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ther in the bginning of the year retards their vegetation until the May rains set in, when they sprout both at the roots and the joints; so that by the time they are cut (he field Is loaded with unripe fuckers instead of sugar-cane:. A January plant, however, commonly turns out well; but canes planted very late in the spring, though they have the btn?fit of the May rains, seldom answer expectation; for they generally come in unseasonably, and throw the succeeding crops out of tegular rotation. They are therefore often cut before they are ripe; or if the autumnal si-asons set in early, are cut in wet weather, which has probably occasioned them to spririg'afiesh: in either case the effect is the fame: The juice is uneoncocted, and all the sap being in motion, the root is deprived of its natural nourishment, to the jrreat injury of the ratoon. The chief objection to a fall plant is this, that the canes become rank and top heavy, at a period when violent rains and high winds are expected, and are therefore frequently lodged before they are fit to he cut. The sugar-cane is propagated by the top-shoots, which are cut from the tops of the old cant". The usual method of planting in the West Indies is this: The quantity of land intended to be planted, being cleared of weed" and other incumhranCes, is first divided into several plats of certain dimensions, commonly from 15 to 20 acres each; the spaces between each plat or division are left wide enough for roads, for the conveniei.cy of carting, and are called intervals. Each plat is then lubdivided, by a line and wooden pegs, into small squares of about 3\ or 4 feet. The negroes are then placed in a row in the first line, one to a square, and directed to dig out with their hoes the several squares, to the depth of 5 or 6 inches. The mold which is dug up being formed into a bank at the lower side, the excavation or canebole seldom exceeds 15 inches in width at the bottom, and i{ feet at the top. The negroes then fall back to the next line, and proceed as before. Thus the several squares between each line are formed into a trench of much the fame dimensions with that which is made by the plough. An able negro will dig from 100 to 120 of these holes for his day's work of ten hours; but if the land has been previously ploughed and lain fallow, the fame negro will nearly double the number in the fame time. The cane-holes or trench being now completed, whether by the plough or by the hoe, and the cuttings scltcted for planting, which are commonly the tops of the canes that have been ground for sugar (each cutting containing j or 6 gems,} two of them ;ire sufficient for a ca:.e hole of the dimensions c'ef:rihed. These bting placed longitudinally in the bottom of the hole, ;ire covered with mold about two inches deep; the rest of the bank being intended for future use. In ij or 14 days the young sprouts begirrto appear; and as soon as they rife a few inches above the ground, they are carefnily cleared of weeds, and turnilhed with an addition of mold from the banks. This is usually performed by the hand. At the end of 4 or 5 months the banks are wholly levelled, and the spaces between the rows carefully hoe-ploughed. Frequent cleanings, while the canes are young, are indeed ttleuiiitilj neces

sary. A careful manager will remove all the **■' tt 1 al shoots or suckers that spring up after the canes begin to joint, as they seldom come to maturity, and draw noHrisliment from the original plants. In the cultivation of other lards in Jamaica especially (lays Mr Edwards, the eleuant hist irian of the West Indies,) the plough has been introduced of late years, and in some few case* to great advantage: but it is hot every foil or situation that will admit the use of the plough; some lands being much too stony, and ethers too steep. The only advantageous system ot ph ughing n the West Indies is to confine it to the simple operation of holing, which maybe performed with much greater facility by the plough than by tbe hoe; and the relief which, in the cafe of stiff ami dry foils, is thus given to the negroes, exceedsall estimation, in the mind of a humane owner. At a plantation of my own, the greatest part of the land which is annually planted is neatly and sufficiently laid into cane-holes, by the* labour of one able man, 3 boys, and 8 oxen, with tbe com. mon single-wheeled plough. The plough-share indeed is forr.ewhat wider than usual; but this 1? the only difference, a' d the method of ploughing is the simplest possible. By returning the plough back along the furrow, the turf is alternately thrown to the right and to the left, firming a trench 7 inches deep, about i\ feet wide at the top, and 1 f-ot wide ?t the bottom. A fiace of 18 or 20 inches is left between each trench, on which the mold being thrown by the share, the bjnks ar- properly fonred, and the holing t- complete. Thus the land is not exhausted by being too much exposed to the sun; and a field of 10 acres is thus holed with one plough, and with great ease, in 13 dny?. The plants are afterward* placed in the trench as in the common method, where manual labour is alone employed. In most parts of the West Indies it is usual to hole ant! plant a certain proportion of the cane-land, commonly one 3d in annual rotation. The sprents that spring from the roots of the cares that have been previously cut for sugar are called ratcons; the first yeirly returns from their roots art- cased firg ratoons; the second year's growth fecend ratios. Mr Edwards informs us, that the manure generally used is a compost, formed, rst, Of the vegetable ashes, drawn fro-n t^e tires of the boiling and still houses. 2uiy, Fecultncies discharged from the stil'-housc, mixed up wish t'ubb-sh of buildings, white lime, Scr. 3d!)', Re'tisr, or fieldtrash, i. e. the decayed leaves and stems of tye c ines; lo called in contradistinction-tocane-trafh, reserved for fuel. 4t'ily, ng, obt.lined from the horse and rnule stable, and lrom rrioveabfc* pens,' or small inclosure* made by past- and rahf, i.ccaliorially finited upon the lands intend-d to be planted, and into which the cattle are turned at night. 51hly, Good mold, coilectrd from gullies and other w aste places, and throw'n into the cattle-pen".

(8.) Su<3 AR-CAVES, DFFENCE Ct, AGAINST

Monkeys, Rats, &c. T'e sugar-cane w liable to be destroyed by mo'keys, rats', and infects. The upland plantations suffer greatly from morktys; these creatures, which' row abound in the mountainous paits of SiCUiittafher's, were firtf

brought

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fed half that iPan'd; they come clown from the torn these nations have adopted of continuing to rocks in fuent pal tics by night, and having posted gather ttuir crops for 10 months without intercentine's to give the alarm it' any thing approach- mission, that they cut some canes which are not es, they destroy incredible quantities of the cane, ripe enough, and others that are toa ripe, and then by their gambols as well as their greediness. It the fruit lialh not the requisite qualities. The is in vain to set traps for these creatures, however time of gathering them should be at a fixed seabaited; and the only way to protect the planta- son, and probably the months of March and April tion, and destroy them, is to set a numerous are the fittest for it; because all trie sweet fruits watch, well armed with fowling-pieces, and fur- are ripe at that tinu, while the four ones do not iiifhed with dogs. The negroes will perform this arrive to a stitc of maturity ti.l the months of Jufervicc cheerfully, for they are very fond of mon- ly and August. The English cut their canes in keys as food. Labat f.iys, they are very delicious, March and April j but they are not induced to do but the white inhabitants of St Kitt's never eat this on account cf their ripeness. The drought them. The low-land plantations suffer as much that prevails in their islands renders the rains by rats as those on the mountains do from mon- which fall in S-pteJiber necessary to their plantkeys; they also came with the (hipping from Eu- ing; and as the canes are iS months in growing, rope, and breed in the ground under loose rocks this perod always brings them to the precise and bushes: the field negroes eat them greedily, point of maturity. "The time of crop in the fuand they are said to be publicly foid in the mar- gar islands (fays Mr Edward-.) ia the season of kets at Jamaica. To free the plantations from gladness and festivity to man and beast. So pathese vermin, the breed of wild cats should be Utable, salntary, and nourishing, is the juice of encouragfd, and snakes suffered to multiply un- the cane, that every individual of the animal creamosested ; tney may a.so be poisoned with arsenic, tion, drinking freely of it, derives health and viand the rasped root of the cassava made into pel- gour from its use. The meagre and lickly among lets, and plentifully scattered over the grounds, the negroes exhibit a surprising alteration in a few Thi3 practice, however, is dangerous; for as the weeks after the mill is set in action. The labourrats wh-n thin poisoned becomecxcceding thirsty, ing horses, oxen, and mules, though almost conthey run in droves to the neighbouring streams, stantly at work during this season, yet, being inwhich they poison as they drink, and the cattle dulgcd with plenty of the green tops of this nograzing on the banks of these polluted waters have ble plant, and some of the scummings from the frequently perished by drinking after them: It is b'oiling-house, improve more than at any other safer therefore to mike the pellets of flour, knead- period of the year. Even the pigs and poultry ed with the juice of the night-shade, the scent of fatten on the refuse. In Ihort, on a well-regulatvhich will r-rive them away though they will not ted plantation, under a humane and benevolent rat it. There is an East Indian animal called mun- director, there is such an appearance during cropper, which bears a natural antipathy to rats; if time cf plenty and busy cheerfulness, as to soften, this animal were introduced into our sugar islands, in a great measure, the hardships of slavery." it would probably extirpate the whole race of (io.)sucar, Method Of Making. The plants these noxious vennin. The formica omnirora of being cut, the branches at the top are given to I.innxus, the carnivorous ant, which is called in the cattle for food; the top-(hoot, which is full Jamaica the rajjtv's ant, would soon clear the sh- of eyes, is preserved for planting. The canes . gar plantation of rats. The sugar-cane is also are tut into pieces about a yard long, tied up subject 'o a disease which no foresight can obviate', in bundles, and carried in carts to the mill, and for which hum^n wisdom has in vain atterr.p- where they are bruised, and the juice is extracted ted to find a remedy. This disease is called the from them. The mill consists principally of three blast, ard i". occasioned by the aphis of Linnæus, upright iron-plated rollers or cylinders, from jo When this happens, the fine, bro.v1, green blades to 4c in -hes in length, and from 20 to 15 inchbecome lickly, diT, and withered ; soon after they es in diameter j and the middle one, to which appear stained in fonts; and if these spots are care- the moving power is applied, turns the other fully examined, they will be found to contain in- two by means of cogs. Between these rolleu, numerable eggs of an insist like a bug, which are the canes (being previously cut short, and tied insoon quickened, and cover the plant* with the ver-* to bundles) are twice compressed ; for having pasmin: th<- juice of thecanes thus affected becomes fed through the first and second rollers, they are four, and no future shoot issues from the joints, turned round the middle one by a circular piece Ants also concur with the hugs to spo;l the plan- of frame-work or screen, called in Jamaica the tation, and against these evils it is hard to find a Dumb returner, and forced back through the screrredy. cond and third; an operation which squeezes

• (9.) Sugar-canes, Harvest Of. The cr^ps them completely dry, and sometimes even reduof sugar-cane? do not ripen precisely at the fame p>- ces them t)> powder. The cane juice is received Hod in all the colonies. In the Danish, Sparish, in a leaden bed, and thence conveyed into a vesand Dutch settlements, they begin in January, and lei called ihx'receiver. The refuse, or macerated continue till October.' This method doth not im- rird of the cane, ( Which is called canctrnjb, in ply any fixed season for the maturity of the sug*r< contradistinction to f.-ld-trajli,) serves for fuel to cane. The plant, however, like others, must have boil the liquor. The juice ai it flows from the its progress; and it hath been justly observed to mill, taken at a me.irum, conta-na 8 parts of pure be in flower in the months of November a-id De- witcr, exit part of sugar, and one part confuting

Vol. XXI Part H.

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of coarse oil and mucilaginous gum, with a portion of essential oil. As this juice has a strong disposition to fermentation, it must be boiled as soon as possible. There are some water-mills that will grind with great ease cane« sufficient for 30 hogsheads of sugar in a week. It is necessary to have boiling vessels, or claritiers, that wiil correspond in dimensions to the quantity of juice flowing from the receiver. These clarifies are commonly three in number, and are sometimes capable of containing 1000 gallons each ; but it is more usual to see them of 300 or 400 gallons each. Besides the clarifiers which are used for the first boiling, there are generally 4 coppers or boilers. The clarifiers are placed in the middle or at one end of the boiling-house. If at one end, the boiler called the teacbe is placed at the other, and several boilers (generally three) are ranged between them. The teache is ordinarily from 70 to 100 gallons, and the boilers between the clarifiers and teacbe diminish in i\ie from the first to the last. Where the clarifiers are in the middle, there is usually a set of three boilers on each side, which constitute in effect a double boiling-house. On very large estates this arrangement in found useful aud necessary. The objection to so great a number is the expence of fuel; to obviate which, in some degree, the three boilers on each side of the clarifiers are commonly hung to one sire. The juice runs from the receiver along a wooden gutter lined with lead into the boiiing-house, where it is received into one of the clarifiers. When the clarificr is silled, a fire is lighted, and a quantity of Bristol quicklime in powder, which is called temper, is poured into the vessel. The use of the lime is to unite with the superabundant acid, which, for the success of the process, it is necessary to get rid of. The quanity sufficient to separate the acid must vary according to the strength of the quicklime and the quality of the liquor. Some planters allow a pint of lime to every 100 gallons of liquor; but Mr Edwards thinks that little more than half the quantity is a better medium proportion, and even then, that it ought to be dissolved in boiling water, that as little of it as possible may be precipitated. The heat is suffered gradually to increase till it approaches within a few degrees of the heat of boiling water, that the impurities may be thoroughly separated. But if the liquor were suffered to boil with violence, the impurities would again incorporate with it. It is known to be sufficiently heated when the scum begins to rife in blisters, which break into white froth, and appear L'tnerally in about 40 minutes. The fire is then suddenly extinguished by means of a damper, which excludes the external air, and the liquor is allowed to remain about an hour undisturbed, during which period the impurities are collected in scum on the surface. The juice is then drained off either by a syphon or a cock; the scum being of a tenacious gummy nature, does not flow out with the liquor, but remains behind in the clarifier. The liquid juice is conveyed from the clarificr by a gutter into the evaporating boiler, common iy termed the grand capper; and if it has been obtained from good canes it generally appears transparent. In the evaporating boiler, which should be large enough to receive the contents of

the clarificr, the liquor is allowed to boil; and » the scum arises it is taken off. The fcumming and evaporation are continutd till the liquor becomes finer and thicker, and lo far diminished in bulk that it may be eassy contained in the ad copper, When put into the id copper, it is near, ly of the colour of Madeira wine ; the boiling ar>d scumming are continued, and if the impurities be considerate, a quantity of lime-water is added. This process is carried on till the liquor be sufficiently diminished in quantity to be contained in the third copper. After being purified a third time, it is put into the fourth copper, which i« called the teacbe, where it is boiled and evaporated till it is judged sufficiently pure to be removed from the fire. In judging of the purity of the liquor, many of the negroes (fays Mr Edwards) guess solely by the eye, (which by long habit they do with great accuracy,) judging by the appearance of the grain on the back of the ladle: but the practice most in use is to judge by what is called the touch; i. e. taking up with the thumb a small portion of the hot liquor from the iadle; and, as the heat diminishes, drawing with the fore ringer the liquid into a thread. This thread will suddenly break, and shrink from the thumb to the suspended finger, in different lengths, according as the liquor is more or less boiled. The proper boiling height for strong muscovado sugar is generally determined by a thread of a quarter of an inch long. It is evident, that certainty in thisexperiment can be attained only by loug habit, and that no verbal precepts will furnish any degree of skill in a matter depending wholly on constant practice. The juice being thus purified by passing through the ciarifier and four toppers, it is poured into coolers, which are usually six in number. The removal from the teache to the cooler is called striking. The cooler is a shallow wooden vessel 7 feet long, from 5 to 6 wide, about ir inches deep, and capable of containing a hogshead of sugar. As the liquor cools, the sugar grains, that is, collects into au irregular mass of imperfect crystals, separating itself from the melasses. It is then removed from the cooler, and conveyed to the curing-house, where the mebsses drain from it. For receiving them there is a large cistern, the sloping sides of which are lined with boards. Directly above the cistern a frame of joistwork without boarding is placed, on which empty hogsheads without heads are ranged. The bottoms of these hogsheads are pierced with 8 or 10 holes, in each of which the stalk of a plantain lent is fixed so as to project 6 or 8 inches below the joists, and rife a little above the top of the hogshead. The hoglheads being filled with the contents of the cooler, consisting of sugar and roehsses, the melasses being liquid, drain through the spungy stalk, and drop into the cistern. After the melasses are drained off, the sugar becomes pretty dry and fair, a>id is then called muscovado or rau> sugar. Such is the process for extractinu sugar, which is generally adopted in the Britisti West India illands, according to the latest improvements.

(11.) Sugar, Method Of Making, In Thk E. Indies. The above is the method of cultivating and manufacturing sugar in the West Indies, where slaves alone are employed: but we feel a

peculiar

peculiar pleasure in having it in our power to add tiliery may purchase the produce of an hundred a short description of the method used in the East estates. Here is a vast saving and reduction of the Indies, because there s.igar is manufactured by price of spirits; not as in the West Indie?, a ditfste men, on a plan much more economical, than tilltry for each estate; many centre in one, and what is fol.owed in the West Indies. It is an ex- irrack i» p..Id in Batav from ai to 15 rix-dollrrs tract from the report of the committee of Privy per leaguer of 160 ^ailoiiB; fay 8d per gallon." Councillor trade on the subject of the African t'ucAR, Method Of t Rifying. The

slave-trade, drawn up by Mr Botham. We give following is the method by which the .French it in the author's own words. "Having been for maketheir sugar pun r and whiter than ours. A two years in the English and French West Indian quantity of sugar from the cooler is put intoconiiflanrts, and since conducted sugar estates in the cal pans or earthen rots, called by the French East Indies; before the abolition of the slave-trade formes, having a fmad perforation at the apex, was agitated in parliament, it may be desirable to which is kept closed. Each coue, t< versed on its know that sugar of a superior quality and inferior apex is supported in another earthen vessel. The price to that in our islands is produced in the East syrup is stirred together, and then left to crystalIndies; that the culture of the cane, the manu- lize. At the end of 15 or 16 hours, the hole in facture of the sugar and arrack, is, with these ma- the point of each cone is opened, that the impure tenal advantages, carried on by free people. Chi- syrup may run out. The base of these sugar loaves fia, Bengal, the coast of Malabar, aif produce is then taken out, and white pulverized sugar subquantitiesof sugar and spirits; but as the most ftituted in its stead} which being well pressed considerable growth of the cane is carried on near down, the whole is covered with clay moistened Batavia, I stiall explain the improved manner in with water. This water filters through the mafV, which sugar estates are there conducted. The carrying the syrup with it which was mixed with proprietor of the estate is generally a wealthy the sugar, but which by this management slows Dutchman, who has trected on it substantial mills, into a pot substituted in the place of the first, boiling and curing houses. He rents this estate This second fluid is called fine syrup. Care is to a Chinese, whoresides on it as a superintendant; taken to moisten and keep the clay to aprjper and this renter (supposing the estate lo consist of degree of softness as it becomes dry. The iugar 300 or more acres) resets it to freemen in parcels loaves are afterward* taken out, and dried in a of 50 or 60 on these conditions: "That they shall stove for 8 or 10 days; after which they are pulpiant it m canes, and receive so much per pecul verized, packed, and exported to Europe, where of J 33 i pounds for every pecul of sugar that the they are still farther purified. The reason asfigncanee shall produce." When crop time comes on, cd why this process is not universally adopted in the superintendant collects a sufficient number of the British sugar islands is this, that the water persons from the adjacent towns or villages, and which dilutes and carries away the melasses diltakes off his crop as follows. To any set of trades- solve3 and carries with it so much of the sugar, men who bring their carts and buffaloes he agrees that the difference in quality does not pay for the to give such a price per pecul to cut all his crop difference in quantity. The French planters proof canes, carry them to the mill and grind them, bably Ihink otherwise.

A second to boil them per pecul. A third today (13.) Sugar, Method Of Refining. The them and basket them for market per pecul. So ait of refining sugar was first made known to the that by this method of conducting a sugar estate Europeans by a Venetian, who is said to have rethe renter knows to a certainty what the produce ceived 100,000 crowns for the invention. This of it will cost him per pecul. He has not any per- discovery was made before the new world was manent or unnecessary expence; for when the explored; but whether it was an invention of crop is taken off, the taskmen return to their se- the person who first communicated it or was conver a! pursuits in the towns and villages they came veyed from China, where it had been known befrom; and there] only remains the cane planters fore, cannot be ascertained. We find no mention who are preparing the next year's crop. This made of the refining of sugar in Britain til! 1659, like all other complex arts, by being divided into thoueh it probably was practised several years beseverai branches, renders the labour cheaper and fore. The sugar which undergoes the operation the work more perfectly done. Only clayed fu- of refining in Europe is either raw sugar, somegars are made at Batavia j these are in quality e- times called muscovado or cajsonado, whii 'i is raw qua! to the best sort from the West Indies, and are sugar in a purer state. The raw sugar generally sold so low from the sugar estates as eighteen ihil- contains a certain quantity of melasses as well lings sterling per pecul of 133$ Ibs. This is not the as earthy and feculent substances. The caliosclling price to the trader at Batavia, as the go- nado, by the operation of earthing is free vernment there is arbitrary, and sugar subject to from its melasses. As the intention of refining these duties imposed at will. The fhabander exacts a sugars is to give them a higher degree of whiteness dollar per pecul on all sugar exported. The price and solidity, it is necessary for them to undergo of common labour is from od to rod per day. By other processes. The first of these is called clarithe m-thod of carrying on the sugar estates, the fication. It consists in dissolving the suear in a talkmen gain considerably more than this not only certain proportion of lime-water, adding a profrom working extraordinary hours, but from being per quantity of bullock's blood, and exposing it considered artists in their several branches. They to heat in order to remove the impurities whkh do not make spirits on the sugar estates. The still remain. The heat is increased very gradualmclalles is sent for sale to Batavia, where one dis- ly till it approach that of boiling water. By the

Z z z a assistances,

assistance of the heat, the a: imal matter which was tlirown in coagulates, at the lame time that it attracts all the solid feculent and earthy matter, and raises it to the surface in the appearance of a thick foa-n of a brownish colour. As the fcculei cies are never entirely removed by a first process, a second is necessary. The solution is thetctoie cooled.to a certain degree by adding some wver; then a frelh quantity of blocd, but less considerable than at first, is poured in. The fire is renewed, and care is taken to increase the heat gentiy as before. The animal substance seizes on the impurities which remain, collects them oh the surface, and they at e then skimmed oft". The same operation is repeated a 3d and even a 4th time, but no addition is made to the liquor except water. If the different pr^cessi s have been properly conducted, the solution wii] be freed from every impurity, arid appear transparent. It is then conveyed by a gutter into an oblong basket about 16 inches deep, lined with a woollen cloth; and after filtering through this cloth, it is received in a cistern or copper, which is placed below. The solution being thus clarified, it tindcrgoe« a second general operation called evaporation. Fire is applied to the copper into whkh the solution was received, and the liquid is boilid till it has acquired the proper degree of consistency. A judgment is formed of this fcy tak;ng up a small portion of the liquid and drawing It into a thread. When, after this trial, it is found sufficiently viscous, the fire is extinguished, and the liquid is pouved into loollcrs. It is then stirred violently by an instrument called an car, resembling the oar of a boat. This is done to diminish the viscosity, and promote what is called the granulation, that is, the forming of it into grains or iwipcisect crystals. When the liquid is properly mixed and cooled, it is then poured into moulds of the form of a sugar loaf. The moulds are ranged in rows. The small ends, which are lowest, are placed in pot*; and they have each of them apeitureS stopped rip with linen for filtering the syrup, which runs from the moulds into the pots. The liquor is then taken out slowly in l.rdlefuls from the coolers, and poured into the moulds. When the moulds ate silled, and the contents still in afltiid state, it is necessary to stir them, thit no p.ut may adhere to the moulds, and that the ir.-.all crystals which are just formed may be equally diffused through the whole mask When the sugar is completely crystallized, the linen is taken away from the apertures in the moulds, and the syrup, or that part which did not crystallize, descends into the pots in which the moulds are placed. After this purgation the moulds are removed and fixed in other pots, and A stratum of sine white clay diluted with water is laid on the upper part of the loaf. The water descending through the sugar by its own weight, mixes with the syrup which still remains j:i the body of the loaf, and washes it away. When the clay dries, it is taken off, and another covering of moist clay put in its place; and if it be not then sufficiently washed, a thitd co. vering of clay is applied. After the loaves have stood some days in the moulds, and have acquired a \ vLif-tleiable degree of finnnese and stilidity, they

are taken out and coined to a stove, where they are gradually heated to the jo" ot" Keaumur, (640 of Fahrenheit,) in order to dissipate any moisture which mny he still confined in them. After remaining in the stove 8 days, they are taken out; and after cutting off all diseolo-iring specks, and the head if still wet, they are wrapped in blue paper, anil are ready for sale. The several syrups collected during the different parts of the process, treated in the fame mant.er which we have juft described, asliird sugars of inferior quality; and the last portion, which no longer affords any sugar, is fold by the name of mrlajsrj. The beauty of refined sugar, when formed m*o loaves, consists in whiteness, jcineci. to 3 smallness of grain ; in being'dry, hard, and lomewhat trans' parent. The process which we have described above refers to suj>ar once refined; but soprre more labour is necessary to produce double refined sugar. The principal difference in the ope^ ration is this, the latter is clarified by white of eggs instead of blood, and frelh water in place of lime-water. •

(14.) Sugar Of Lead, or Salt Of Lead, in the ncu chemical notnei ciatuic is called Acttite of Lead. See Chemistry, and Pharmacy, ladixn ; and Saccharum Saturni.

(15.) Sugar Of Milk. See Milk, N° II, § s.

(l6.) SjJGAR, QUALITIES AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Of. Sugar it soluble in water, and in a small degree in alcohol. When united with a small portion of "water, it becomes fusible; from which quality the art of preserving is indebted for many of its preparations. It is phosphoric and combustible; when exposed to fire emitting a blue flame if the combustion be slow, and a white flame if the combustion be rapid. By distillation it produces a quantity of phlegm, acid, oii, gas, and charcoal, lkrgman, in treating sugar with the nitrous acid, obtained a new acid, now known by the name of the tteaiie acid: but he omitted to mention the princip.es of which sugar is composed. Lavoisier, however, supplied this omission; and after many experiments ha3 assigned three principles in sugar, hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. If the juice exprelsed from the fugar-car.e be left to itself, it pastes into the acetous fermentation; and during the decomposition of the sugar, which ie continued for 3 or 4 months, a great quantity of glutinous matter is separated. This matter when distilled gives a portion of ammoniac. If the juice be exposed to the spirituous fermentation, a wine is obtained analogous to cyder. If thi* wine, after being kept in bottles a year, be distilled, we obtain a portion of eau de -vie.

(17.) Sugar, Quantity Of, Used In EuRope. As the sugar-cane is the principal production of the West Indies, and the gieat source of their riches; as it is so important in a commercial view, from the employment which it gives to seamen, and the wealth which it opens for merchants ; and besides is now become a necessary of lise—it may justly be esteemed one of the most valuable plants.In the world. The quantity consumed in Europe is estimated at nine millions Sterling, and the demand would probably be •greater if it could be fold at a reduced puce, lo the Porluguelc island of St Thomas in 1614, there

were

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