steed another way. Pose.

* SMOKER. H. f. [from smoke.} 1. One that diies or perfumes by smoke. 1. One that uses tobacco.

Smoke-silvek. Lands were ho'den in some places by the payment of the sum of 6 d. yearly to the sheriff, culiedsmoie-Jflver (Par. 4. Edw. VI.) Smoke-silver and smoke-penny are to be p « l to the ministers of d vets parishes as a modus in lieu of tit he-wood: and in some manors formerly belonging to religious houses, therj is still paid, as appendant to the said manors, the ancient Peter, pence, by the n.im; of smoke-money (Tivisd. Hi/iVindicat. 77.)—The bishop ot L.mdon, anno 1444, issued out his commit1.! 0:1, Ad L-vandum le fmokefartbings. Sec.

SMOKING, Couvt Uumfo*d's Method To Friitent Chimneys From. "Ail chimney fire places (fays the author) without exception, whether they are designed for burning wood or coals, and even those which do not smoke, as well as those which do, may be greatly improved by nuking the alterations in them here recommended; tor it is by no means rvre'.y to prevent chimmys from smoking that their improvements are recommended, but it is also to make them better in all other respects as liic-piaccS; and when the alterations proposed are properly executed, which may ver;' easily be done with the assistance of the

following plain and simp e directions, the chimneys will never fail to answer, I will venture to say, even beyond expectation. The room will be heated much more equally and more pleasantly, with less than has the fuel used before; the fire will be more cheerful and more agreeable; and the general appearance of the fire-place more neat and elegant, and the chimney uill nrver smoke." The author having stated, that these advantageswill be derive ! merely from diminishing the capacity of the throat of the chimney, or that part just above the fire-phee, proceeds to give the following explanation of the technical terms which he finds it necessary to use. "By the throat of a chimney (fays he) I mean the lower extremity of its canal, where it unites with the upper part of its open fire-piace. This throat is commonly found about a foot above the level of the lower part of the mantle, and it is sometimes contracted to a smaller size than the rest of the canal of,the chimney, and sometimes not. In Plote CCCXVI. fig. j. show1, the section of a chimney on the comrr.oa construction, in which de is the throat. fTr/. 6. shows the section of the fame chimney altered and improved, in which d i is the reduced throat. The breast of a chimney is that part of it which is immediately behind the mantle. It is the wail which forms the entrance from beiow into tk: throat of the chimney in front, or towards the rooT;. It is opposite to the upper extremity of the back of the open lire p.aee, and parallel to it; in short, ;t may be fai l to be the back part of the mantle itself. In fig. 5 and 6, it is marked by the letter J. The width of the throat of chimney dt /*?■ 5> & 'fg- ^1 's taken from the breast of the chimney to the ba--"k, ai d it* length is taken at right ar,,des to its width, or in a line parallel to the mantle a fig- 5 and 6. The- bringing forward of the tire into the room, or rather bringing it nearer the front of the opening of the fire place, and diminishing of the throat of the chimney, being two objects principally had in view in theziterationa in fire-piaces here recommended, it is tvideot that both these may be attained merely by bringing forward the back of the chimney. The only question therefore is, how far it should be brought forward r The answer is short, and ease to be understood; bring it forward as far as P'»fstblc, witliout diminishing too 7/:n:h the pass's which must be Irft for the smoke. Now as thrs passige., which, in its narrowest part, I have called the throat os the chimney, ought to be immediately, ox-perpcndicul irly over the fire, it ii vident that the back of the chimney must always be built perfect,y upright. To determine therefore the piace for the new back, or how far precisely it ought t:> be brought forward, nothing more is ncccssarv than *o ascertain how wide the throat of the clvmney ought to be left, or what spac-* must bi- left between the top of the h'tA of the chimney, where the upricht canal of toe chimney begins, and the new back of the sir'pla.e carried up perpendicularly to that height. In the course of my mm-rous experiments uoon chimneys, I have taken much pain* to determine the width proper to he given to this passage,'"^

1 have found, that, when the back of tbe fireplace ii of a proper width, the best width tortile

throat

v

tfcrost of a cbircney, when the chimney and the fire-place are of the usual form and size, Is four ivkfi. Three inches indeed might sometimes anfmrt, especi i'ly where the fire-place is very small, jrtd the chimney good and well situated. It may perhaps apprar extraordinary, upon the first view of the iratter, that fire-places of such different silt' shoo. 1.1 all require the throat of the chimney to be of the same width ; hut when it is coifidercl that the capacity of the throat of a chimney does not depend on its width alone, but on its Tidtii and length taken together; and that in hnre fire-places, ihe width of the back, and con(rtjuently the length of the throat of tlie chimney, i» prater than in those which are smaller, this d:5ca!tT vanishes. And this leads us to consider 3"o:her important point respecting open fire-plaers, and that is, the width which it will fn each cift be proper to give to the back. In fire places "> itey are now commonly constructed, the back is of equal width with the opening of the fire-place ii front; but this construction is faulty on two accounts. First, in a fire-place so constructed, tl>e fides cf the fire-place or az-irigt, as they are called, are pAraiiel To each other, and consequently iD-contrivcd to throw out into the room the beat they receive from the fire in the form of rays; and idly, the large open corners which are formt<! by cratirg the back as wide as tlie opening of tkt fire-place in front, occasion eddies of wind, winch frequently disturb the fire, and embarrass t'i? sctiie in its ascent in such a mmner as often taVrœjit into the room. Both these defects ojy be ent'rely remedied by diminishing the width "ftit bask of the fire-place. The width which, in aoft cafes, it will be best (o give it, is anc third rf'Jic width of the opening of the sirc-piace in .'"rat. But it not absolutely necessary to confarm rigorously to this decision, nor will it always be poffible. It will frequently happen that tie back of a chimney must be made wider than, sceording to the ruie here given, it ought to be. This may be, either to accommodate the fire-place so a stove, which being already on hand muff, to avoid the expence of purchasing a flew one, he rxpioyed; or for other reasons; and any fmail deviation from the general rule will be attended Krth ro considerable inconvenience. It will always be best, however, to conform to it .is far as OTcnœSances will allow. Where a chimney is ieJfoeJ for warming a room of a middling size, sad where the thickness cf the wall of the chimtry in front, measured from the front of she mant'ttothe breast of the chimney Is 9 inches, I feH set off 4 inches more for the width of the 'vsd of the chimney, which supposing the back •"'it chimney to be built upright, as it always •Sfktto be, will pive 13 inches for the depth of tieBTf.p'.ace, measured upon the hearth, fram the fwhig of the fire-place in front to the back. In ti'sesse 13 inch-s would be a good size for the »;dth of the back; and 3 times 13 inches or 39 i -ies, for the width of the opening of the firep'-aci in front; and the angle made by the back <fthe fire-place and the -^ie* of it, or covings, v:i'n\ be just 135 decrees, which ?s the best pof.t >ro they can have for throw heat into the room. But I will suppose that Iu altering such a Vol. XXI. Part L

chimney it is found necessary, in order to aeedtB' modate the tire-place to a grate or stove already oil hand, to make the fire-place 16 inches wide. In that cafe, I should merely increase the width of the back to the dimensions required, without altering tlie depth of the chimney, or increasing the width of the opening of the chimney in front* The co> vings,itistPle,wotfid be somewhat reduced in their width by this alteration; and their position with respect to the plane of the hack of the chimney would be a little changed; but these alterations would produce no bad essects of any considerable conse? rjuence, and would be much less likely to injure tf.e fire-place, than an attempt to bring the proportions of its parts nearer to the standard, by increasing the depth of the chimney, and the width of its opening in front; or than an attempt to preserve that particular obliquity of the covings which is recommended as the best, (135",) by increasing the width of the opening of the fire-place, without increasing its depth." The provision made for the passage of the chimney-sweeper up the chimney is thus described: " In building up the new back of the fire-place ; when this wall (which neerl never be more than the width of a sing!? brick iii thickness) is brought up so high that Inert remain! no more than about ten or eleven inches b?t"-ccn what is then the top of it, and the inside cf the mantie, or lower extremity of the breast of the chimney, an opening, or door-way, u or is inches wide, must be begun in the middle of the back, and continued quite to the top of it, which, accordiag to the height to which it will commonly be necessary to carry up the brick, will make the opening about 12 cr 14 inches hi^h; which wiil be quite sufficient to allow the chimney-sweeper' to pass. When the fire-place is finished, this doorway is to be closed by a tile, or a fit piece o' stone, placed in it, dry, or without mortar, an-t confined in its place by means of a rabbet made for that purpose in the brick work. As often an the chimney is swept, the cbimney-sv.eeper takes down this tile, which i3 very" easily don.-, and when he has finished his work he puts it itgain into its place. The drawings. G. will gl«e a clear idea of this contrivance; and the exoerience 1 have had of it has proved that it aniwent perfectly well the purpose for which it is designed. I observed above tliat the new back, which it will always be found necessary to bniid in order to biine the sire sufficiently forward, in altersn.f a chimney constructed on {he common principles, need never be thicker than the width of a common brick. I may fay the Sirrie of the thicknefr necessary to be given :o the new sides, or covings of the chimney; or it the row back and covings are constructed os stone, one inch ?nd three quit ters, or two inches in thickness will he sufficient. Care ssould be taken, in building r.p these new wain, to unite the back to the covings in a solid, manner. Whether the new hack rind covings are constructed of stone, or btlilt of bricks, the space between them and the old back and covings of the chimney ought to be filled up, to ^ive greater solidity to the structure. This may be done w itri loose n.ibhi'.h, of pieces of brofcen bricks or stenes, provided the work he strengthened by a few layers sr courses of bricks laid ic mortar; bu; it will .

L t*

be indispensably necessjry to finish the work, only on the height of the mantle, hut also, ari where these new walls end, that is to fay, at the more efpecia.ly, on the height of the breast of the top of the throit of the chimney, where it ends chimney, or ot that part of the chimney where abruptly in the open canal (.f the chimney, by a the breast ends and the upright cauai begins. The horizontal couis- of bricks well secured with mor- back and covings must nJe a tew inches, t cr 6 tar. This course of bricks will be upon a level for instance, higher than this part, otherwise the With the top of the door-way ltft for the chimney- throat of the chimney wili not be properly formsweeper. From these descriptions it is clear, that ed; but I know of no advantages that would be wheK- the throat ot the chimney has an end, that g ined by carrying them up still higher. In form13 to fay, where it enters into the lower part of ing the doer Way for the chimney-twceper, the the oper canal of the chimney, there the three brst method of proceeding is tc place the ti.e ot Vvalls which form the two covings and the back fiat piece of stone destined for closing it, in it» of the fire-place all end abruptly. It is of much proper place; and to build round it, or rather by importance that ttn-v ihouM end in this manner; the fides of it: taking care not to bring npy rr.crfor Were they to be (loped out waul, and railed in tar near it, in order that it may be casny remosi:ch a manner a' to swell out the upper extremi- ved when the door-way is sinithrd. With rei?ai\1 ty of the throat of the chimney in the form of a to the rabbet, which should be tnade in the doortrumpet, and increase it by degrees to the size of Way to receive ft and frx it more firmly in its pi^ce, the canai of a chimney, this manner cf uniting this may either he tuimed at the fame time when the rower extremity of the canal of the chimney the door-way is built, or it may be made after it ■With the throat, would tend to aSfist the winds is finished, by attaching to its bottom and side;, which may attempt to Mow down the chimney, with strong moitar, pieces of thin roof tiles; such, in forcing their way through the throat, and a* are about half an inch in thickness will be the throwing the sm>ke backward into the room; best for this use; if they arc thicker, they wiir dibut when the throat of the crummy em's abrupt- mmish too much the opening of the door-way, ly, and the ends of the new walls form a flat ho- and will likewise be more ii,:'o!e to be torn away rizoutal surfree, it .vill be much more difficult for by the chimney-sweeper in passing up and down any wind sum a'.iove, to find and force its way the chimney." From these extract sufficient inthrough the narrow passage of the throat of the formation may be drawn, to enable the reader to c'limncyi As the two walls which form the new judge accurately of the mode of constructing these covings of the chimney are not parallel to each improved hre-pisecs. We fbili add, however, a other, btit melmed, presenni'g an oblique sur'ace description of the different figures in Plate 316, towards the front of the chimney; anil as (hey from which the subject cannot fail- of being ck.irrtre built peifectly upright and quite flat, from Iy understood, Fig. 1. shows the plan of a> firethe hearth to the top of the throit, where they place 011 the common construction. A B, the oend, it is evident that an horizontal ftction of the pening of the lire-place in front. C D, the back throat wnl not be an oblong square; but its dc- of the fire-place. AC and B D, the covings, viation from that form is a matter of no confe- Fig. 1. shows.the ekrvatior*, or front view of a firequtnee; and no attempts should ever be made, place on the common construction. Fig. 3. (hows V.y twisting the covings above, where they ap. how the fireplace represented by the/jj. 1. is to proach the breast of the chimney, to bring it to be altered in order to its being improved. AB is that form. Ail twists, bends, prominence's, exca- the opening in front—C D, the back, ar.d A C nations, and other irregularities of soim, in the and B D, the covings of the fire place in its cricevings of a chimney, never fail to produce ed- giaal state, a t, It* opening in front—i S, it* dies in the current of a'r which 1* continually pis- back—and a i and b k, its covings after it has been sing into, and throUt'h an open fire-place in which altered ; t ir, a point upon the hearth, upon which a fire is burning; and all such eddies disturb, ei- a plumb suspended from the middle os the upper ther the fire, or the aseendmg current of smoke, pait of the breast of the chimney fall-. The lituaOr both; and not unfrequently causo the smoke tion for the new back is ascertained by taking the to be thrown back into the room. Hence it ap- line f/cqrjal to 4 inches. Therewbackandcovingg f ears, that the covings of chimneys fhonl-1 never are represented as being built of bucks; and the be made circular, cr in the form of any other space between these and the old back and covin.** curve; but always quite Hat. For the fame rea- ?s being filled up with rubbilh. Fig. 4. represent,} son, that is to s<y, to prevent eddies, the breast the elevation or front view of the tire place Jig. 3. of the chimney, which forms that side of the after it hasbeenaltcrcd. The lower part of the dcorthroat that is in front, or nearest to the room, way left for thechimney-Uetper is (hown in this fifhould be neatly denied off, and its surface made pure by dotted lines. Fig.;. Ihotvs the section of a quite regular and smooth. This may easily be chimney fire-place, and of a part of the canal of done by covering it with a coat of plaster, which the chimney, on the common construction, a A Is may be made thicker or thinner in different parts the opening in front; h e, the depth of the fireas may be necessary, in order to bring the breast place at the hearth; d, the breast of the chimney, of the chimney to be of the proper form. With dt, The throat of the chimney, and d f, g e, a regard to the form of the breast of a chimney, this part of the open canal of the chimney. Fig. 6. is a matter of ver/ great importance, and which shows a section of the same chimney after it has ought always so be particularly attended to. I been altered, k I is the nc'w back of the Kre-place; fiave hitherto given no precise directions, in re- I i, the tile or stone which closes the dooi-way •Mrd to the htight to which the new back and co- for the chimney-sweeper; d i, the throat of the vii.gs oiigiit to be carried. This Will depend not ci.imncy, narrow to four inches; a, the mantle,

and sad *. she n«w will made under the mantle to di- Tverfkoe; E. by Mciltovsiiaia, and Kaluzskoe ; S.

teiii 2i the height of the opening of ti;c Grc-pUce by Orlovfkoe, and N-ivi-^rod Sievcrlkce; and W.

in front. N. 3. These two Egures are sections of by Polotskoc and Moj'livsk^e. This government,

Use sine chimney which ia represented in each of (he adds) contains Write Rujfy), properly so called,

the four preceding figures, Fig. 7. ilioivs how and was ceded by P < and to Russia as a duchyf

the eo»i g- are to be placed, when the front of by treaty 1:1 1&67, consumed- in 1686. Smolensk

tie covings (a ai.d 3) does not come so far for- it the capital. Lon. 48. 20. lu ,53. 20. E. Ferro,

ward as the trout of the opening of the fire-place, Lat. 51. 20. to j6. 15. Is'."

or the jambs. (A and B.) Fig. 8. shows how the SMOLIN, a mountain of Bosnia; 32 miles SSW.

vh-Jrh and obl^ui'v of the covings are to be ac- of Zwornick.

eaastrfated to the width of the back of a fire- SMQLLET, Tobias, M. D. aa eminent Scot. ]fect, v: cafes where it is necessary to make t*ye tifl: author, whose writings will transmit Ivis name itt very wide. fig. 9. (bows how a:: inst.u- with honour to posit rity, was born in 17201 at 3 rent called a bevel i«t n), uscftrl in laying out the village within 1 miles of Cameron, on the banks m<ri, in altering chimney fire-places, may be of the Leven. He received a classical ttlue .tion, ctmftnicted. Fig. 10. shows how, whtn the breast and was bred tc the practice of physic and lurgery; of a cfeimrwy U) is too high, it may be brought and in the early part of his Site ibvtd as a furdown by means of a wall (h) place 1 under the geon's mate in the navy. The incidents that befel oi'tL-, and a coating cf plaster, wh:ch in this fi- bi'n during his acting in this capacity served as a fire is represented by ihe part marker! wit£ dots, foundation for his Roderic Random, one of the Ii 11. shows how »hi breast of a chimney may most entertaining Hovels in the English tongue, be brought down merely by a coating of piaster. He was prese.it at the liepe of Carthagena, and in

(1.) * SMOKY, adj. [fromsmoke.] I. Emitting that novel has given a faithful, though not very

fccke; futnid.— pleasing, account of the rvanapement of that ill.

Involving all the wood in smoky fires. Dryd, conducted expedition, which le ccnsure6 in the

2- Having the appearance or nature of smoke.—, warmest terms, from circumstances which fell un

Lncdo.-, appears in a morning drowned in a black der his own particular observation. His connec

c'j-rjd, and all tl>e day after smothered with smoky tion with the sea seems not to have been of longs

fog. Har^rj.— continuance. The first piece he published, that

If blast septentrimal with brushing wings we know of with cerrainty, is a Satire in two

Ssrtcp up thzstnoij mists, and vapours damp, parts, printed first in the years 1746 a->d 1747,

Tac: woe to mortals. Fbi/ifs. and reprinted in a Collect.on of hi- Plays and

3.Ncifime with smoke.— Poems in 1777. About this period, or some time

Worse than asmoij house. Sbak. before, he wrote for Mr Rich an opera, entitled

Courtesy is sooner found in lowly sheds, Alerstc, which has never been cither performed or

Wrthsmc/y rafters, than in tap'stry halls printed. At the age of 18 he wrote a tragedy,

And courts of princes." Milton, entitled Tbe Regicide, founded on the aff'ssinaiion

M^rpheas, the humble god, that dwells of K. James I, at Perth. In the preface to this

Ia cottages and srr.oty cells. Dmham. piece, published by subscription in 1749, he bit.

si.) Smoky Bay-, a lar^e bay of the N. Pacific terly exclaimed against false patrons, and the du

Oeeaa, on the W. coast of: he entrance into Cook's plicity of theatrical managers. The warmth and

River; between Cape Douglas and Point Banks, impetuosity of his temper hurried him, on this oc.

SMOLAND. See Smalanij. canon, into unjust reflections against the excellent

SMCLEN, an island on the N. coast of Mbr^ George lord Lyttelton, (see Lyttelton, 2.)

»ay, in the North Sea, 25 miles in circumference, and Mr Garrick: the former I e characterised in

£*wi. 8. t5. E Laf. 63. 14. N. the novel of Peregrine Fickle, and he added a bur

1.1.) SMOLENSK, or) a large and strong city lesque of the beautiful Monody written by that no

(i.JSMOLENSKOE, J of Russia, and capital of bleman on thedeath of hi- lady. Against Mr Gar

<he palatinate, so named, (N° 2.) with a castle rick he made illiberal ill-founded criticisms; and iq

seated on a mountain, and a bishop's fee. It is his novel of Roderic Random gave a very unfair re

strong by its situation, being in the middle of a presentation of his treatment of him respecting this

wood, and surrounded by almost inaccessible tragedy. Of this conduct he afterwuds repei t

rjoemains. It has been taken and retaken several ed, and acknowledged his errors; though in the

limes by the Pole* and Russians; but these last subsequent editions of the novel the passages

fcaye had possession of it ever since the year 1687. which were the hasty effofior.s ot disappointment,

U k seated on the river Dnieper, near the frontiers have not been omiited. However, in giving a

<rfLithuania, 188 miles SW. of Moicow. Lon. 31, sketch of the liberal arts in his History of England,

u-E. Lat. 54. jo. N. he afterwards rcmarkeJ, that " the exhibitions of

(«.) Smolenssoe, a duchy and palatinate of the stage were improved to the most exquisite cro

Rjffia, bounded on the N. by B'ela, on the E. by tertainment by the talents and management of Mr

tie duchy of Moscow, on the S. by that of Severia Garrick, who greatly surpassed all his predecessors

and the palatinate of Mciflaw, and on the W. by of this a*id perhaps every ot! er nation, in his j;e

the fame palatinate and by that of Witepik. It nius for acting, in the sweetness and variety of his

is fall of forests and mountains. tones, the irresistible magic of his eye, the fire and

(3.) Smolenskoe, i.istead cf a ducky or palati- vivacity of his action, the eloquence of attitude,

"at/, is ftiled by the rev. Clem. CruttwcII, "3. go- and the whole pathos of expression. Candidates

tenunent of Russia;" and he gives it different for literary fame appeared even in the higher

fceundaiiesj viz. " on the N, by Psovskoe, and sphere of life, embellished by the nervous fense

L 2 and

and extensive erudition of a Corke; by the deli cate taste, the polished muse, and the tender feelings, of a Lyttelton." Not satisfied with this public declaration, he wrote an apology to Mr Garrick in still stronger terms'. With these ample Concessions, Mr Garrick waj completely satisfied; so that in 1757, when Dr Smollct's comedy of the Reprisals, an afterpiece of two ads, was performed at Dairy Lane theatre, the latter acknowledged himself highly obliged for the friendly care of Mr Garrick excited i;i preparing it for the stage; and still more for hi-> acting the part of ^ulignan in Zara for his benefit, on the sixth instead of ti e ninth night, to which lie was only entitled, by tlie custom of tl e theatre, The Adventures of Roderic Random, pqblilhed in 1748, a vols izmo, a book which still continues to have a most extensive sale, first cslablislicd the Doctor's reputation'. All the first volume and the beginning of the id appears to consist osteal incidents and characters, though certainly a good deal heightened and disguised. The Judge his grandfather, Crab and Potion the two apothecaries, aid 'squire Gawky, were characters well known in that part of the kingdom where the scene wa? hid. Captains Oakhum and Whiffle, Doctors Macklhanc and Morgan, were also su'd to be real personages; but Jhtir names we have either never learned or have now forgotten. A bookbinder and barber long eagerly contended for being shadowed under the name of Strap. The Doctor seems to have enjoyed a peculiar felicity in dtfcribiYg sea-characters, particularly the officers ar.d sailors of the navy. His Trunnion, Hatchway, and Pipes, are highly Aniseed originals j but what exceeds them all, and perhaps'equals any character that has yet been painted by the happiest genius of ancient or modern times, is his Lieutenant Bowling. This is indeed rature itself; original, unique, and sui generis. By she publication or this work the Doctor had acquired so great a reputation, that henceforth a certain degree of success whs insured to eyery thiirg known to proceed from his hand. In the course of a few yearsj the Adventures of Peregrine Pickle appeared j a work of great' ingenuity and contrivance in she composition, and in which an uncommon degree bf erudition is displayed, particularly in the description of the entertainment given by the Republican Doctor, after the manner of the ancients: Under this personage the late Dr Akknsipe, aufhbr of the Pleasures o/ I■mn\ inatiaii, is supposed to be characterised; arid it would be difficult to determine whether profound /earning or genuine hiimour predominate most in this episode. Another episode of The AdVentures ora Lady of Quality, likewise inserted in 4his work, cohtributeu greatly to its success, and Is indeed admirab'v executed; the materials, it is said, the lady: herArif (the celebrated lady Vane) furnished. These were' not the only' Original compotkionc cf this stamp with which the Doctor has favoured itic public, ferdiiiand Co;:::t Fathom, and Sir Lancelot Greaves, 'are'still in the lilt of what may be called reading novels, and have gone through several editions; but there Is no injustice in placing them in a rank far below the ;formcr. No doubt invention, character, composition, and contrivance, are to be found in'both; but' thtn

situations are des-ribed which are hardly possible-, ar.d characters are painted, which, if not altogether unexampled, are at seast incompatible with) modern manners; and which ought npt tp be, "as the scenes are laid in modem times. The Doctor's last werk was of much the fame species, but cast into a different form—The Expetti~ tion es Humphry Clinker. It consists of a seiics of letters, written bv different persons to their respective correspondents. He has here carefully avoided the faults which may be justly charged to his two former productions. Ileic are no extravagant character; nor unnatural tit nations. On the contrary, an admirabU; knowledge, of life and manners is displayed; and most useful lessons are given applicable to interesting but to very common situations. We know not whether the renurk has b<en made, but there is certainly a very obvious similitude between the characters of the three heroes of the Doctor's chief productions. Roderic Random, Peregrine Pickle, and Matthew Bramble, are all brother" of the fame family. The fame satirical, cynical, disposition, the same generosity and benevolence, aie the distinguishing ar.d chaiacteristical features of all three; but they are far from being servile copies «r imitations of each other. They differ as much as the Ajax, Diomed, and Achilles of Homer. This was undoubtedly a great effort of genius; and the Doctor sefT'-Tis to have described his own character at the ditfertnt stages and situations of his life. Before he took a house at^Chellea, he attempted to settle as practitioner of physic at Bath; and with that view wrote A treatise or. tbe Rath Waters; but was unsuccessful, chiefly because be could not render himself agreeable to the women. This was doubtless extraordinary; for those who'remembered Dr Smoliet at that time acknowledge, that he was as graceful and handsome aman as .my of the age he lived in ; and there wa° a cerT tain dignity jn his air and manner, which could not but inspire respect wherever he appeared. Perhaps he was too soon discouraged. Abandoning physic a^ a profeslion, he fixed his residence at Chelsea, and turned his thoughts entirely to writing. Yet, as an author, he was not near so successful as his genius and n erit certainly deserved. He never acquired a patron among the great, who by hi» favour or beneficence relieved slim from the necessity of writing for a subsistence. The truth is, Dr Smoliet possessed a loftiness and elevation of sentiment and character which appears to have disqualified him for paying court to these' who were capable of conferring favours. It would be wrong to call this disposition haughtiness; fer to his equals and inferiors he was ever polite, friendly, and generous. Booksellers may therefore be said tp have been his only patrons; and from them he had constant employment in translating, compiling, and reviewing. He translated Gil Bias and flon Quixote, both so happily, that all the former translations of these excellent productions of genius have been almost superseded by his. His name likewise appears to a translation of Voltaire's Prose IVorki: but little of it wa? done by his own hand; he only revised it, and added a few notes. He was concerned in a, great variety of compilation*. His Htflory of England • ■ • • •' wag

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